[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distal radius fracture is the most common fracture of the upper extremity, and approximately 60,000 distal radius fractures occur annually in Korea. Internal fixation with an anatomical volar locking plate is widely used in the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures. However, most of the currently used distal radius anatomical plate systems were designed based on the anatomical characteristics of Western populations. Recently, the Korean-type distal radius anatomical volar plate (K-DRAVP) system was designed and developed based on the anatomical characteristics of the distal radius of Koreans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preliminary results of the new K-DRAVP system, and to compare its radiologic and functional results with those of the other systems.
Clinics in orthopedic surgery 09/2014; 6(3):258-66.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schwannomas rarely are found in the brachial plexus, and although they are benign, they present significant challenges to surgical treatment. To our knowledge, there are few studies investigating the surgical outcomes of patients with brachial plexus tumors.
We analyzed the outcomes of 19 patients with brachial plexus schwannomas and asked: (1) How do these patients present? (2) Where are the tumors located in the brachial plexus? (3) What are the complications and neurologic results of patients after excision of the tumor?
From February 2002 to August 2012, one orthopaedic hand surgeon treated 19 patients with schwannomas of the brachial plexus. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and MRI data of all patients. There were 11 women and eight men, with a mean age of 50.2 years (range, 32-63 years). The tumor was located on the right side in eight patients and on the left in 11 patients. We evaluated neurologic deficits preoperatively and neurologic deficits and local recurrence of tumors postoperatively. Minimum followup was 12 months (mean, 37.2 months; range, 12-90 months).
The most common initial presentation was a palpable mass. The masses were located at all levels along the brachial plexus, including the root, trunk, cord, and terminal branches. The smallest mass was 1.5 × 1.5 × 0.5 cm and the largest was 11 × 10 × 6 cm. Fourteen of the 19 patients did not have any postoperative neurologic deficits. All the removed masses were proven histologically to be schwannomas. Of the five patients who had postoperative neurologic deficits, three had transient sensory deficits, one had weakness of the flexor pollicis longus and second flexor digitorum profundus, and another had weakness of the extensor pollicis longus. No recurrence was observed during the followup period.
Schwannomas of the brachial plexus are a potentially curable lesion with an acceptable surgical risk of injury to neurovascular structures. With precise surgical techniques, these tumors can be removed to improve symptoms with minimal morbidity.
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 02/2014; · 2.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To investigate the effect of partial biceps lengthening on elbow flexion posture and active elbow flexion and extension in patients with cerebral palsy.
We retrospectively reviewed 29 patients with cerebral palsy who underwent anterior elbow release as part of multilevel upper extremity surgery. The early series of the patients (N = 14; group 1) had lacertus fibrosus division, brachialis fractional lengthening, and denuding of the pretendinous adventitia off the biceps tendon. The later series of patients (N = 15; group 2) had partial biceps tendon lengthening in addition to the procedures in group 1. We compared the 2 sets of patients for elbow flexion posture, active elbow flexion and extension, forearm rotation, and House scores, with mean follow-ups of 72 months for group 1 and 31 months for group 2.
The 2 groups were comparable in terms of mean age, number of procedures, and preoperative House scores. Group 2 patients had more improvement in flexion posture (53° vs 44°) and active extension (23° vs 15°) than group 1 postoperatively. However, group 2 had a mean decrease of 7° in active elbow flexion, whereas group 1 had no changes. There was no difference in forearm supination or in the improvement of House scores between groups.
Early results of partial lengthening of the biceps tendon showed that it may improve elbow flexion posture and active elbow extension in patients with flexion deformity in cerebral palsy.
