Holger M Reichardt

Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany

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Publications (95)579.05 Total impact

  • Holger M Reichardt, Henrike J Fischer
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    ABSTRACT: Transgenesis is a valuable tool with which to study different aspects of gene function in the context of the intact organism. During the last two decades a tremendous number of transgenic animals have been generated, and the continuous improvement of technology and the development of new systems have fostered their widespread application in biomedical research. Generally, transgenic animals are generated by introducing foreign DNA into fertilized oocytes, which can be achieved either by injecting recombinant DNA into the pronucleus or by transferring lentiviral particles into the perivitelline space. While mice remain the favored species in many laboratories, there are a number of applications where the use of rats is advantageous. One such research area is multiple sclerosis. Here, several experimental models are available that are closely mimicking the human disease, and it is possible to induce neuroinflammation by transferring pathogenic T cells which can then be studied by flow cytometry and 2-photon live imaging. Unlike for mice, the development of transgenic rats has encountered some hurdles in the past, e.g., due to a complicated reproductive biology and the frailty of the fertilized oocytes in vitro. In this chapter we provide a protocol describing how we manipulate single cell embryos in our lab in order to efficiently generate transgenic rats in a variety of different strains using lentiviral gene transfer.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 07/2014; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) constitute a highly pleiotropic class of drugs predominantly employed in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In our search for new mechanisms of action we identified a hitherto unknown effect of GCs in the gastrointestinal tract. We found that oral administration of dexamethasone (Dex) to mice caused an enlargement of the stomach due to the induction of gastroparesis, and that this effect was abolished in GR(dim) mice carrying the A458T mutation in the GC receptor (GR). Gastroparesis was unrelated to the enhanced gastric acid secretion observed after Dex treatment although both effects were mediated by the same molecular mechanism of the GR. Using conditional GR knock-out mice we could further rule out that GC effects on enterocytes or myeloid cells were involved in the induction of gastroparesis. In contrast, we found that Dex up-regulated arginase 2 (Arg2) in the stomach both at the mRNA and protein level. This suggests that GC treatment leads to a depletion of L-arginine thereby impeding the production of nitric oxide (NO) which is required for gastric motility. We tested this hypothesis by supplementing the drinking water of the mice with exogenous L-arginine to compensate for the presumed shortage of this major substrate of NO synthases. Importantly, this measure completely prevented both the enlargement of the stomach and the induction of gastroparesis after Dex treatment. Our findings raise considerations of combining orally applied GCs with L-arginine to improve tolerability of GC treatment and provide a possible explanation for the anti-emetic effects of GCs widely exploited in chemotherapy.
    Endocrinology 07/2014; · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The role of erythropoietin (Epo) in myocardial repair after infarction remains inconclusive. We observed high Epo receptor (EPOR) expression in cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Therefore, we aimed to characterize these cells and elucidate their contribution to myocardial regeneration upon Epo stimulation.Results: High EPOR expression was detected during murine embryonic heart development followed by a marked decrease until adulthood. EPOR positive cells in the adult heart were identified in a CPC-enriched cell population and showed co-expression of stem, mesenchymal, endothelial and cardiomyogenic cell markers. We focused on the population co-expressing early (TBX5, NKX2.5) and definitive (myosin heavy chain (MHC), cardiac Troponin T (cTNT)) cardiomyocyte markers. Epo increased their proliferation and thus were designated as Epo-responsive MHC expressing cells (EMCs). In vitro, EMCs proliferated and partially differentiated towards cardiomyocyte-like cells. Repetitive Epo administration in mice with myocardial infarction (cumulative dose 4 IU/g) resulted in an increase of cardiac EMCs and cTNT positive cells in the infarcted area. This was further accompanied by a significant preservation of cardiac function as compared to control mice.Conclusion: Our study characterized an EPO-responsive MHC-expressing cell population in the adult heart. Repetitive, moderate-dose Epo treatment enhanced the proliferation of EMCs resulting in preservation of post-ischemic cardiac function. Stem Cells 2014
    Stem Cells 05/2014; · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the standard therapy for treating multiple sclerosis (MS) patients suffering from an acute relapse. One of the main mechanisms of GC action is held to be the induction of T cell apoptosis leading to reduced lymphocyte infiltration into the CNS, yet our analysis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in three different strains of genetically manipulated mice has revealed that the induction of T cell apoptosis is not essential for the therapeutic efficacy of GCs. Instead, we identified the redirection of T cell migration in response to chemokines as a new therapeutic principle of GC action. GCs inhibited the migration of T cells towards CCL19 while they enhanced their responsiveness towards CXCL12. Importantly, blocking CXCR4 signaling in vivo by applying Plerixafor(®) strongly impaired the capacity of GCs to interfere with EAE, as revealed by an aggravated disease course, more pronounced CNS infiltration and a more dispersed distribution of the infiltrating T cells throughout the parenchyma. Our observation that T cells lacking the GC receptor were refractory to CXCL12 further underscores the importance of this pathway for the treatment of EAE by GCs. Importantly, methylprednisolone pulse therapy strongly increased the capacity of peripheral blood T cells from MS patients of different subtypes to migrate towards CXCL12. This indicates that modulation of T cell migration is an important mechanistic principle responsible for the efficacy of high-dose GC therapy not only of EAE but also of MS.
