ABSTRACT: To study the responsiveness of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) after severe trauma and its regulatory mechanisms.
The release of proinflammatory reacting cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, interferon (IFN)-gamma) into whole blood from 12 patients on day 1, 5, 10, and 14 after severe trauma (Injury Severity Score, 39.3 +/- 2.8 points) and 10 healthy volunteers was studied after stimulation with LPS, concanavalin A, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and the addition of recombinant IFN-gamma.
Trauma caused a significant reduction of LPS and concanavalin A induced release of inflammation activating cytokines into whole blood, including IFN-gamma. However, the diminished release of proinflammatory cytokines could be increased with recombinant IFN-gamma or even attenuated after stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the protein kinase C activator PMA.
Trauma leads to reduced responsiveness of blood monocytes to LPS and a decreased secretion of proinflammatory reacting lymphokines. Because activation of the protein kinase C pathway with PMA or the addition of IFN-gamma significantly increased cytokine response, endotoxin tolerance is not caused by inhibition of protein synthesis, but to disturbances in the signal transduction pathway and its regulating mediators.
The Journal of trauma 10/1996; 41(3):430-7; discussion 437-8. · 2.48 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines has been involved in pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Since injured patients with chest trauma reveal a high risk for posttraumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome, local and systemic release of proinflammatory cytokines and their naturally occurring inhibitors were determined in the early posttraumatic period.
Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators were measured in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 16 patients with multiple injuries including severe chest injury (Injury Severity Score of 34.4 +/- 2.3 points) and compared with healthy volunteers (n = 17).
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha was detectable neither in plasma nor in BALF. Interleukin-1beta and interleukin-8 were significantly increased in BALF from injured patients, while plasma levels were similar in both groups. Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors p55 and p75 and interleukin-1ra were markedly elevated in plasma (p < or = 0.01) and BALF (p < or = 0.001) from injured patients compared with controls.
Highly increased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in BALF, but not in circulation, indicate a strong local inflammatory response early after multiple injuries combined with chest injury rather than severe systemic inflammation. In contrast, anti-inflammatory mechanisms seem to be activated locally and systemically.
The Journal of trauma 07/1996; 40(6):907-12; discussion 912-4. · 2.48 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Using animal models or healthy volunteers, injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacteria causes activation of macrophages with excessive synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Although these models mimic the effects of LPS in the host, they may represent more of an experimental expression of endotoxemia than natural infection itself. Therefore, as an ex vivo model of sepsis, whole blood from 15 patients with severe sepsis and 20 control patients without infection was stimulated with LPS to study the kinetics of mRNA expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, and IL-6. Stimulation of whole blood with 1 microgram/mL LPS resulted in a maximum increase of cytokine secretion in the control group, while a marked (P < .01) depression of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 release was observed in the septic group, which persisted up to 10 days after study enrollment. While IL-1 beta mRNA expression was similar in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) harvested from LPS-stimulated whole blood in septic and control patients, the half-life and consequently the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA were strongly reduced in the septic group. These data indicate a downregulatory mechanism of cytokine release in whole blood from patients with severe sepsis that occurs on different levels. Although excessive secretion of proinflammatory cytokines has been considered deleterious for the host, the reduced capacity of PBMCs in whole blood from septic patients to synthesize and secrete proinflammatory cytokines to an inflammatory stimulus may result in immunodeficiency, because these cytokines in low concentrations are involved in the upregulation of essential cellular and humoral immune functions.
Blood 04/1995; 85(5):1341-7. · 9.90 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The proteolytic enzyme elastase released by granulocytes (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMN]) in high concentrations during sepsis causes degradation of essential plasma proteins, endothelial damage, and tissue edema. This may result in organ dysfunction and organ failure during sepsis, since increased elastase plasma levels correlate with the mortality rate of patients with sepsis. In vitro studies demonstrated a regulatory role of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], interleukin 1 beta [IL-1 beta], IL-8]) upregulating protease release by PMN. In this light, the interactions between cytokine release by macrophages and altered elastase secretion during sepsis remain to be determined.
An ex vivo model consisting of lipopolysaccharide stimulation of human whole blood as a relevant physiological milieu was used. Heparinized blood was obtained from 20 patients with sepsis syndrome (APACHE II [Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II] score 28.5 +/- 1.2 points [mean +/- SD]) on days 0 through 3, 5, 7, and 10 after sepsis diagnosis and from 20 control patients without infection. Blood was incubated with lipopolysaccharide (1 mg/L) for 8 hours. Plasma levels of elastase, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-8 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or bioassay (TNF-alpha), respectively.
Elastase plasma levels in whole blood from patients with sepsis were increased up to 188% (P < .01) above normal, while the release of TNF-alpha (-87%), IL-1 beta (-91%), and IL-8 (-51%) was markedly (P < .01) decreased compared with control patients. Neutralization of TNF-alpha or IL-1 beta did not attenuate the increased release of elastase.
These data indicate an increased release of elastase by PMN despite a reduced secretion of PMN-activating cytokines. Although priming effects of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-8 on protease secretion in vivo cannot be excluded completely, other mediators or mechanisms may be involved in the upregulation of detrimental protease release during sepsis.
Archives of Surgery 01/1994; 129(1):90-7; discussion 97-8. · 4.24 Impact Factor