Type of study/level of evidence
The Journal of hand surgery 01/2014; · 1.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: We identified a subset of patients who had posterolateral rotatory instability (PLRI) following corrective osteotomy for asymptomatic cubitus varus deformity. We aimed to identify risk factors for PLRI in such patients by comparing this subgroup to patients who did not demonstrate PLRI following osteotomy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and radiographs of 22 patients with cubitus varus that underwent corrective osteotomy at our institution between 2003 and 2010. All patients underwent surgery for cosmetic reasons, and no patient reported functional problems such as PLRI or ulnar nerve symptoms pre-operatively. We sought to identify differences between those that experienced an increase in PLRI after osteotomy (PLRI group) and those that did not (non-PLRI group) with regard to demographics, degree of deformity, amount of surgical correction, and final outcomes. Results: Five patients had PLRI after osteotomy, and all five subsequently underwent lateral ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction using a triceps tendon graft. No statistically significant difference was observed between the PLRI and non-PLRI groups in terms of demographics, degree of deformity, amount of surgical correction, range of motion, and final Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) and the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores. However, the PLRI group had marginally greater medial displacement of the distal fragment. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that PLRI can become apparent after corrective osteotomy for cubitus varus in the absence of clinical symptoms of instability preoperatively. We suggest that careful examination for PLRI should be performed after surgical correction for cubitus varus deformity, and surgeons should be prepared to proceed with simultaneous reconstruction of the lateral ligaments of the elbow.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To investigate whether patient-reported outcomes are different according to patients' preference or experience in surgical decision making for carpal tunnel release.
We preoperatively surveyed 85 patients who underwent carpal tunnel release regarding their preferred role in the process of surgical decision making and assessed their experienced role in the actual decision making 6 months after surgery using a Control Preference Scale. For patient-reported surgical outcomes, we used the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire. We compared these outcomes with those of patients having different preferences or experiences in surgical decision making and also compared the outcomes according to whether the preferred roles match the experienced roles.
The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores were not significantly different between patients with different preferences for involvement in decision making for surgery or between those with different experiences in the actual decision making. However, those who experienced the same level of involvement as they had preferred were found to have better Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores than those who experienced a more active role or a more passive role than they had preferred.
This study demonstrates that patient-reported outcomes were not different between those with different preferences or experiences in surgical decision making for carpal tunnel release. However, this study suggests that patients whose experience in decision making matched with their preference may have better subjective outcomes after carpal tunnel release. This suggests that patients with carpal tunnel syndrome may benefit from physicians' efforts of identifying patients' preferences for involvement in decision making and matching the identified preferences to the decision-making process.
Type of study/level of evidence
The Journal of hand surgery 01/2014; 39(3):493–498. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium longobardum is a slow-growing, nontuberculous mycobacterium that was first characterized from the M. terrae complex in 2012. We report a case of M. longobardum induced chronic osteomyelitis. A 71-yr-old man presented with inflammation in the left elbow and he underwent a surgery under the suspicion of tuberculous osteomyelitis. The pathologic tissue culture grew M. longobardum which was identified by analysis of the 65-kDa heat shock protein and full-length 16S rRNA genes. The patient was cured with the medication of clarithromycin and ethambutol without further complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a M. longobardum infection worldwide.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine 09/2013; 33(5):356-9. · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Open carpal tunnel decompression under local anesthesia is routinely done by many surgeons. However, patients complain of pain during the injection of local anesthesia. This prospective, double-blind, randomized study was to compare the pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores of local anesthesia using lidocaine with and without sodium bicarbonate in patients with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. METHODS: Twenty-five patients underwent bilateral simultaneous carpal tunnel decompression. All had topical anesthetic cream applied on the palm and wrist before the lidocaine block. In a randomized manner, half of the hands were blocked with nonbuffered lidocaine and half were blocked with buffered lidocaine. Pain was evaluated on a VAS score. RESULTS: The mean pain VAS score in the hand with buffered lidocaine was 4.6 ± 1.5 and 6.5 ± 1.5 for the hand with nonbuffered lidocaine. After adjustment for individual threshold of the pain, the mean pain VAS score changed into 4.6 ± 1.3 with buffered lidocaine and 6.6 ± 1.7 without buffered lidocaine. CONCLUSIONS: In open carpal tunnel surgery, the use of buffered lidocaine for local anesthesia reduces the anesthetic pain effectively. TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic I.
The Journal of hand surgery 04/2013; · 1.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Polydactyly is one of the most common congenital differences that affect the hand. It has various anatomic and morphologic features. Although the Wassel classification has been used widely for radial polydactyly, it is based on the anatomic level of duplication and has some limitations in describing the concrete morphology of the duplication. The authors devised a new classification system based on the anatomic pattern of duplication to facilitate surgical correction of the deformity and evaluated surgical outcomes.
