[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM AND METHODS: Gender-related differences in clinical phenotype, in-hospital management and prognosis of acute heart failure (AHF) patients have been previously reported in European and US registries. The ALARM-HF survey is the first to include a cohort of 4953 patients hospitalized for AHF in 666 hospitals in 6 European countries, Mexico and Australia. RESULTS: Women accounted for 37% of the study population, were older and had higher rates of de novo heart failure (45% vs 36%, p<0.001) than men. An acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was the predominant precipitating factor in both genders, but to a lesser extent in females (30% vs 42%, p<0.001). Between genders comparison showed higher incidence of atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, diabetes, obesity, anemia and depression in women (p<0.05). Similarly, women had higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on admission (42±15% vs 36±13%, p<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (135±40mmHg vs 131±39mmHg, p=0.001) than men. On the other hand, men had more often coronary artery disease, renal failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p<0.05). Importantly, in-hospital mortality was similar in both genders (11.1% in females vs 10.5% in males, p=0.475), and its common predictors were: systolic blood pressure at admission, creatinine>1.5mg/dL and diabetes. Furthermore, recent ACS, valvular heart disease and dementia contributed to prognosis in women, while LVEF, hypertension and anemia were independent predictors in men. CONCLUSION: Among patients with AHF, there are significant differences in co-morbidities, precipitating factors and predictors of in-hospital mortality between genders. Nevertheless, in-hospital mortality remains similar between genders.
International journal of cardiology 10/2012; · 6.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ALARM-HF was an in-hospital observational survey that included 4953 patients admitted for acute heart failure (AHF) in six European countries, Mexico and Australia. This article is a secondary analysis of the survey which evaluates differences in clinical phenotype, treatment regimens and in-hospital outcomes in AHF patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared to non-diabetics. The data were collected retrospectively by the investigators, and the diagnosis of AHF (reported at discharge) was based on the definition and classification of ESC guidelines, while the diagnosis of DM was based on medical record (past medical and medication history).
This sub-analysis demonstrates substantial differences regarding both baseline features and in-hospital outcome among diabetic and non-diabetic AHF patients. Diabetic patients (n=2229, 45%) presented more frequently with acute pulmonary edema (p<0.001) than non-diabetics, had more often acute coronary syndrome (p<0.001) as precipitating factors of AHF, and multiple comorbidities such as renal dysfunction (p<0.001), arterial hypertension (p<0.001), anemia (p<0.001) and peripheral vascular disease (p<0.001). All-cause in-hospital mortality of diabetics was higher compared to non-diabetics (11.7% vs 9.8%, p=0.01). The multivariate analysis revealed that older age (p=0.032), systolic blood pressure <100mm Hg (p<0.001), acute coronary syndrome and non compliance as precipitating factors (p=0.05 and p=0.005, respectively), history of arterial hypertension (p=0.022), LVEF<50% (p<0.001), serum creatinine >1.5mg/dl (p=0.029), absence of life saving therapies such as ACE inhibitors/ARBs (p<0.001) and beta-blockers (p=0.014) at admission, as well as absence of interventional treatment by PCI (p<0.001), were independently associated with adverse in-hospital outcome.
Diabetics with AHF have higher in-hospital mortality than non-diabetics despite their intensive treatment regimens (regarding care for HF and ACS), possibly due to underlying ischemic heart disease and the presence of multiple comorbidities.
International journal of cardiology 12/2011; 157(1):108-13. · 6.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute heart failure (AHF) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (PLVEF) represents a significant part of AHF syndromes featuring particular characteristics. We sought to determine the clinical profile and predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with AHF and PLVEF in the Acute Heart Failure Global Survey of Standard Treatment (ALARM-HF). This survey is an international observational study of 4,953 patients admitted for AHF in 9 countries (6 European countries, Mexico, and Australia) from October 2006 to March 2007. Patients with PLVEF were defined by an LVEF ≥ 45%. Of the total cohort, 25% of patients had PLVEF. In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in this subgroup (7% vs 11% in patients with decreased LVEF, p = 0.013). Candidate variables included demographics, baseline clinical findings, and treatment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the variables independently associated with in-hospital mortality included systolic blood pressure at admission (p <0.001), serum sodium (p = 0.041), positive troponin result (p = 0.023), serum creatinine >2 mg/dl (p = 0.042), history of peripheral vascular disease and anemia (p = 0.004 and p = 0.015, respectively), secondary (hospitalization for other reason) versus primary AHF diagnosis (p = 0.043), and previous treatment with diuretics (p = 0.023) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (p = 0.021). In conclusion, patients with AHF and PLVEF have lower in-hospital mortality than those with decreased LVEF. Low systolic blood pressure, low serum sodium, renal dysfunction, positive markers of myocardial injury, presence of co-morbidities such as peripheral vascular disease and anemia, secondary versus primary AHF diagnosis, and absence of treatment with diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors at admission may identify high-risk patients with AHF and PLVEF.
The American journal of cardiology 01/2011; 107(1):79-84. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute pulmonary oedema (APE) is the second, after acutely decompensated chronic heart failure (ADHF), most frequent form of acute heart failure (AHF). This subanalysis examines the clinical profile, prognostic factors, and management of APE patients (n = 1820, 36.7%) included in the Acute Heart Failure Global Survey of Standard Treatment (ALARM-HF).
ALARM-HF included a total of 4953 patients hospitalized for AHF in Europe, Latin America, and Australia. The final diagnosis was made at discharge, and patients were classified according to European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Patients with APE had higher in-hospital mortality (7.4 vs. 6.0%, P = 0.057) compared with ADHF patients (n = 1911, 38.5%), and APE patients exhibited higher systolic blood pressures (P < 0.001) at admission and higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, P < 0.01) than those with ADHF. These patients also had a higher prevalence of diabetes (P < 0.01), arterial hypertension (P < 0.001), peripheral vascular disease (P < 0.001), and chronic renal disease (P < 0.05). They were also more likely to receive intravenous (i.v.) diuretics (P < 0.001), i.v. nitrates (P < 0.01), dopamine (P < 0.05), and non-invasive ventilation (P < 0.001). Low systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001), low LVEF (<0.05), serum creatinine ≥1.4 mg/dL (P < 0.001), history of cardiomyopathy (P < 0.05), and previous cardiovascular event (P < 0.001) were independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality in the APE population.
APE differs in clinical profile, in-hospital management, and mortality compared with ADHF. Admission characteristics (systolic blood pressure and LVEF), renal function, and history may identify high-risk APE patients.
European Journal of Heart Failure 11/2010; 12(11):1193-202. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent European Society of Cardiology's (ESC) guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute heart failure (AHF), suggest that an essential target in the management of these patients is to improve symptoms within hours, which should persist until hospital release, also protecting renal function and avoiding ongoing myocardial injury. The vast experience built on the basis of evidence, accumulated regarding the use of levosimendan over the last 10 years, brings with it the possibility of utilizing this drug in multitude of new clinical scenarios. Newly discovered biologic effects of the drug on the failing heart, based on its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties may explain the clinical efficacy of levosimendan in special sub-populations of AHF patients. This paper summarizes the current knowledge regarding the use of levosimendan in the early phase of the treatment of AHF, in acute coronary syndromes, its daily use in the critical care environment, perioperatively, and in patients with renal failure.
European Journal of Heart Failure Supplements 06/2008; 7:234-243.