[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fetal lung development normally occurs in a hypoxic environment. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is robustly induced under hypoxia and transactivates many genes that are essential for fetal development. Most preterm infants are prematurely exposed to hyperoxia, which can halt hypoxia-driven lung maturation. We were to investigate whether the HIF-1α inducer, deferoxamine (DFX) can improve alveolarization in a rat model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). A rat model of BPD was produced by intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration and postnatal hyperoxia (85% for 7 days), and DFX (150 mg/kg/d) or vehicle was administered to rat pups intraperitoneally for 14 days. On day 14, the rat pups were sacrificed and their lungs were removed and examined. A parallel in vitro study was performed with a human small airway epithelial cell line to test whether DFX induces the expression of HIF-1α and its target genes. Alveolarization and pulmonary vascular development were impaired in rats with BPD. However, DFX significantly ameliorated these effects. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that HIF-1α was significantly upregulated in the lungs of BPD rats treated with DFX. DFX was also found to induce HIF-1α in human small airway epithelial cells and to promote the expression of HIF-1α target genes. Our data suggest that DFX induces and activates HIF-1α, thereby improving alveolarization and vascular distribution in the lungs of rats with BPD.
Journal of Korean medical science 09/2015; 30(9):1295-301. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2015.30.9.1295 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A glomus tumor in the mediastinum is very uncommon, and only five cases have been reported in the English literature. We recently encountered a 21-year-old woman with an asymptomatic mediastinal mass that measured 5.3×4.0 cm. Surgical excision was performed, and the tumor was finally diagnosed as mediastinal glomus tumor with an uncertain malignant potential. After reviewing this case and previous reports, we analyzed the clinicopathologic features associated with progression of such a tumor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the hallmark of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly. Although the pathogenesis of CNV is not clear, a number of studies show that ocular-infiltrating macrophages and inflammation play a critical role in the development of CNV. TNFα-stimulated gene/protein (TSG)-6 is a multifunctional endogenous protein that has anti-inflammatory activities partly by regulating macrophage activation. Therefore, we here investigated the therapeutic potential of TSG-6 in a rat model of CNV induced by laser photocoagulation. Time course analysis showed that the expression of VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the choroid was up-regulated early after laser injury, and gradually decreased to baseline over 14 days. An intravitreal injection of TSG-6 suppressed the expression of VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokines including CCL2, and reduced the size of CNV. Also, the number of Iba(+) and CCR2(+) cells including infiltrating macrophages was markedly lower in the CNV lesion of TSG-6-treated eyes. Further analysis identified CCR2(+) CD11b(+) CD11c(+) cells and CCR2(+) CD11b(-)CD11c(+) cells as the cell populations that were increased by laser injury and reduced by TSG-6 treatment. Together, the results demonstrate that TSG-6 inhibits inflammation and CCR2(+) monocyte recruitment into the choroid, and suppresses the development of CNV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the clinicopathological implications of leptin-signaling proteins and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infection status in gastric carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry for leptin signalling-related proteins (leptin, leptin-receptor, pSTAT3, ERK, pAkt, mTOR and HIF-1 alpha), and in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small RNAs was performed in 343 cases of gastric carcinomas. The siRNA against leptin-receptor was transfected into three stomach cancer cell lines, and western blot for caspase 3 was performed. The TNM stage was a prognostic factor in all 343 patients, and was negatively correlated with expression of leptin, pSTAT3, ERK, pAkt, mTOR and HIF-1 alpha (P < 0.05). Leptin-receptor expression was correlated with poor survival in 207 patients of the advanced gastric cancer (AGC) subgroup, 139 of the Lauren diffuse group, and in 160 patients with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05, respectively). Additionally, in stomach cancer cells, cleaved caspase 3 level increased by leptin-receptor inhibition, that is, apoptosis increased. Interestingly, EBV-positive AGC (n = 29) tended to show better survival of patients than EBV-negative AGC (n = 178) (P = 0.06). pAkt expression was related with a good survival of 32 patients (9%) in the EBV-positive subgroup, but was not an independent prognostic factor. Among, leptin signaling-related proteins, expressions of leptin-receptor and mTOR were different between EBV-positive subgroup and EBV-negative subgroup (P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, leptin-signaling proteins and EBV status show different significance on patient survival, according to subsets of gastric carcinomas. The leptin-receptor may predict poor patient prognosis in the AGC, Lauren diffuse and lymph node metastasis subgroups, while EBV-positive status can show a good prognosis in the AGC. Each leptin signaling-related protein may be differently involved in carcinogenesis of EBV-negative and EBV-positive subsets.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0130839. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0130839 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thymic carcinomas are uncommon malignant tumors, and thymic adenocarcinomas are extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of primary thymic adenocarcinoma in a 59-year-old woman. Histological examination of the tumor revealed tubular morphology with expression of cytokeratin 20 and caudal-type homeobox 2 according to immunohistochemistry, suggesting enteric features. Extensive clinical and radiological studies excluded the possibility of an extrathymic primary tumor. A review of the literature revealed only two global cases of primary tubular adenocarcinomas of the thymus with enteric immunophenotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the histopathological findings of the cornea with fulminant Mooren ulcer, an idiopathic autoimmune keratitis.