    Acta Neuropathologica 02/2014; · 9.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a major challenge after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but treatment options for patients are still limited. In many cases first-line treatment with glucocorticoids is not successful. Among second-line therapies the extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is frequently performed, due to induction of selective tolerance instead of general immunosuppression. However, for some patients with severe acute GvHD the leukapheresis step of the ECP procedure is physically exhausting and limits the number of ECP cycles.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e105896. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) belongs to the group of non-melanoma skin tumors and is the most common tumor in the western world. BCC arises due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene Patched1 (Ptch). Analysis of the conditional Ptch knockout mouse model for BCC reveals that macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) of the skin play an important role in BCC growth restraining processes. This is based on the observation that a clodronate-liposome mediated depletion of these cells in the tumor-bearing skin results in significant BCC enlargement. The depletion of these cells does not modulate Ki67 or K10 expression, but is accompanied by a decrease in collagen-producing cells in the tumor stroma. Together, the data suggest that cutaneous macrophages and DC in the tumor microenvironment exert an antitumor effect on BCC.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e93555. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of CD8(+) T cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is still unclear. We describe here significantly reduced disease activity of EAE both in Lewis rats depleted of CD8(+) T cells by monoclonal antibodies and CD8 knockout rats, which was accompanied by reduced leukocyte infiltration into the spinal cord. We detected myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific CD4(+) T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs of CD8-depleted animals which, however, failed to differentiate into interferon-γ-producing effector cells. Our results indicate that CD8(+) T cells interact with myelin-specific CD4(+) T cells early in EAE enabling them to differentiate into pathogenic effector cells.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 05/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is initiated when self-reactive T cells enter the brain and become locally activated after encountering their specific nervous antigens. When and where the disease-relevant antigen encounters occur is unclear. Here we combined fluorescently labeled nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) with histone protein H2B to create a broadly applicable molecular sensor for intravital imaging of T cell activation. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model for multiple sclerosis, we report that effector T cells entering the CNS become activated after short contacts with leptomeningeal phagocytes. During established disease, the activation process is extended to the depth of the CNS parenchyma, where the cells form contacts with microglia and recruited phagocytes. We show that it is the activation processes during the preclinical phase rather than during established disease that are essential for the intensity and duration of the disease bout.
    Nature medicine 04/2013; · 27.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of acute disease bouts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. While T lymphocytes were shown to be essential targets of GC therapy, at least in animal models of MS, the mechanisms by which GCs modulate T cell function are less clear. Until now, apoptosis induction and repression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in T cells have been considered the most critical mechanisms in ameliorating disease symptoms. However, this notion is being challenged by increasing evidence that the control of T cell migration and chemotaxis by GCs might be even more important for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. In this review we aim to provide an overview of how GCs impact the morphological alterations that T cells undergo during activation and migration as well as the influences that GCs have on the directed movement of T cells under the influence of chemokines. A deeper understanding of these processes should not only help to advance our understanding of how GCs exert their beneficial effects in MS therapy but may reveal future strategies to intervene in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 04/2013; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hedgehog (Hh) signaling modulates T cell development and function but its exact role remains a matter of debate. To further address this issue we made use of conditional knock-out mice in which the Hh receptor Patched1 (Ptch) is inactivated in the T cell lineage. Thymocyte development was moderately compromised by the deletion of Ptch as characterized by reduced numbers of CD4 and CD8 single-positive cells. In contrast, peripheral T cells were not affected. Proliferation and IFNγ secretion by Ptch-deficient T cells were indistinguishable from controls irrespectively of whether we used strong or suboptimal conditions for stimulation. Analysis of CTL and Treg cell functions did not reveal any differences between both genotypes, and T cell apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids or γ-irradiation was also similar. Surprisingly, absence of Ptch did not lead to an activation of canonic Hh signaling in peripheral T cells as indicated by unaltered expression levels of Gli1 and Gli2. To test whether we could uncover any role of Ptch in T cells in vivo we subjected the mutant mice to three different disease models, namely allogeneic bone marrow transplantation mimicking graft-versus-host disease, allergic airway inflammation as a model of asthma and growth of adoptively transferred melanoma cells as a means to test tumor surveillance by the immune system. Nonetheless, we were neither able to demonstrate any difference in the disease courses nor in any pathogenic parameter in these three models of adaptive immunity. We therefore conclude that the Hh receptor Ptch is dispensable for T cell function in vitro as well as in vivo.