J K Chipman

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (214)704.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Brazilian oyster Crassostrea brasiliana was challenged to three common environmental contaminants: phenanthrene, diesel fuel water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and domestic sewage. Total RNA was extracted from the gill and digestive gland, and cDNA libraries were sequenced using the 454 FLX platform. The assembled transcriptome resulted in ̃20,000 contigs, which were annotated to produce the first de novo transcriptome for C. brasiliana. Sequences were screened to identify genes potentially involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics and associated antioxidant defence mechanisms. These gene families included those of the cytochrome P450 (CYP450), 70kDa heat shock, antioxidants, such as glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and also multi-drug resistance proteins. Analysis showed that the massive expansion of the CYP450 and HSP70 family due to gene duplication identified in the Crassostrea gigas genome also occurred in C. brasiliana, suggesting these processes form the base of the Crassostrea lineage. Preliminary expression analyses revealed several candidates biomarker genes that were up-regulated during each of the three treatments, suggesting the potential for environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 07/2015; 166. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.06.012 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) provide an opportunity to develop new and more accurate safety assessment processes for drugs and other chemicals, and may ultimately play an important role in regulatory decision making. Not only can the development and application of AOPs pave the way for the development of improved evidence-based approaches for hazard and risk assessment, there is also the promise of a significant impact on animal welfare, with a reduced reliance on animal-based methods. The establishment of a useable and coherent knowledge framework under which AOPs will be developed and applied has been a first critical step towards realizing this opportunity. This article explores how the development of AOPs under this framework, and their application in practice, could benefit the science and practice of safety assessment, while in parallel stimulating a move away from traditional methods towards an increased acceptance of non-animal approaches. We discuss here the key areas where current, and future initiatives should be focused to enable the translation of AOPs into routine chemical safety assessment, and lasting 3Rs benefits. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/jat.3165 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Ceria nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used as fuel catalysts and consequently are likely to enter the environment. Their potential impacts on. biota at environmentally relevant concentrations, including uptake and toxicity, remain to be elucidated and quantitative data on which to assess risk are sparse. Therefore, a definitive assessment of the molecular and phenotypic effects of ceria NPs was undertaken, using well-characterised mono-dispersed NPs as their toxicity is likely to be higher, enabling a conservative hazard assessment. Unbiased transcriptomics and metabolomics approaches were used to investigate the potential toxicity of tightly constrained 4-5 nm ceria NPs to the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a sentinel freshwater species. A wide range of exposure concentrations were investigated from predicted environmental levels, to support hazard assessment, to supra-environmental levels to provide insight into molecular toxicity pathways. Ceria NPs were internalised into intracellular vesicles within C. reinhardtii, yet caused no significant effect on algal growth at any exposure concentration. Molecular perturbations were only detected at supra-environmental ceria NP-concentrations, primarily down-regulation of photosynthesis and carbon fixation with associated effects on energy metabolism. For acute exposures to small mono-dispersed particles, it can be concluded there should be little concern regarding their dispersal into the environment for this trophic level.
    Nanotoxicology 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/17435390.2014.1002868 · 7.34 Impact Factor
  • Chibuzor Uchea, Stewart F. Owen, J. Kevin Chipman
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    ABSTRACT: Prediction of xenobiotic fate in fish is important for the regulatory assessment of chemicals under current legislation. Trout hepatocyte spheroids are a promising in vitro model for this assessment. In this investigation, the gene expression and function for xenobiotic metabolism and cellular efflux were characterised. Using fluorescence, transport and real time PCR analysis, the expression and functionality of a variety of genes related to xenobiotic metabolism and drug efflux were assessed in a range of trout hepatocyte culture preparations. Significantly greater levels of expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and efflux were measured in spheroids (which have been shown to remain viable in excess of 30 days), compared to hepatocytes cultured using conventional suspension and monolayer culture techniques. A transient decline in the expression of genes related to both xenobiotic metabolism and transport was determined during spheroid development, with a subsequent recovery in older spheroids. The most mature spheroids also exhibited an expression profile most comparable to that reported in vivo. Functionality of efflux transporters in spheroids was also demonstrated using fluorescent markers and specific inhibitors. In conclusion, the more physiologically relevant architecture in spheroid cultures provides a high functional integrity in relation to xenobiotic metabolism and efflux. Together with the enhanced gene expression and longevity of the model, hepatocytes in spheroid culture may prove to be an accurate alternative model to study the mechanisms of these processes in fish liver and provide an assay to determine the bioaccumulation potential of environmental contaminants.