A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed with Mooren ulcer. Despite intensive immunosuppression, corneal perforation developed, and penetrating keratoplasty with a limbal tectonic graft was performed. The removed cornea was histopathologically evaluated for the phenotype of the cells infiltrating the lesion.
Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed massive infiltration of inflammatory cells in the anterior corneal stroma and epithelial hyperplasia in the adjacent conjunctiva. Further analysis with immunohistochemistry indicated that the cells infiltrating the lesion included a number of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes, CD19CD45 B lymphocytes, and CD14CD68 macrophages. There were a few neutrophils and no CD56 NK cells.
Our findings suggest that multiple types of immune cells including T cells, B cells, and macrophages are involved in the pathogenesis of Mooren ulcer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have revealed recurrent alterations in the cell adhesion gene FAT4, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, in cancer. FAT atypical cadherin 4 (FAT4) is a transmembrane receptor involved in the Hippo signaling pathway, which is involved in the control of organ size. Here, we investigated the loss of FAT4 expression and its association with clinicopathological risk factors in gastric cancer.
We assessed the expression of FAT4 by using immunohistochemistry on three tissue microarrays containing samples from 136 gastric cancer cases, radically resected in the Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital between July 2006 and June 2008. Cytoplasmic immunoexpression of FAT4 was semi-quantitatively scored using the H-score system. An H-score of ≥10 was considered positive for FAT4 expression.
Variable cytoplasmic expressions of FAT4 were observed in gastric cancers, with 33 cases (24.3%) showing loss of expression (H-score <10). Loss of FAT4 expression was associated with an increased rate of perineural invasion (H-score <10 vs. ≥10, 36.4% vs. 16.5%, P=0.015), high pathologic T stage (P=0.015), high tumor-node-metastasis stage (P=0.017), and reduced disease-free survival time (H-score <10 vs. ≥10, mean survival 62.7±7.3 months vs. 79.1±3.1 months, P=0.025). However, no association was found between the loss of FAT4 expression and tumor size, gross type, histologic subtype, Lauren classification, lymphovascular invasion, or overall survival.
Loss of FAT4 expression appears to be associated with invasiveness in gastric cancer.
Journal of Gastric Cancer 03/2015; 15(1):39-45. DOI:10.5230/jgc.2015.15.1.39
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the various anatomic locations of surgically and pathologically proven endometriosis.
Pathologic reports (n=1,376) of women who underwent surgeries at a single center between April 2005 and March 2013 were retrieved from the electronic medical record system of the hospital. Pathologic reports were included after performing a search by using the key-words "endometrial cyst," "endometriotic cyst," "endometriosis," or "endometrioma." Only reports dealing with female patients were selected, and the pathologic reports of 1,350 women (1,374 surgery cases) were included in the analysis.
The predominant location of endometriosis was the ovaries (96.4%), followed by the soft tissue (2.8%), gastrointestinal tract (0.3%) and urinary tract (0.2%). Laparoscopic surgery was the major surgical technique used for the pelvic endometriosis (89.2%). Adrenal gland endometriosis was found in a 55-year-old woman.