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e61034. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) repress lymphocyte function by controlling gene expression. In this study, we investigated Ag-specific effector T cells and provide evidence that GCs also modulate these cells' cytoskeletal architecture by nongenomic mechanisms. Following GC treatment, effector T cells rapidly lose their polarized morphology, which impedes both their migratory capacity and their interaction with APCs. The cytoskeleton rearrangements are preceded by an activation of ezrin-radixin-moesin proteins, which transiently increases the cellular rigidity but seems to occur independently of altered tyrosine phosphorylation. Phospholipase C activity is critically involved in mediating these nongenomic effects, because its inhibition prevents both T cell depolarization and ezrin-radixin-moesin phosphorylation after GC exposure. GC administration in vivo induced similar morphological changes in effector T cells as observed in vitro, suggesting that the above process plays a role in modulating inflammatory diseases. Taken together, our findings identify a novel mechanism through which GCs rapidly repress T cell function independently of gene transcription.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Marco J Herold, Holger Reichardt
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are highly potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. They exert influence on many cell types of the immune system and impact a plethora of processes such as cytokine production, leukocyte differentiation, migration and adhesion, apoptosis induction, and changes in morphology. Those that are most relevant for the modulation of neuroinflammatory diseases, however, are still under debate. In this review, we will elaborate on how GCs impact inflammatory responses in general and revisit the ambivalent role that apoptosis plays in animal models of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, we will discuss arguments that speak in favor or against an essential function of GC-induced apoptosis in neuroinflammation. We anticipate that a better knowledge of the mechanisms that GCs employ will eventually find its way into clinical practice for the future benefit of afflicted patients.
    Critical Reviews in Immunology 01/2013; 33(3):183-202. · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Holger M Reichardt, Fred Lühder
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is synonymous to programmed cell death, which occurs in response to a plethora of stimuli and employs a series of highly conserved mediators and pathways. Its ambivalent role in immunology is illustrated by the fact that this process not only serves homeostatic functions but also exerts harmful effects including tissue damage. This is particularly true for neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), the most frequent neurological disease to afflict adolescents in the western world. Considerable insight into the role of apoptosis in MS has been obtained by using its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Experiments using the EAE model have revealed that cell death affects both infiltrating lymphocytes and CNS resident cells, and that it contributes to axonal injury as well as the resolution of inflammation. Furthermore, it was discovered that the molecules involved in inducing and regulating this process are the Fas-FasL system, pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, 'initiator' and 'effector' caspases, glucocorticoid hormones and various modulatory proteins. The variety of apoptotic mechanisms in combination with their often opposing effects on the disease course highlights the need for a detailed understanding of apoptosis in this context. In the future, this may pave the way to novel approaches aiming at interfering with the apoptotic process to prevent tissue damage or at intentionally inducing cell death in order to ameliorate the disease by deleting autoreactive lymphocytes.
    Current pharmaceutical design 05/2012; 18(29):4453-64. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gene-targeting studies in mice have identified the essential roles of most prosurvival Bcl-2 family members in normal physiology and under conditions of stress. The function of one member, Bcl2a1/Bfl-1/A1, is only poorly understood because of quadruplication of its gene locus in mice, hindering conventional knockout studies. To overcome this problem, we generated mouse models allowing traceable constitutive or reversible ablation of A1 in the hematopoietic system by RNA interference. Knockdown of A1 impaired early stages of T-cell differentiation, B-cell homeostasis, and sensitized transitional as well as follicular B cells to apoptosis induced by ligation of the B-cell receptor. As a consequence, B-cell proliferation in response to mitogens was severely impaired, whereas that of T cells appeared unaffected. Furthermore, depending on the extent of A1 knockdown, granulocytes showed increased spontaneous death in culture or failed to accumulate in significant numbers in vivo. These models highlight the critical role of A1 in leukocyte development and homeostasis, constituting valuable tools for investigating presumed roles of this Bcl-2 family member in immunity, tumorigenesis, and drug resistance.