: A total of 159 duplicated thumbs in 142 patients who were treated surgically from 1990 to 2007 and followed for >12 months were included in this series. The authors categorized all cases of radial polydactyly into the following: type I (joint type), where the extra digit has its own joint at its origin; type II (single epiphyseal type), where the origin of the extra digit is derived directly from the common epiphysis; type III (osteochondroma-like type), where the origin of the extra digit resembles an osteochondroma; and type IV (hypoplastic type), where the extra digit is connected to the main digit by soft tissue alone. All patients underwent surgical treatment based on this classification. The surgical outcomes were assessed using the Tada score.
: Of the 159 radial polydactyly cases, 84 (50%) were classified as the joint type-37 (22%) as the osteochondroma-like type, 33 (19%) as the single epiphyseal type, and 15 (9%) as the hypoplastic type. All the cases were classified with the proposed classification system. In the evaluation of the surgical outcomes, 134 (84%), 17 (11%), and 8 (5%) were rated as good, fair, and poor, respectively.
: This new classification system for radial polydactyly is practical and closely related to the surgical strategies.
: Diagnostic IV.
Journal of pediatric orthopedics 03/2013; 33(2):190-6. · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates can adversely affect fracture-healing because they inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption. It is unclear whether bisphosphonates can be initiated safely for patients who have sustained an acute distal radial fracture. The purpose of this randomized study was to determine whether the early use of bisphosphonate affects healing and outcomes of osteoporotic distal radial fractures treated with volar locking plate fixation. METHODS: Fifty women older than fifty years of age who had undergone volar locking plate fixation of a distal radial fracture and had been diagnosed with osteoporosis were randomized to Group I (n = 24, initiation of bisphosphonate treatment at two weeks after the operation) or Group II (n = 26, initiation of bisphosphonate treatment at three months). Patients were assessed for radiographic union and other radiographic parameters (radial inclination, radial length, and volar tilt) at two, six, ten, sixteen, and twenty-four weeks, and for clinical outcomes that included Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores, wrist motion, and grip strength at twenty-four weeks. The two groups were compared with regard to the time to radiographic union, the radiographic parameters, and the clinical outcomes. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the two groups with respect to radiographic or clinical outcomes after volar locking plate fixation. All patients obtained fracture union, and the mean times to radiographic union in Groups I and II were similar (6.7 and 6.8 weeks, respectively; p = 0.65). Furthermore, the time to radiographic union was not related to osteoporosis severity or fracture type. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with an osteoporotic distal radial fracture treated with volar locking plate fixation, the early initiation of bisphosphonate treatment did not affect fracture-healing or clinical outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 08/2012; · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) is produced by compression of the brachial plexus in the thoracic outlet. The lower position of the shoulder girdle relative to the upper thorax may be related to NTOS. We investigated this hypothesis using plain cervical radiographs.
We conducted this case-control study using plain cervical anteroposterior and lateral radiographs in 63 NTOS patients and 126 carpal tunnel syndrome patients who were matched for age and sex. To estimate the position of the shoulder girdle relative to the upper thorax, we analyzed the level of the clavicle using 2 parameters: the number of vertebrae visible in a lateral radiograph and the number of vertebrae above the line connecting both sternal ends of the clavicles in an anteroposterior radiograph. The number of vertebrae visible in a lateral radiograph was the parameter for the level of the lateral part of the clavicle relative to the upper thorax, whereas we used the number of vertebrae above the line connecting both sternal ends of the clavicles in an anteroposterior radiograph to determine the level of the medial part of the clavicle.
Both parameters were greater in the NTOS group than in the control group, which suggests that the level of the shoulder girdle was lower in the NTOS group than in the control group. In addition, the risk of NTOS was increased in patients with lower shoulder girdle position.
The lower placement of the shoulder girdle relative to the upper thorax was related to NTOS. Physicians may be able to estimate the position of the shoulder girdle using plain cervical radiographs when NTOS is clinically suspected.