    02/2015; 4(2). DOI:10.1039/C4TX00160E
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    ABSTRACT: The high resolution, accurate mass, and fast scanning features of the Orbitrap(TM) mass spectrometer, combined with the separation power of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography were applied for the first time to study the metabolic profiles of several organic flame retardants (FRs) present in indoor dust. To mimic real-life exposure, in vitro cultured HepG2 human hepatocyte cell lines were exposed simultaneously to various FRs in an indoor dust extract for 24 h. Target parent FRs, hexabromocyclododecanes (α-, β-, and γ-HBCDs), tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), were separated in a single run for the first time using alternating positive and negative heated ESI source. Further metabolite separation and identification was achieved using full scan (70,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM)), accurate mass (up to 1 ppm) spectrometry. Structural confirmation was performed via all ion fragmentation (AIF) spectra using the optional higher collisional dissociation (HCD) cell and MS/MS analysis. First insights into human metabolism of HBCDs revealed several hydroxylated and debrominated phase I metabolites, in addition to conjugated phase II glucuronides. Furthermore, various hydroxylated, oxidized, and conjugated metabolites of chlorinated phosphorous FRs were identified, leading to the suggestion of α-oxidation as a significant metabolic pathway for these compounds.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 01/2015; 407(7). DOI:10.1007/s00216-015-8466-z · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To elucidate the effects of chemicals on populations of different species in the environment, efficient testing and modeling approaches are needed that consider multiple stressors and allow reliable extrapolation of responses across species. An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a concept that provides a framework for organizing knowledge about the progression of toxicity events across scales of biological organization that lead to adverse outcomes relevant for risk assessment. In this paper, we focus on exploring how the AOP concept can be used to guide research aimed at improving both our understanding of chronic toxicity, including delayed toxicity as well as epigenetic and transgenerational effects of chemicals, and our ability to predict adverse outcomes. A better understanding of the influence of subtle toxicity on individual and population fitness would support a broader integration of sublethal endpoints into risk assessment frameworks. Detailed mechanistic knowledge would facilitate the development of alternative testing methods as well as help prioritize higher tier toxicity testing. We argue that targeted development of AOPs supports both of these aspects by promoting the elucidation of molecular mechanisms and their contribution to relevant toxicity outcomes across biological scales. We further discuss information requirements and challenges in application of AOPs for chemical- and site-specific risk assessment and for extrapolation across species. We provide recommendations for potential extension of the AOP framework to incorporate information on exposure, toxicokinetics and situation-specific ecological contexts, and discuss common interfaces that can be employed to couple AOPs with computational modeling approaches and with evolutionary life history theory. The extended AOP framework can serve as a venue for integration of knowledge derived from various sources, including empirical data as well as molecular, quantitative and evolutionary-based models describing species responses to toxicants. This will allow a more efficient application of AOP knowledge for quantitative chemical- and site-specific risk assessment as well as for extrapolation across species in the future.
    Chemosphere 11/2014; 120. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.068 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) organize knowledge on the progression of toxicity through levels of biological organization. By determining the linkages between toxicity events at different levels, AOPs lay the foundation for mechanism-based alternative testing approaches to hazard assessment. Here, we focus on growth impairment in fish to illustrate the initial stages in the process of AOP development for chronic toxicity outcomes. Growth is an apical endpoint commonly assessed in chronic toxicity tests for which a replacement is desirable. Based on several criteria, we identified reduction in food intake to be a suitable key event for initiation of middle-out AOP development. To start exploring the upstream and downstream links of this key event, we developed three AOP case studies, for pyrethroids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cadmium. Our analysis showed that the effect of pyrethroids and SSRIs on food intake is strongly linked to growth impairment, while cadmium causes a reduction in growth due to increased metabolic demands rather than changes in food intake. Locomotion impairment by pyrethroids is strongly linked to their effects on food intake and growth, while for SSRIs their direct influence on appetite may play a more important role. We further discuss which alternative tests could be used to inform on the predictive key events identified in the case studies. In conclusion, our work demonstrates how the AOP concept can be used in practice to assess critically the knowledge available for specific chronic toxicity cases and to identify existing knowledge gaps and potential alternative tests.