We established the various anatomic locations of surgically and pathologically proven endometriosis in Korean women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chondroid syringoma (CS) is an uncommon cutaneous tumor in the head and neck, with reported incidence rate from 0.01% to 0.1%. The CS of skin is a rare type of soft tissue tumor originating from the sweat glands. We report a documented case of CS occurring in the nasal dorsum in a 58-year-old man, which developed during the course of 1 year. The clinical, gross pathologic, and histologic findings of the tumor are described. The lesion was totally excised via transcutaneous approach and showed no evidence of recurrence after excision.
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 01/2015; 26(1):e12-4. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001222 · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a pseudosarcomatous reactive proliferative lesion that commonly occurs as a solitary, well-circumscribed, painful, rapidly growing soft tissue mass. It appears at any age, but incidence peaks in the third decade, with a slight predilection for women. It is most commonly located on the extremities, followed by the chest and trunk. Although a common site in the pediatric population, NF is found on the head and neck only in 7% to 20% in the adult population and includes the cheek, parotid region, zygoma, periorbital area, eyelid, forehead, and intraoral sites. The cause of NF is unknown, but an association with trauma may be present. A case of NF over the temple area in a 28-year-old man who has no trauma history but has surgical incisional biopsy history and tenderness on palpation is reported.
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 10/2014; 25(6). DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000001049 · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of early surgical ligation (within 15 days of age) over late surgical ligation (after 15 days of age) by a comparative analysis of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants undergoing surgical correction for symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) over the course of 6 years in our hospital.
We retrospectively reviewed all the medical records in the neonatal intensive care unit at Hanyang University Seoul Hospital, from March 2007 to May 2013, to identify VLBW infants (< 1,500 g) who underwent surgical PDA ligation.
The gestational age (GA) in the late ligation (LL) group was significantly younger than in the early ligation (EL) group (p=0.010). The other baseline characteristics and preoperative conditions did not differ significantly between the two groups. The intubation period before surgery (p < 0.001) and the age at surgery (p < 0.001) were significantly different. The postoperative clinical outcomes of the study patients, including major morbidity and mortality, are summarized. There were no significant differences in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, or mortality between the EL and the LL groups. However, the LL group was significantly associated with an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (p=0.037) and with a prolonged duration of the total parenteral nutrition (p=0.046) after adjusting for GA.
Early surgical ligation for the treatment of PDA that failed to close after medical treatment or in cases contraindicated for medical treatment might be desirable to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and to alleviate feeding intolerance in preterm infants.
Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 10/2014; 47(5):444-50. DOI:10.5090/kjtcs.2014.47.5.444
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) of the uterine cervix is a rare malignancy, and 21 cases have been reported the literature from every language (including our case). Herein, we describe a 17-yearold female patient who presented with active vaginal bleeding. Pelvic examination revealed a 1.6 ×1.0×0.5-cm-sized soft mass protruding from the uterine cervix. The final pathological diagnosis was ASPS of the uterine cervix. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly nuclear positive for transcription factor E3. The patient remained disease free for 24 months without adjuvant therapy. The prognosis of ASPS in the cervix is considerably better than that of ASPS in soft tissues due to early clinical detection, small size, and resectability. ASPS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an unusual epithelioid neoplasm showing organoid appearance with mild cytologic atypia and no/rare mitotic figures, particularly in young women. Pathologists should be aware of those unusual locations where ASPS may originate.
The Korean Journal of Pathology 10/2014; 48(5):361-5. DOI:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2014.48.5.361 · 0.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An efficient stereoselective synthesis of various 3-(3-dimethylaminoprop-2-enylidene)oxindoles has been disclosed. The compounds were synthesized via a vinylogous N,N-dimethylaminomethylenation at the gamma-position of 3-[(1-substituted)ethylidene]oxindoles with DMF-DMA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To evaluate the dose effect of recombinant mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in culture medium on the development of in vitro fertilized mouse embryos.
Mature oocytes were retrieved from superovulated female BDF1 mice and inseminated by sperm from male BDF1 mice. On day 1, two-cell stage embryos were divided and cultured until day 5 in the embryo maintenance medium supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 5, or 10 ng/mL of rmGM-CSF or supplemented with 0, 5, 10, or 20 ng/mL of BDNF. Blastocyst formation rate and their cell numbers were assessed.