The Journal of hand surgery 04/2012; 37(6):1187-93. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Symphalangism is a rare congenital difference characterized by ankylosis of interphalangeal (IP) joints of the fingers and toes. In adults, there were several attempts to restore the stiff joints into mobile ones, but these treatment options resulted in poor outcomes and could not be applied to growing children. Here, we report our experiences on surgical treatment for children who had symphalangism of the hand.
We treated 36 joints in 17 children with symphalangism of the hand using dorsal capsulotomy and collateral ligament release. The diagnoses were based on history, physical examination, and simple radiographs. Affected fingers were classified according to our grading system. Simple compressive dressing was applied using Coban after surgery. Passive range of motion (ROM) exercise was started on day one or 2 postoperative, with the help of a hand therapist and patients' parents. The patients were prescribed passive ROM exercises for at least 2 hours a day over a period of 6 months.
A single surgeon operated on 30 proximal IP joints, 3 distal IP joints, and 3 IP joints of the thumb. Twenty six joints were classified as grade I, and 10 as grade II. The ROM of affected joints, which was 7.8 ± 8.1 (mean ± SD) degrees preoperatively, increased to 46.8 ± 18.6 degrees at final follow-up. The final ROM was significantly better in grade I joints, especially when the children had operations at ages 24 months or younger.
Symphalangism of the hand in children, can be restored into a mobile joint by release of the collateral ligament, a dorsal capsulotomy, and postoperative physical therapy.
Clinics in orthopedic surgery 03/2012; 4(1):58-65.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies of minimal medial epicondylectomy for cubital tunnel syndrome included patients with mild disease, making it difficult to determine how much this procedure improved sensory and motor impairments in patients with moderate to severe disease.
We asked if minimal epicondylectomy improved sensory and motor impairments in patients with moderate to severe cubital tunnel syndrome.
We retrospectively reviewed 25 patients treated with minimal medial epicondylectomy for advanced cubital tunnel syndrome involving motor weakness between January 2003 and February 2009. Preoperatively, five patients had Medical Research Council (MRC) Grade 4 motor strength without atrophy (McGowan Grade IIA), nine had MRC Grade 3 motor strength with detectable atrophy (McGowan Grade IIB), and 11 had MRC Grade 3 or less motor strength with severe atrophy (McGowan Grade III). Postoperatively we obtained DASH scores and evaluated improvement of sensory impairment and motor impairment: excellent with minimal sensory deficit and motor deficit, good with mild deficits, fair with improved but persistent deficit(s), and poor with no improvement. The minimum followup was 13 months (mean, 46 months; range, 13-86 months).
The mean DASH score was 14 points (range, 2-47 points). Of the 25 patients, sensory improvement and motor improvement were excellent in 16 patients, good in five, fair in two, and poor in two. Twenty-three of the 25 patients improved at least one McGowan grade. There were no complications, such as medial elbow instability.
Minimal medial epicondylectomy can improve sensory and motor impairments for patients with moderate to severe cubital tunnel syndrome.
Level IV, therapeutic study. See the guidelines for authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 02/2012; 470(5):1405-13. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interpreting the impact of hand osteoarthritis (OA) on hand function is complicated owing to the multiple digits and joints in the hand.
We determined the impact of digit-related radiographic OA on hand function in patients 65 years or older.
We evaluated hand radiographs in 196 men and 182 women older than 65 years without shoulder or elbow pain who participated in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. Using the Kellgren and Lawrence criteria, we graded the 15 joints in each hand from 0 to 4 for OA, and evaluated hand function by measuring DASH scores and grip and pinch strength of dominant hands. We performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate associations between hand functions and the sum of Kellgren and Lawrence grade of each digit.
The sums of Kellgren and Lawrence grades for thumbs and middle fingers were independently associated with grip strength, and the sums of the Kellgren and Lawrence grades for thumbs and index fingers were independently associated with pinch strength after controlling for age and sex. DASH scores were independently associated with OA of the thumb, or index or middle finger, but not with OA of the ring or small finger.
This study revealed cumulative effects of joint involvement and Kellgren and Lawrence grades of thumb and middle finger OA on grip strength, and thumb and index finger OA on pinch strength. Furthermore, OA of either of three radial digits was associated with more severe upper extremity disabilities.