    Chemosphere 10/2014; 120. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.10.006 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of penetrating, traumatic injury occurring in a chemically contaminated environment cannot be discounted. Should a traumatic injury be contaminated with a chemical warfare (CW) agent, it is likely that standard haemostatic treatment options would be complicated by the need to decontaminate the wound milieu. Thus, there is a need to develop haemostatic products that can simultaneously arrest haemorrhage and decontaminate CW agents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a number of candidate haemostats for efficacy as skin decontaminants against three CW agents (soman, VX and sulphur mustard) using an in vitro diffusion cell containing undamaged pig skin. One haemostatic product (WoundStat™) was shown to be as effective as the standard military decontaminants Fuller's earth and M291 for the decontamination of all three CW agents. The most effective haemostatic agents were powder-based and use fluid absorption as a mechanism of action to sequester CW agent (akin to the decontaminant Fuller's earth). The envisaged use of haemostatic decontaminants would be to decontaminate from within wounds and from damaged skin. Therefore, WoundStat™ should be subject to further evaluation using an in vitro model of damaged skin. Copyright © 2014 Crown copyright. Journal of Applied Toxicology © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 09/2014; 35(5). DOI:10.1002/jat.3060 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of penetrating, haemorrhaging injuries sustained within a hazardous environment may be complicated by contamination with toxic chemicals. There are currently no specific medical countermeasures for such injuries. Haemostats with an absorbent mechanism of action have the potential to simultaneously stop bleeding and decontaminate wounds. However, a primary requirement of a ‘haemostatic decontaminant’ is the retention of clotting function in the presence of chemical contaminants. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the haemostatic efficacy of seven commercially available haemostats in the presence of toxic chemicals (soman, VX, sulphur mustard, petrol, aviation fuel and motor oil). Clot viscosity was assessed ex vivo using thrombelastography following treatment of pig blood with: (i) toxic chemical; (ii) haemostat; or (iii) haemostat in combination with toxic chemical. Several contaminants (VX, petrol and GD) were found to be pro-haemostatic and none had an adverse effect on the rate with which the test products attained haemostasis. However, the total clot strength for blood treated with certain haemostats in the presence of sulphur mustard, soman and petrol was significantly decreased. Three test products failed to demonstrate haemostatic function in this ex vivo (thrombelastography) model; this was tentatively ascribed to the products achieving haemostasis through a tamponade mechanism of action, which can only be replicated using in vivo models. Overall, this study has identified a number of commercial products that may have potential as haemostatic decontaminants and warrant further investigation to establish their decontaminant efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 07/2014; 35(5). DOI:10.1002/jat.3019 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular responses to acute toxicant exposure can be effective biomarkers, however responses to chronic exposure are less well characterised. The aim of this study was to determine chronic molecular responses to environmental mixtures in a controlled laboratory setting, free from the additional variability encountered with environmental sampling of wild organisms. Flounder fish were exposed in mesocosms for seven months to a contaminated estuarine sediment made by mixing material from the Forth (high organics) and Tyne (high metals and tributyltin) estuaries (FT) or a reference sediment from the Ythan estuary (Y). Chemical analyses demonstrated that FT sediment contained significantly higher concentrations of key environmental pollutants (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals) than Y sediment, but that chronically exposed flounder showed a lack of differential accumulation of contaminants, including heavy metals. Biliary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration and erythrocyte DNA damage increased in FT-exposed fish. Transcriptomic and (1)H NMR metabolomic analyses of liver tissues detected small but statistically significant alterations between fish exposed to different sediments. These highlighted perturbance of immune response and apoptotic pathways, but there was a lack of response from traditional biomarker genes. Gene-chemical association annotation enrichment analyses suggested that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were a major class of toxicants affecting the molecular responses of the exposed fish. This demonstrated that molecular responses of sentinel organisms can be detected after chronic mixed toxicant exposure and that these can be informative of key components of the mixture.
