ABSTRACT: The prevalence of celiac disease among type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients is 5-10 times higher than in the general population. Thus, evaluation of celiac serology is indicated at diagnosis of T1DM and on follow up.
This study was prompted by the observation that elevated anti-TTG antibody levels in diabetic children may spontaneously normalize despite continued consumption of gluten. The objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence of this phenomenon and associated factors.
The files of all children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus from 2003-2009 at a tertiary pediatric medical center were reviewed for those with elevated serum levels of anti-TTG antibody. Clinical, medical, laboratory, and treatment data were collected. Findings were compared between patients diagnosed with celiac disease and patients with initially elevated anti-TTG antibody levels that spontaneously normalized.
Forty-eight of the 738 patients with type 1 diabetes attending our center (6.5%) had elevated anti-TTG antibody blood levels. Celiac disease was diagnosed in 23, and anti-TTG antibody levels normalized in 17 (35.4%), all of whom consumed gluten. At one-year follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups in HbA1c level or change in anthropometric measurements.
Physicians treating children with type 1 diabetes and mildly elevated anti-TTG antibody levels might consider 12-month serologic follow-up on a gluten-containing diet rather than immediate duodenal biopsy.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 12/2011; 57(5):1314-20. · 2.12 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The optimum serological test for celiac disease (CD) in young children is not known. The objective of our study was to compare the performance of three serological tests (IgA + IgG DGP, IgA TTG, and IgA + IgG EMA) for children younger than 3 years of age.
We identified all subjects younger than 3 years of age (n = 6,074) that were tested for CD serology and included those with biopsy data. Patients were classified as group 1 (n = 47): patients with confirmed CD or group 2 (n = 12): patients with normal biopsy findings.
There was statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2 with regard to number of patients with positive IgA TTG (97.87% vs. 50%, P < 0.001), IgA + IgG DGP (100% vs. 77.78%, P = 0.007), and IgA + IgG EMA (95.65% vs. 9.09%, P < 0.001). There was a significantly positive correlation between Marsh-Oberhuber score on the small duodenal biopsies and all tests. Analysis of sensitivity and specificity showed that manufacturer's levels had high sensitivity for all tests (IgA TTG 97%, IgA + IgG DGP 100%, IgA + IgG EMA 96%), however specificity was low for IgA + IgG DGP (44%) and IgA TTG (50%) but not for IgA + IgG EMA (91%).
For children younger than 3 years of age, IgA + IgG EMA is highly sensitive and specific. Use of IgA + IgG DGP or IgA TTG as a single serological marker is insufficient for definite diagnosis of CD in this age group. Based on our results, it might be reasonable to postpone the biopsy for asymptomatic children with negative EMA.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences 08/2011; 57(1):127-32. · 2.12 Impact Factor
The Israel Medical Association journal: IMAJ 02/2011; 13(2):111-2. · 1.02 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Data on the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine in children after liver transplantation are sparse. Our study aims to evaluate the response of such patients to the trivalent influenza vaccine, administered by different protocols in 2 influenza seasons.
Children attending the Liver Transplantation Unit of a tertiary care medical center were prospectively recruited and immunized with the inactivated subvirion influenza vaccine during the influenza seasons of 2004/2005 (1 dose, n = 18) and 2005/2006 (2 doses 4-6 weeks apart, n = 32). Antibodies were measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Immunity was defined as a titer of ≥1:40, and response was defined as a ≥4-fold increase in antibody titer from baseline.
In 2004/2005, the proportions of patients with protective antibodies were similar before and after 1 dose of vaccine. We found significant difference after the first dose for the A/H3N2 Wisconsin strain (43.2% vs. 70.3%, P = 0.003) and B/Malaysia strains (8.1% vs. 35.1%, P = 0.003) and for A/H1N1 New Caledonia strain (48.6% vs. 64.9% vs. 75%, P = 0.08, 0.005, respectively) after the second dose in 2005/2006 season. In 2004/2005, geometric mean titers rose significantly (P = 0.03) for the A/H3N2 New York strain; in 2005/2006, geometric mean titers for A/H3N2 New York and B/Malaysia increased after the first dose and for A/H1N1 New Caledonia after the second dose. Antibody titers were unrelated to age at transplantation, time from transplantation, and number of immunosuppressive drugs used. No serious vaccine-related events were documented.
Liver-transplanted children respond to influenza vaccination. For some strains, the response is similar to that reported for healthy children. A second vaccine dose yielded no statistically significant benefit.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 01/2011; 30(6):491-4. · 3.58 Impact Factor