Level IV, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 01/2012; 470(8):2202-8. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There have been few outcomes studies with follow-up after performing ulnar shortening osteotomy for ulnar impaction syndrome. We investigated the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of ulnar shortening osteotomy for the treatment of idiopathic ulnar impaction syndrome.
We retrospectively reviewed 36 patients who had undergone ulnar shortening osteotomy for idiopathic ulnar impaction syndrome for a mean follow-up of 79.1 months (range, 62 to 132 months). The modified Gartland and Werley scores were measured pre- and postoperatively. The radiographic parameters for the assessment of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) as well as the relationship between these radiographic parameters and the clinical and radiological outcomes were determined.
The average modified Gartland and Werley wrist score improved from 65.5 ± 8.1 preoperatively to 93.4 ± 5.8 at the last follow-up visit. The average preoperative ulnar variance of 4.7 ± 2.0 mm was reduced to an average of -0.6 ± 1.4 mm postoperatively. Osteoarthritic changes of the DRUJ were first seen at 34.8 ± 11.1 months follow-up in 6 of 36 wrists (16.7%). Those who had osteoarthritic changes in the DRUJ had significantly wider preoperative ulnar variance, a longer distal radioulnar distance and a greater length of ulnar shortening, but the wrist scores of the patients who had osteoarthritic changes in the DRUJ were comparable to those who did not have osteoarthritic changes in the DRUJ.
The clinical outcomes are satisfactory for even more than 5 years after ulnar shortening osteotomy for treating idiopathic ulnar impaction syndrome despite the osteoarthritic changes of the DRUJ. The patients who need a larger degree of ulnar shortening may develop DRUJ arthritis.
Clinics in orthopedic surgery 12/2011; 3(4):295-301.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric trigger thumb is due to deformed flexion of the interphalangeal joint. We previously reported that pediatric trigger thumb can spontaneously resolve in > 60% of patients at the median follow-up of 48 months. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any more cases of resolution with a follow-up of more than 5 years and whether any residual deformities remain, and so to confirm the natural history of pediatric trigger thumb.
We prospectively followed 87 thumbs in 67 patients with pediatric trigger thumb and these patients didn't receive any treatment such as passive stretching, splinting or surgery. The date of the first visit ranged from April 1994 to March 2005. The patients were evaluated every six-months prior to resolution and annually after resolution. The median duration of follow-up was 87.3 months (range, 60 to 156 months).
Of the 87 trigger thumbs, 66 (75.9%) resolved spontaneously. The median time from the initial visit to resolution was 49.0 months (95% confidence interval, 41.1 to 56.9). There were no residual deformities that resolved beyond 48 months. Although complete resolution did not occur in the remaining 21 thumbs, the flexion deformities did improve in all 21 thumbs. There were no other differences between the two groups besides the average duration of follow-up. There was no difference in resolution based on gender.
Pediatric trigger thumb can spontaneously resolve in > 75% of the cases after a follow-up period of at least 5 years. An operation may be delayed or avoided in the majority of cases. This may help both the families and the surgeons make decisions regarding the proper treatment of pediatric trigger thumb.
Clinics in orthopedic surgery 06/2011; 3(2):157-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To present the effectiveness of passive stretching as a treatment for camptodactyly, without any other form of physiotherapy or splinting.
From May 2003 to August 2008, 61 digits of 22 patients were treated conservatively using passive stretching exercises. All children were less than 3 years old and had no other anomalies. Flexion contractures before and after treatment in mild, moderate, and severe groups were measured and changes were analyzed statistically. The correlations between various clinical factors and treatment outcome were also analyzed statistically. The average follow-up period was 26 months (range, 12-47 mo).
Mean flexion contracture improved from 20° to 1° in the mild group (p < .001), from 39° to 12° in the moderate group (p < .001), and from 75° to 28° in the severe group (p < .001). Of the clinical factors examined, only initial flexion contracture was found to be significantly correlated with treatment outcome (r = -0.287, p = .0025).
Passive stretching can effectively improve flexion deformity in camptodactyly in infants and young children.
The Journal of hand surgery 11/2010; 35(11):1768-73. · 1.33 Impact Factor