    Chemosphere 02/2014; 108. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.01.028 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: α-,β- and γ-HBCDs were subjected to in vitro biotransformation experiments with rat and trout liver S9 fractions for different incubation times at 2 concentration levels (1 and 10 µM). The metabolic degradation of target HBCDs followed first order kinetics. While β-HBCD undergoes rapid biotransformation (t0.5 = 6.4 and 38.1 minutes in rat and trout respectively), α-HBCD appears the most resistant to metabolic degradation (t0.5 = 17.1 and 134.9 minutes). The biotransformation rate in trout was slower than rat. Investigation of HBCD degradation profiles revealed the presence of 3 pentabromocyclododecene(PBCD) isomers and 2 tetrabromocyclododecadiene (TBCD) isomers indicating reductive debromination as a metabolic pathway for HBCDs. Both mono- and di- hydroxyl metabolites were identified for parent HBCDs, while only mono hydroxyl metabolites were detected for PBCDs and TBCDs. Interestingly, δ-HBCD was detected only in trout S9 fraction assays indicating metabolic interconversion of HBCDs during biotransformation in trout. Finally, enantioselective analysis showed significant enrichment of the (-)-α-HBCD enantiomer(EF = 0.321 and 0.419after 60 minutes incubationin rat and trout respectively). The greater enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD in rat than in trout underlines the species-specific differences in HBCD metabolism and the need for caution when extending similar results from animal studies to humans.
    Environmental Science & Technology 01/2014; 48(5). DOI:10.1021/es404644s · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    Tim D Williams, Leda Mirbahai, J Kevin Chipman
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    ABSTRACT: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of a number of teleost fish species frequently employed in toxicology. Toxico-genomics determines global transcriptomic responses to chemical exposures and can predict their effects. It has been applied successfully within aquatic toxicology to assist in chemical testing, determination of mechanisms and environmental monitoring. Moreover, the related field of toxico-epigenomics, that determines chemical-induced changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and micro-RNA expression, is emerging as a valuable contribution to understanding mechanisms of both adaptive and adverse responses. Zebrafish has proven a useful and convenient model species for both transcriptomic and epigenetic toxicological studies. Despite zebrafish's dominance in other areas of fish biology, alternative fish species are used extensively in toxico-genomics. The main reason for this is that environmental monitoring generally focuses on species native to the region of interest. We are starting to see advances in the integration of high-throughput screening, omics techniques and bioinformatics together with more traditional indicator endpoints that are relevant to regulators. Integration of such approaches with high-throughput testing of zebrafish embryos, leading to the discovery of adverse outcome pathways, promises to make a major contribution to ensuring the safety of chemicals in the environment.
    Briefings in functional genomics 01/2014; DOI:10.1093/bfgp/elt053 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    Leda Mirbahai, James K Chipman
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    ABSTRACT: Both genetic and epigenetic responses of organisms to environmental factors, including chemical exposures, influence adaptation, susceptibility to toxicity and biodiversity. In model organisms, it is established that epigenetic alterations, including changes to the methylome, can create a memory of the received signal. This is partly evidenced through the analysis of epigenetic differences that develop between identical twins throughout their lifetime. The epigenetic marks induce alterations to the gene expression profile, which, in addition to mediating homeostatic responses, have the potential to promote an abnormal physiology either immediately or at a later stage of development, for example leading to an adult onset of disease. Although this has been well established, epigenetic mechanisms are not considered in chemical risk assessment or utilised in the monitoring of the exposure and effects of chemicals and environmental change. In this review, epigenetic factors, specifically DNA methylation, are highlighted as mechanisms of adaptation and response to environmental factors and which, if persistent, have the potential, retrospectively, to reflect previous stress exposures. Thus, it is proposed that epigenetic "foot-printing" of organisms could identify classes of chemical contaminants to which they have been exposed throughout their lifetime. In some cases, the potential for persistent transgenerational modification of the epigenome may also inform on parental germ cell exposures. It is recommended that epigenetic mechanisms, alongside genetic mechanisms, should eventually be considered in environmental toxicity safety assessments and in biomonitoring studies. This will assist in determining the mode of action of toxicants, no observed adverse effect level and identification of biomarkers of toxicity for early detection and risk assessment in toxicology but there are critical areas that remain to be explored before this can be achieved.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 10/2013; 764. DOI:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2013.10.003 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), the likelihood of them entering the environment has increased and they are known to be potentially toxic. Currently, there is little information on the dynamic changes of AgNPs in ecotoxicity exposure media and how this may affect toxicity. Here, the colloidal stability of three different sizes of citrate-stabilized AgNPs was assessed in standard strength OECD ISO exposure media, and in 2-fold (media2) and 10-fold (media10) dilutions by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and these characteristics were related to their toxicity towards Daphnia magna. Aggregation in undiluted media (media1) was rapid, and after diluting the medium by a factor of 2 or 10, aggregation was reduced, with minimal aggregation over 24hours occurring in media10. Acute toxicity measurements were performed using 7nm diameter particles in media1 and media10. In media10 the EC50 of the 7nm particles for D. magna neonates was calculated to be 7.46μgL(-1) with upper and lower 95% confidence intervals of 6.84μgL(-1) and 8.13μgL(-1) respectively. For media1, an EC50 could not be calculated, the lowest observed adverse effect concentration (LOAEC) of 11.25μgL(-1) indicating a significant reduction in toxicity compared to that in media10. The data suggest the increased dispersion of nanoparticles leads to enhanced toxicity, emphasising the importance of appropriate media composition to fully assess nanoparticle toxicity in aquatic ecotoxicity tests.