The blastocyst formation rate and the total cell count in blastocyst was similar in all the rmGM-CSF treatment groups when compared with the control. However, the blastocyst formation rate and the total cell count was significantly higher in the group supplemented with 10 ng/mL of BDNF compared with the control (63.9%, 45.8±11.5 vs. 52.3%, 38.0±6.8; P<0.05, respectively).
Supplementation of 10 ng/mL of BDNF enhanced the developmental potential of mouse preimplantation embryos, but supplementation of rmGM-CSF did not.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the most common ocular diseases affecting nearly 10% of the U.S. population. Most of the currently-available treatments are palliative, and few therapeutic agents target biological pathway of DES. Although DES is a multifactorial disease, it is well-known that inflammation in the ocular surface plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DES. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to repair tissues by modulating excessive immune responses in various diseases. Therefore, we here investigated the therapeutic potential of MSCs in a murine model of an inflammation-mediated dry eye that was induced by an intraorbital injection of concanavalin A. We found that a periorbital administration of MSCs reduced the infiltration of CD4(+) T cells and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the intraorbital gland and ocular surface. Also, MSCs significantly increased aqueous tear production and the number of conjunctival goblet cells. Subsequently, corneal epithelial integrity was well-preserved by MSCs. Together, the results demonstrate that MSCs protect the ocular surface by suppressing inflammation in DES, and suggest that MSCs may offer a therapy for a number of ocular surface diseases where inflammation plays a key role.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.159.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune uveitis is one of the leading causes of blindness. We here investigated whether intraperitoneal administration of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) might prevent development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in mice. Time course study showed that the number of IFN-γ- or IL-17-expressing CD4(+) T cells was increased in draining lymph nodes (DLNs) on the postimmunization day 7 and decreased thereafter. The retinal structure was severely disrupted on day 21. An intraperitoneal injection of hMSCs at the time of immunization protected the retina from damage and suppressed the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the eye. Analysis of DLNs on day 7 showed that hMSCs decreased the number of Th1 and Th17 cells. The hMSCs did not reduce the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-23 which are the cytokines that drive Th1/Th17 differentiation. Also, hMSCs did not induce CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cells. However, hMSCs increased the level of an immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 and the population of IL-10-expressing B220(+)CD19(+) cells. Together, data demonstrate that hMSCs attenuate EAU by suppressing Th1/Th17 cells and induce IL-10-expressing B220(+)CD19(+) cells. Our results support suggestions that hMSCs may offer a therapy for autoimmune diseases mediated by Th1/Th17 responses.
Mediators of Inflammation 07/2014; 2014:624640. DOI:10.1155/2014/624640 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To investigate the effect of an anti-inflammatory protein, TNF-α stimulated gene/protein (TSG)-6 and an antiapoptotic protein, stanniocalcin (STC)-1 on corneal endothelium in rabbits with transcorneal cryoinjury.
Transcorneal freezing (-80°C) was applied to rabbit corneas for 30 seconds. Immediately post injury, either TSG-6 (10 μg/100 μL), STC-1 (10 μg/100 μL), or the same volume of balanced salt solution (BSS) was injected into the anterior chamber. Each eye was examined for corneal opacity, corneal thickness, endothelial cell density, and endothelial hexagonality every 2 to 6 hours for 48 hours post injury. The concentrations of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and IL-1β were measured in the aqueous humor every 6 hours. At 48 hours post injury, each cornea was assayed for TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and MPO, and histologically evaluated with alizarin red-trypan blue staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunostaining for neutrophils.
Tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene/protein-6 significantly decreased the development of corneal opacity and edema after cryoinjury compared with STC-1 or BSS. The corneal endothelial cell density and hexagonality were markedly preserved by TSG-6. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the cornea and the protein levels of MPO and IL-1β in the aqueous humor and cornea were significantly lower in TSG-6-treated eyes than BSS-treated controls. Similarly, the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 was reduced by TSG-6 treatment. Histologic evaluation demonstrated that neutrophil infiltration of the cornea was decreased in TSG-6-treated eyes.
Tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene/protein-6 protected corneal endothelial cells from transcorneal cryoinjury through suppression of inflammation.