[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β. IL-1β production requires caspase-1 activation by inflammasomes-multiprotein complexes that are assembled in response to danger signals. We hypothesized that alcohol-induced inflammasome activation contributes to increased IL-1β in the brain. WT and TLR4-, NLRP3-, and ASC-deficient (KO) mice received an ethanol-containing or isocaloric control diet for 5 weeks, and some received the rIL-1ra, anakinra, or saline treatment. Inflammasome activation, proinflammatory cytokines, endotoxin, and HMGB1 were measured in the cerebellum. Expression of inflammasome components (NLRP1, NLRP3, ASC) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MCP-1) was increased in brains of alcohol-fed compared with control mice. Increased caspase-1 activity and IL-1β protein in ethanol-fed mice indicated inflammasome activation. TLR4 deficiency protected from TNF-α, MCP-1, and attenuated alcohol-induced IL-1β increases. The TLR4 ligand, LPS, was not increased in the cerebellum. However, we found up-regulation of acetylated and phosphorylated HMGB1 and increased expression of the HMGB1 receptors (TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, RAGE) in alcohol-fed mice. NLRP3- or ASC-deficient mice were protected from caspase-1 activation and alcohol-induced IL-1β increase in the brain. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with rIL-1ra prevented alcohol-induced inflammasome activation and IL-1β, TNF-α, and acetylated HMGB1 increases in the cerebellum. Conversely, intracranial IL-1β administration induced TNF-α and MCP-1 in the cerebellum. In conclusion, alcohol up-regulates and activates the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome, leading to caspase-1 activation and IL-1β increase in the cerebellum. IL-1β amplifies neuroinflammation, and disruption of IL-1/IL-1R signaling prevents alcohol-induced inflammasome activation and neuroinflammation. Increased levels of acetylated and phosphorylated HMGB1 may contribute to alcoholic neuroinflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
MicroRNAs are fine tuners of diverse biological responses and are expressed in various cell types of the liver. Here we hypothesized that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as biomarkers of liver damage and inflammation. We studied miRNA-122, which is abundant in hepatocytes, and miR-155, -146a, and -125b, which regulate inflammation in immune cells in mouse models of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), drug (acetaminophen, APAP)-induced liver injury (DILI), and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9+4 ligand-induced inflammatory cell-mediated liver damage. We found that serum/plasma miR-122 correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increases in the liver damage caused by alcohol, APAP, and TLR9 (CpG)+4 (LPS) ligands. MiR-155, a regulator of inflammation, was increased in serum/plasma in alcoholic and inflammatory liver injury. Alcohol failed to increase serum miR-122 in TLR4-deficient and p47phox-deficient mice that were protected from ALD. We found the most robust increase in plasma miR-122 in DILI and it correlated with the highest ALT levels. Consistent with the massive inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver, plasma miR-155 and miR-146a were significantly elevated after CpG+LPS administration. We show for the first time that, depending on the type of liver injury, circulating miRNAs are associated either with the exosome-rich or protein-rich compartments. In ALD and in inflammatory liver injury, serum/plasma miR-122 and miR-155 were predominantly associated with the exosome-rich fraction, whereas in DILI/APAP injury these miRNAs were present in the protein-rich fraction.
Our results suggest that circulating miRNAs may serve as biomarkers to differentiate between hepatocyte injury and inflammation and the exosome versus protein association of miRNAs may provide further specificity to mechanisms of liver pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding molecules that regulate gene expression. MiRs expression levels change not only in diseased tissues but also in circulation. Further, miRs are stable in frozen samples that make them attractive for biomarker discovery. Recent reports suggest altered expression of circulating miRNAs in various diseases. MiR-122 is highly abundant in hepatocytes where it regulates different metabolic pathways while miR-155 is a central regulator of inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate circulating miRNAs as potential markers of hepatocyte damage and inflammation in liver diseases.
Methods: Serum/plasma and liver samples were collected from C57/BL6 mice after: 1. Chronic alcohol feeding with Lieber-deCarli diet containing alcohol or pair-fed diet for 5 weeks 2. Acetaminophen (APAP) administration. 3. TLR9/4 administration. 4. CCL4 administration. Serum/plasma ALT was evaluated and total RNA was analyzed for miRNAs expression with TaqMan MicroRNA assay. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney test was used for statistics.
Results: The alcohol, APAP, TLR9/TLR4 and CCL4, -induced liver injury models all resulted in ALT increase and more important, in increased serum/plasma miR-122 levels compared to control mice. There was a linear correlation between miR-122 and ALT levels. After CCL4 treatment, serum miR-122 was upregulated as early as one week over controls and it remained elevated. No increase in serum miR-122 in Toll like receptor 4 or NADPH oxidase–deficient mice was found after alcohol feeding as these KO mice were protected from alcohol-induced liver injury and inflammation. Alcohol-, APAP, TLR9/TLR4 and CCL4-induced liver damage all involve in activation of the inflammatory cascade. Consistent with this, we found increased serum miR-155 levels.
Conclusion: Our novel results show that serum/plasma miR-122 up-regulation correlates with ALT, thus, miR-122 could be a useful biomarker in acute and chronic liver injury. We also report that serum miR-155 is increased in liver disease with inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species contribute to steatosis and inflammation in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Here, we evaluated the selective contribution of p47phox, a critical subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH) oxidase complex, in liver parenchymal cells and in bone marrow (BM)-derived cells.