    Toxicology Letters 09/2013; 223(1). DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.08.026 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Male European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were exposed to a technical mixture of brominated diphenyl ethers (PDBEs, DE-71, Pentamix) that had been purified to remove contaminating dioxins. Controls were exposed to carrier solvent alone. Fish were exposed to decadally increasing concentrations of Pentamix via both sediment and spiked food. The GENIPOL P. flesus cDNA microarray, differentially expressed gene profiling (DEG) and quantitative PCR were employed to detect hepatic transcriptional differences between exposed fish and controls. Gene transcriptional changes were more sensitive to Pentamix exposure than biomarkers measured previously. Pentamix exposure induced transcripts coding for enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A, aldo-keto reductases) and elicited endocrine disruption (vitellogenin and thyroid hormone receptor alpha), with effects on CYP1A and VTG occurring at the highest exposure. Ontology analysis clearly showed dose-responsive changes indicative of oxidative stress, induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. We conclude that exposure to PBDEs in both sediment and food has a significant adverse effect on a broad range of crucial biochemical processes in the livers of this widely distributed estuarine fish species, the flounder.
    Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 07/2013; 142-143C:45-52. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.07.013 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions between epigenome and the environment in biology and in disease are of fundamental importance. The incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in flatfish exceeds 20% in some environments forming a unique opportunity to study environmental tumourigenesis of general relevance to cancer in humans. We report the novel finding of marked DNA methylation and metabolite concentration changes in histopathologically normal tissue distal to tumours in fish liver. A multi-"omics" discovery approach led to targeted and quantitative gene transcription analyses and metabolite analyses of hepatocellular adenomas and histologically normal liver tissue in the same fish. We discovered a remarkable and consistent global DNA hypomethylation, modification of DNA methylation and gene transcription, and disruption of one-carbon metabolism in distal tissue compared to livers of non-tumour-bearing fish. The mechanism of this disruption is linked, not to depletion of S-adenosylmethionine, as is often a feature of mammalian tumours, but to a decrease in choline and elevated S-adenosylhomocysteine, a potent inhibitor of DNA methytransferase. This novel feature of normal-appearing tissue of tumour-bearing fish helps to understand the unprecedentedly high incidence of tumours in fish sampled from the field and adds weight to the controversial epigenetic progenitor model of tumourigenesis. With further studies, the modifications may offer opportunities as biomarkers of exposure to environmental factors influencing disease.
    Journal of Proteome Research 04/2013; 12(6). DOI:10.1021/pr400195u · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When designing in vitro static diffusion studies the choice of receptor media is important as it may influence measured penetration rates. OECD guidelines regarding suitable receptor fluids state that “The use of a physiologically conducive receptor fluid is preferred although others may also be used provided that they are justified”. Further to this is the statement, “Adequate solubility of the test chemical in the receptor fluid should be demonstrated so that it does not act as a barrier to absorption.” Guidance for acceptable receptor fluids for non-viable skin preparations is split between the evaluation of water soluble compounds and lipohilic test substances. For the former saline receptor solutions are preferred, whilst for lipophilic test substances it is suggested that “the receptor fluid can contain organic solvents such as 1:1 ethanol: water or 6% polyethylene glycol 20 oleyl ether in water.”
    Advances in Dermatological Sciences, Edited by Robert Chilcott (Editor, Keith R. Brain (Editor, 01/2013: pages 361-369; RSC Publishing., ISBN: 978-1-84973-398-4
  • Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A Molecular & Integrative Physiology 09/2012; 163:S54. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpa.2012.05.159 · 2.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
704.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1985–2015
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Biosciences
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2006
    • University of Stirling
      • Institute of Aquaculture
      Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1996
    • United States Geological Survey
      • Ohio Water Resources Center
      Reston, Virginia, United States
  • 1993
    • Aston University
      • Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Birmingham, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 1991
    • Plymouth Marine Laboratory
      Plymouth, England, United Kingdom