    Blood 05/2012; 119(25):6032-42. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health care problem. New interventions to slow or prevent disease progression are urgently needed. We studied functional and structural effects of infusion of healthy and CKD bone marrow cells (BMCs) in a rat model of established CKD. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (SNX) in Lewis rats, and disease progression was accelerated with L-NNA and 6% NaCl diet. Six weeks after SNX, CKD rats received healthy eGFP⁺BMCs, CKD eGFP⁺BMCs, or vehicle by single renal artery injection. Healthy BMCs were functionally effective six weeks after administration: glomerular filtration rate (GFR; inulin clearance) (0.48±0.16 vs. 0.26±0.14 ml/min/100gr) and effective renal plasma flow (RPF; PAH clearance) (1.6±0.40 vs. 1.0±0.62 ml/min/100gr) were higher in healthy BMC- vs. vehicle-treated rats (both p<0.05). Systolic blood pressure and proteinuria were lower five weeks after treatment with healthy BMCs vs. vehicle (SBP; 151±13 vs.186±25 mm Hg, proteinuria; 33±20 vs. 59±39 mg/d, both p<0.05). Glomerular capillary density was increased and less sclerosis was detected after healthy BMC (both p<0.05). Tubulo-interstitial inflammation was also decreased after healthy BMC. eGFP⁺ cells were present in the glomeruli and peritubular capillaries of the remnant kidney in all BMC-treated rats. CKD BMCs also reduced SBP, proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis and tubular atrophy vs. vehicle in CKD rats. However, CKD BMC therapy was not functionally effective vs. vehicle: GFR: 0.28±0.09 vs.0.26±0.16 ml/min/100gr (NS), RPF: 1.15±0.36 vs. 0.78±0.44 vs. ml/min/100gr (NS), and failed to decrease tubulo-interstitial inflammation and fibrosis.Single intrarenal injection of healthy BMCs in rats with established CKD slowed progression of the disease, associated with increased glomerular capillary density and less sclerosis, whereas injection of CKD BMCs was less effective.
    Cell Transplantation 03/2012; · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important regulators of skeletal muscle mass, and prolonged exposure will induce significant muscle atrophy. To better understand the mechanism of skeletal muscle atrophy induced by elevated GC levels, we examined three different models: exogenous synthetic GC treatment [dexamethasone (DEX)], nutritional deprivation, and denervation. Specifically, we tested the direct contribution of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in skeletal muscle atrophy by creating a muscle-specific GR-knockout mouse line (MGR(e3)KO) using Cre-lox technology. In MGR(e3)KO mice, we found that the GR is essential for muscle atrophy in response to high-dose DEX treatment. In addition, DEX regulation of multiple genes, including two important atrophy markers, MuRF1 and MAFbx, is eliminated completely in the MGR(e3)KO mice. In a condition where endogenous GCs are elevated, such as nutritional deprivation, induction of MuRF1 and MAFbx was inhibited, but not completely blocked, in MGR(e3)KO mice. In response to sciatic nerve lesion and hindlimb muscle denervation, muscle atrophy and upregulation of MuRF1 and MAFbx occurred to the same extent in both wild-type and MGR(e3)KO mice, indicating that a functional GR is not required to induce atrophy under these conditions. Therefore, we demonstrate conclusively that the GR is an important mediator of skeletal muscle atrophy and associated gene expression in response to exogenous synthetic GCs in vivo and that the MGR(e3)KO mouse is a useful model for studying the role of the GR and its target genes in multiple skeletal muscle atrophy models.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 02/2012; 302(10):E1210-20. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is controlled by endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs). Previous studies provided evidence that crosstalk of the monomeric GC receptor (GR) with proinflammatory transcription factors is the crucial mechanism underlying the suppressive GC effect. Here we demonstrate that mice with a dimerization-deficient GR (GR(dim)) are highly susceptible to sepsis in 2 different models, namely cecal ligation and puncture and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock. TNF-α is normally regulated in these mice, but down-regulation of IL-6 and IL-1β is diminished. LPS-treated macrophages derived from GR(dim) mice are largely resistant to GC actions in vitro in terms of morphology, surface marker expression, and gene expression. Treatment with recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist improved survival of GR(dim) mice and mice lacking the GR in macrophages (GR(LysMCre)) mice. This suggests that regulation of IL-1β in macrophages by GCs is pivotal to control sepsis.
