ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Radiation therapy is a common treatment for localized prostate cancer but long-term data are sparse on treatment related toxicity compared to observation. We evaluated the time course of grade 2-4 genitourinary toxicities in men treated with primary radiation or observation for T1-T2 prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a population based cohort study using Medicare claims data linked to SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) data. Cumulative incidence functions for time to first genitourinary event were calculated based on the competing risks model with death before any genitourinary event as a competing event. The generalized estimating equation method was used to evaluate the risk ratios of recurrent events. RESULTS: Of the study patients 60,134 received radiation therapy and 25,904 underwent observation. The adjusted risk ratio for genitourinary toxicity was 2.49 (95% CI 2.00-3.11) for 10 years and thereafter. Patients who had required prior procedures for obstruction/stricture, including transurethral prostate resection, before radiation therapy were at significantly increased risk for genitourinary toxicity (risk ratio 2.78, 95% CI 2.56-2.94). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the increased risk of grade 2-4 genitourinary toxicities attributable to radiation therapy persists 10 years after treatment and thereafter. Patients who required prior procedures for obstruction/stricture were at higher risk for genitourinary toxicity than those without these preexisting conditions.
The Journal of urology 11/2012; · 4.02 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat localized prostate cancer; however, representative data regarding treatment-related toxicities compared with conservative management are sparse.
To evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities in men treated with either primary radiation or conservative management for T1-T2 prostate cancer.
We performed a population-based cohort study, using Medicare claims data linked to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data. Competing risk models were used to evaluate the risks.
GI toxicities requiring interventional procedures occurring at least 6 mo after cancer diagnosis.
Among 41,737 patients in this study, 28,088 patients received radiation therapy. The most common GI toxicity was GI bleeding or ulceration. GI toxicity rates were 9.3 per 1000 person-years after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 8.9 per 1000 person-years after intensity-modulated radiotherapy, 5.3 per 1000 person-years after brachytherapy alone, 20.1 per 1000 person-years after proton therapy, and 2.1 per 1000 person-years for conservative management patients. Radiation therapy is the most significant factor associated with an increased risk of GI toxicities (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.97-5.66). Even after 5 yr, the radiation group continued to experience significantly higher rates of new GI toxicities than the conservative management group (HR: 3.01; 95% CI, 2.06-4.39). Because our cohort of patients were between 66 and 85 yr of age, these results may not be applicable to younger patients.
Patients treated with radiation therapy are more likely to have procedural interventions for GI toxicities than patients with conservative management, and the elevated risk persists beyond 5 yr.
European urology 06/2011; 60(5):908-16. · 7.67 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To provide patients and clinicians more accurate estimates of comorbidity-specific survival stratified by patient age, tumor stage, and tumor grade.
We conducted a 10-year competing risk analysis of 19,639 men 66 years of age and older identified by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program linked to Medicare program files. All men were diagnosed with localized prostate cancer and received no surgery or radiation within 180 days of diagnosis. The analysis was stratified by tumor grade and stage and by age and comorbidity at diagnosis classified using the Charlson comorbidity index. Underlying causes of death were obtained from SEER.
During the first 10 years after diagnosis, men with moderately and poorly differentiated prostate cancer were more likely to die from causes other than their disease. Depending on patient age, Gleason score, and number of comorbidities present at diagnosis, 5-year overall mortality rates for men with stage T1c disease ranged from 11.7% (95% CI, 10.2% to 13.1%) to 65.7% (95% CI, 55.9% to 70.1%), and prostate cancer-specific mortality rates ranged from 1.1% (95% CI, 0.0% to 2.7%) to 16.3% (95% CI, 13.8% to 19.4%). Ten-year overall mortality rates ranged from 28.8% (95% CI, 25.3% to 32.6%) to 94.3% (95% CI, 87.4% to 100%), and prostate cancer-specific mortality rates ranged from 2.0% (95% CI, 0.0% to 5.3%) to 27.5% (95% CI, 21.5% to 36.5%).
Patients and clinicians should consider using comorbidity-specific data to estimate the threat posed by newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer and the threat posed by competing medical hazards.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2011; 29(10):1335-41. · 18.37 Impact Factor