Female C57Bl/6 wild type [WT], total body p47phox-deficient knockout [KO] or p47phox chimera mice generated by BM transplantation of p47phox-KO-BM into irradiated WT mice (WT/p47phox-KO-BM mice) received 5% Lieber-DeCarli alcohol or control (pair feeding) diet for 4 weeks.
Alcohol-induced liver steatosis as measured by Oil Red O staining and serum triglyceride up-regulation were prevented in p47phox-KO mice but not in WT/p47phox-KO-BM chimeras compared to WT controls. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was significantly increased in alcohol-fed WT mice but not in p47phox-KO mice compared to pair-fed controls. There was no protection from alcohol-induced increase in ALT and liver damage in the WT/p47phox-KO-BM mice. Alcohol-induced liver steatosis was accompanied by up-regulation of the lipid droplet-stabilizing protein, adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP), and the fatty acid synthesis-associated genes, fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA). Total body deficiency in p47phox but not selective absence of p47phox in BM-derived cells prevented alcohol-induced up-regulation of ADRP, FASN, and ACACA in the liver. Finally, alcohol-induced activation and DNA binding of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), a master regulator of inflammation, were significantly increased after alcohol feeding in WT but not in p47phox-KO mice. Selective deficiency of p47phox in BM-derived cells (WT/p47phox-KO-BM chimera) failed to prevent NF-κB induction after alcohol feeding.
Total body deficiency in p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase complex protects mice from alcohol-induced liver steatosis via mechanisms involving ADRP, FASN, and ACACA as well as from alcohol-induced NF-κB activation. In contrast, selective absence of p47phox in BM-derived cells fails to provide protection via these mechanisms. These results suggest that p47phox in parenchymal cells plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of ALD.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 02/2012; 36(8):1397-406. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01739.x · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic alcohol causes hepatic steatosis and liver hypoxia. Hypoxia-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, (HIF-1alpha) may regulate liporegulatory genes, but the relationship of HIF-1 to steatosis remains unknown. We investigated HIF-1alpha in alcohol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. Alcohol administration resulted in steatosis, increased liver triglyceride levels, and increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, suggesting liver injury in wild-type (WT) mice. There was increased hepatic HIF-1alpha messenger RNA (mRNA), protein, and DNA-binding activity in alcohol-fed mice compared with controls. Mice engineered with hepatocyte-specific HIF-1 activation (HIF1dPA) had increased HIF-1alpha mRNA, protein, and DNA-binding activity, and alcohol feeding in HIF1dPA mice increased hepatomegaly and hepatic triglyceride compared with WT mice. In contrast, hepatocyte-specific deletion of HIF-1alpha [HIF-1alpha(Hep(-/-) )], protected mice from alcohol- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver damage, serum ALT elevation, hepatomegaly, and lipid accumulation. HIF-1alpha(Hep(-/-) ), WT, and HIF1dPA mice had equally suppressed levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha mRNA after chronic ethanol, whereas the HIF target, adipocyte differentiation-related protein, was up-regulated in WT mice but not HIF-1alpha(Hep(-/-) ) ethanol-fed/LPS-challenged mice. The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was cooperatively induced by alcohol feeding and LPS in WT but not HIF-1alpha(Hep(-/-) ) mice. Using Huh7 hepatoma cells in vitro, we found that MCP-1 treatment induced lipid accumulation and increased HIF-1alpha protein expression as well as DNA-binding activity. Small interfering RNA inhibition of HIF-1alpha prevented MCP-1-induced lipid accumulation, suggesting a mechanistic role for HIF-1alpha in hepatocyte lipid accumulation.
CONCLUSION: Alcohol feeding results in lipid accumulation in hepatocytes involving HIF-1alpha activation. The alcohol-induced chemokine MCP-1 triggers lipid accumulation in hepatocytes via HIF-1alpha activation, suggesting a mechanistic link between inflammation and hepatic steatosis in alcoholic liver disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its coreceptor, myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2), are key in recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and activation of proinflammatory pathways. Here we tested the hypothesis that TLR4 and its coreceptor MD-2 play a central role in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Mice of control genotypes and those deficient in MD-2 or TLR4 [knockout (KO)] received methionine choline-deficient (MCD) or methionine choline-supplemented (MCS) diet. In mice of control genotypes, MCD diet resulted in NASH, liver triglycerides accumulation, and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a marker of lipid peroxidation, compared with MCS diet. These features of NASH were significantly attenuated in MD-2 KO and TLR4 KO mice. Serum alanine aminotransferase, an indicator of liver injury, was increased in MCD diet-fed genotype controls but was attenuated in MD-2 KO and TLR4 KO mice. Inflammatory activation, indicated by serum TNF-α and nictoinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex mRNA expression and activation, was significantly lower in MCD diet-fed MD-2 KO and TLR4 KO compared with corresponding genotype control mice. Markers of liver fibrosis [collagen by Sirius red and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) staining, procollagen-I, transforming growth factor-β1, α-SMA, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNA] were attenuated in MD-2 and TLR4 KO compared with their control genotype counterparts. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a novel, critical role for LPS recognition complex, including MD-2 and TLR4, through NADPH activation in liver steatosis, and fibrosis in a NASH model in mice.