    The FASEB Journal 02/2012; 26(2):722-9. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid (GC) treatment of inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, causes deranged metabolism, in part by enhanced intestinal resorption of glucose. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Hence, we investigated transcriptional control of genes reported to be involved in glucose uptake in the small intestine after GC treatment and determined effects of GC on electrogenic glucose transport from transepithelial currents. GR(villinCre) mice lacking the GC receptor (GR) in enterocytes served to identify the target cell of GC treatment and the requirement of the GR itself; GR(dim) mice impaired in dimerization and DNA binding of the GR were used to determine the underlying molecular mechanism. Our findings revealed that oral administration of dexamethasone to wild-type mice for 3 d increased mRNA expression of serum- and GC-inducible kinase 1, sodium-coupled glucose transporter 1, and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3, as well as electrogenic glucose transport in the small intestine. In contrast, GR(villinCre) mice did not respond to GC treatment, neither with regard to gene activation nor to glucose transport. GR(dim) mice were also refractory to GC, because dexamethasone treatment failed to increase both, gene expression and electrogenic glucose transport. In addition, the rise in blood glucose levels normally observed after GC administration was attenuated in both mutant mouse strains. We conclude that enhanced glucose transport in vivo primarily depends on gene regulation by the dimerized GR in enterocytes, and that this mechanism contributes to GC-induced hyperglycemia.
    Endocrinology 01/2012; 153(4):1783-94. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health care problem. New interventions to slow or prevent disease progression are urgently needed. We studied functional and structural effects of infusion of healthy and CKD bone marrow cells (BMCs) in a rat model of established CKD. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (SNX) in Lewis rats, and disease progression was accelerated with L-NNA and 6% NaCl diet. Six weeks after SNX, CKD rats received healthy eGFP(+) BMCs, CKD eGFP(+) BMCs, or vehicle by single renal artery injection. Healthy BMCs were functionally effective 6 weeks after administration: glomerular filtration rate (GFR; inulin clearance) (0.48±0.16 vs. 0.26±0.14 ml/min/100 g) and effective renal plasma flow (RPF; PAH clearance) (1.6±0.40 vs. 1.0±0.62 ml/min/100 g) were higher in healthy BMC- versus vehicle-treated rats (both p < 0.05). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and proteinuria were lower 5 weeks after treatment with healthy BMCs versus vehicle (SBP, 151±13 vs. 186±25 mmHg; proteinuria, 33±20 vs. 59±39 mg/day, both p < 0.05). Glomerular capillary density was increased, and less sclerosis was detected after healthy BMCs (both p < 0.05). Tubulointerstitial inflammation was also decreased after healthy BMCs. eGFP(+) cells were present in the glomeruli and peritubular capillaries of the remnant kidney in all BMC-treated rats. CKD BMCs also reduced SBP, proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, and tubular atrophy versus vehicle in CKD rats. However, CKD BMC therapy was not functionally effective versus vehicle [GFR: 0.28±0.09 vs. 0.26±0.16 ml/min/100 g (NS), RPF: 1.15±0.36 vs. 0.78±0.44 ml/min/100 g (NS)], and failed to decrease tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Single intrarenal injection of healthy BMCs in rats with established CKD slowed progression of the disease, associated with increased glomerular capillary density and less sclerosis, whereas injection of CKD BMCs was less effective.
    Cell Transplantation 01/2012; 21(10):2299-312. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) represent the standard treatment for acute disease bouts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, for which methylprednisolone (MP) pulse therapy is the most frequently used protocol. Here, we compared the efficacy of therapeutic and preventive MP application in MOG(35-55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57Bl/6 mice. When administered briefly after the onset of the disease, MP efficiently ameliorated EAE in a dose-dependent manner. Surprisingly, MP administration around the time of immunization was contraindicated as it even increased leukocyte infiltration into the CNS and worsened the disease symptoms. Our analyses suggest that in the latter case an incomplete depletion of peripheral T cells by MP triggers homeostatic proliferation, which presumably results in an enhanced priming of autoreactive T cells and causes an aggravated disease course. Thus, the timing and selection of a particular GC derivative require careful consideration in MS therapy.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2012; 2012:417017. · 2.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
579.05 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2014
    • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2007–2014
    • Universitätsmedizin Göttingen
      • Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2013
    • Walter And Eliza Hall Institute For Medical Research
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2004–2013
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Institute for Virology and Immune Biology
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2012
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • Leibniz Institute for Age Research - Fritz Lipmann Institute
      Jena, Thuringia, Germany
    • University of Greifswald
      • Department of Laboratory Animal Science
      Greifswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2011
    • University of Cologne
      • Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2009
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 1996–2007
    • German Cancer Research Center
      • • Division of Molecular Biology of the Cell II
      • • Division of Molecular Neurobiology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 1999–2002
    • Institute of Molecular Biology
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 1998–2002
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States