[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as a predictor of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) response and indicator of planned neck dissection (PND) for patients with advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC; stage III/IV). Overall, 39 OPSCC patients (32 men, 7 women; median age 61 years, range 39-79 years) were enrolled. The primary lesion and whole neck were irradiated up to 50.4 Gy, and subsequently the primary site and metastatic lymph nodes were boosted with a further 16.2 Gy. Although several chemotherapy regimens were employed, 82.1% of OPSCC patients received the combination of nedaplatin and 5-fluorouracil. HPV-related OPSCC (16 cases) was defined as both HPV DNA-positive status by polymerase chain reaction and p16INK4a overexpression by immunohistochemistry. Patients with N2 and N3 disease received PND 2-3 months after CCRT completion. Compared to non-responders, CCRT responders showed significantly lower nodal stage (N0 to N2b) and HPV-positive status in univariate analysis. Patients with HPV-related OPSCC had longer time to treatment failure (TTF) than those with HPV-unrelated OPSCC (p=0.040). Three-year TTF was 81.3 and 47.8% in the HPV-related and HPV-unrelated groups, respectively. There were also significant differences in disease-free survival (DFS) between the two OPSCC patient groups (p=0.042). Three-year DFS was 93.8 and 66.7% in patients with HPV-related and HPV-unrelated OPSCC, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis showed a lower risk of TTF event occurrence in HPV-related OPSCC (p=0.041) than in HPV-unrelated OPSCC. Thus, HPV testing in addition to nodal stage was useful for predicting CCRT response, especially in advanced OPSCC. Because patients who received PND showed moderate locoregional control, PND is an effective surgical procedure for controlling neck lesions in patients with advanced HPV-unrelated disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have better prognosis than those without HPV infection. Although p16INK4a expression is used as a surrogate marker for HPV infection, there is controversy as to whether p16INK4a reliably indicates HPV infection. Here, to evaluate the accuracy of p16INK4a expression for determining HPV infection and the prognostic value of HPV infection and p16INK4a expression for HNSCC survival, especially oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) survival, 150 fresh-frozen HNSCC samples were analyzed for HPV DNA, E6/E7 mRNA and p16INK4a expression by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. p16INK4a expression was scored from 0 to 4 according to the percentage of p16INK4a-positive cells, with overexpression defined as >40% positive cells. Of the 150 tumor samples tested, 10 tumors were nasopharyngeal, 53 oropharyngeal, 39 hypopharyngeal, 24 laryngeal and 24 were located in the oral cavity. HPV DNA was detected in 47 (31.3%) samples, but only 21 also exhibited HPV mRNA expression. Inter-rater agreement was low between p16INK4a expression and HPV DNA presence and between p16INK4a expression and HPV mRNA expression, but was good between the combination of HPV DNA status and p16INK4a overexpression and HPV mRNA expression. Three-year recurrence-free survival was significantly higher for OPSCC patients who were HPV DNA-positive than for OPSCC patients who were HPV DNA-negative (P=0.008) and for OPSCC patients overexpressing p16INK4a than for without overexpressing p16INK4a (P=0.034). Multivariate analysis revealed that T1-3 stage and the combination of HPV DNA positivity and p16INK4a overexpression predicted significantly better recurrence-free survival. This combination is a more accurate marker for active HPV infection in HNSCC than HPV DNA status or general p16INK4a-positive status alone and offers a useful and reliable method for detecting and determining the prognosis of HPV-related HNSCC.
International Journal of Oncology 05/2014; · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the brain activities during phonation of young patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) of relatively short disease duration (<10 years).
Six subjects with ADSD of short duration (mean age: 24. 3 years; mean disease duration: 41 months) and six healthy controls (mean age: 30.8 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a sparse sampling method to identify brain activity during vowel phonation (/i:/). Intragroup and intergroup analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping software.
Areas of activation in the ADSD and control groups were similar to those reported previously for vowel phonation. All of the activated areas were observed bilaterally and symmetrically. Intergroup analysis revealed higher brain activities in the SD group in the auditory-related areas (Brodmann's areas [BA] 40, 41), motor speech areas (BA44, 45), bilateral insula (BA13), bilateral cerebellum, and middle frontal gyrus (BA46). Areas with lower activation were in the left primary sensory area (BA1-3) and bilateral subcortical nucleus (putamen and globus pallidus).
The auditory cortical responses observed may reflect that young ADSD patients control their voice by use of the motor speech area, insula, inferior parietal cortex, and cerebellum. Neural activity in the primary sensory area and basal ganglia may affect the voice symptoms of young ADSD patients with short disease duration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical importance of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) and SCCA subclasses has not been established for treating inverted papilloma (IP). The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical importance of serum SCCA and its subclasses in IP, compared with maxillary squamous cell carcinoma and inflammatory disease.
Serum SCCA was measured in 22 patients with IP (IP group), 11 with maxillary squamous cell carcinoma (carcinoma group), and 22 with inflammatory disease (inflammatory group). mRNA expression of SCCA subclasses was examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.
In the IP group, 81.8% showed elevated serum SCCA, and 90.3% with recurrent IP showed elevated SCCA. The preoperative SCCA value (mean ± SD, 3.99 ± 4.39) in the IP group was significantly higher than in the carcinoma (1.28 ± 0.88; p = 0.012) and inflammatory (0.60 ± 0.31; p < 0.001) groups. mRNA expression of SCCA1 and SCCA2 in the IP group was higher than in the carcinoma and inflammatory groups. The SCCA2/SCCA1 ratio of mRNA expression (0.11 ± 0.06) in the IP group was similar to that (0.11 ± 0.09) in the inflammatory group, although the ratio (0.20 ± 0.12) in the carcinoma group was significantly higher than in the IP and inflammatory groups. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the SCCA2/SCCA1 ratio to detect carcinoma yielded an area under the curve of 0.760 (95% confidence interval, 0.626-0.894).
The serum level of SCCA is effective for detecting IP, including recurrent IP. In contrast, the SCCA2/SCCA1 ratio is useful for detecting squamous cell carcinoma among other sinonasal diseases.
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy 09/2012; 26(5):365-70.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the synergistic influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) status and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) mRNA expression on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) prognosis, HPV DNA presence and SCCA1 and SCCA2 mRNA expression were determined by PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, respectively, in 121 patients with primary HNSCC who were receiving curative treatment. HPV DNA was detected in 28.1% (34/121) of HNSCC cases, and only high-risk types (HPV-16, HPV-33, HPV-35 and HPV-58) were observed. Positive HPV status showed a significantly better prognosis than negative HPV status (P = 0.022). An elevated SCCA2/SCCA1 mRNA ratio was an independent predictor of disease recurrence (P = 0.004). In addition, HPV-negative patients with a high SCCA2/SCCA1 ratio (>0.27) had a significantly lower recurrence-free survival rate than HPV-negative patients with a low SCCA2/SCCA1 ratio (P < 0.011). Our findings revealed that both HPV status and the SCCA2/SCCA1 mRNA ratio are independently associated with prognosis in HNSCC. Patients with both a HPV-negative status and a high SCCA2/SCCA1 ratio might need intensified treatment and rigorous follow up after treatment because of the high risk of recurrence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated prospectively the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in paranasal inverted papilloma (IP).
HPV presence and viral load and physical status of HPV-16 were examined by polymerase chain reaction-based methods using fresh frozen samples obtained from 13 patients with IP (IP group), 11 with squamous cell carcinoma in the maxillary sinus (SCC group) and 39 with chronic inflammatory lesions (inflammatory group).
The presence of the HPV genome was detected in 46.1%, 27.3% and 7.6% of patients in the IP, SCC and inflammatory groups, respectively. The IP group showed significantly higher HPV-positive rates than the inflammatory group. All types of HPV detected were high-risk HPV, especially HPV-16. The relative HPV-16 copy numbers varied from 2.5 to 1524.1 per 50 ng genomic DNA. The viral load was higher in the IP and SCC groups than in the inflammatory group. In the IP group, no significant relationship was found between HPV-16 viral load and clinical characteristics, or between physical status and clinical characteristics. One patient with IP and concomitant squamous cell carcinoma, however, showed high viral load and integration.
HPV infection is involved in the pathogenesis of IP, and high viral load and integration of HPV have an important role in malignant lesion in association with IP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies from Okinawa, a subtropical island in southern Japan, demonstrated a higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral carcinoma and a higher incidence of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma than those for mainland Japan. The present study aims to investigate epidemiologic and clinical features of HPV in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in Okinawa. A total of 150 DNA samples from 150 Okinawan patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were screened for HPV sequences by PCR using three consensus primer sets, and HPV types were determined by direct sequencing. The samples were consisted of 46 cases from the hypopharynx, 44 from the oropharynx, 16 from the larynx, 25 from the oral cavity, 10 from the maxillary sinus, and 9 from the nasopharynx. HPV DNA was detected in 45 (30.0%) HNSCCs, and HPV-16 was identified in 86.7% of positive specimens. The highest prevalence of the HPV sequence was found in oropharyngeal carcinomas (50.0%), especially in tonsillar cancer (63.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that oropharyngeal carcinoma (P = 0.002; OR = 5.34; 95% CI = 1.83-15.58), oral cavity carcinoma (P = 0.012; OR = 4.94; 95% CI = 1.43-17.10), and histological poor differentiation (P = 0.011; OR = 4.25; 95% CI = 1.39-13.04) each independently increased the prevalence of HPV infection. The present study reveals that patients with HNSCC, e.g., oropharyngeal and oral cavity carcinomas, in Okinawa have relatively high HPV-16 positive rates and low HPV-18 positive rates comparing with mainland Japan.
Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 02/2011; 268(11):1625-31. · 1.29 Impact Factor