[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC-AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC-AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC-AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles.
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 01/2014; 5:257-65.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) are widely used for the treatment of not only hypertension but also cardiac dysfunction. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is secreted mainly by the cardiac ventricle and plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and body fluid. It has been established that the plasma level of BNP is increased in patients with chronic heart failure in proportion to the severity of cardiac dysfunction. Because cardiac dysfunction is closely associated with a high risk of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus, early identification and prevention of cardiac dysfunction are important. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of olmesartan medoxomil, a novel ARB, on the plasma level of BNP in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.
This was a preliminary, prospective, observational, open-label study. Sixty-eight type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension (systolic BP [SBP]≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP [DBP]≥90 mmHg) received olmesartan medoxomil 10–20 mg/day for 24 weeks. Plasma levels of BNP, as well as several clinical parameters of glycaemic control and lipid metabolism, were compared before and after 24 weeks of treatment. Another group consisting of 22 age- and body mass index-matched subjects not treated with olmesartan medoxomil was observed for reference purposes.
In the olmesartan medoxomil group, mean±SD SBP decreased from 152.8±16.4 at baseline to 146.8±14.4 mmHg after 24 weeks' treatment (p<0.05); similarly, mean±SD DBP decreased from 85.6±10.5 to 81.3±11.6 mmHg (p<0.05). In 53 subjects in whom plasma levels of BNP could be measured both before and after treatment, mean±SD BNP decreased from 41.3±49.9 to 32.5±36.3 pg/mL (p<0.05). Change in plasma BNP level over the 24-week treatment period in the olmesartan medoxomil group was not correlated with change in SBP or DBP. Multiple regression analysis revealed that change in plasma BNP level was not correlated with baseline value of or change in any other parameters. No other parameters in the olmesartan medoxomil group, and no parameters in the non-olmesartan medoxomil reference group, showed significant changes.
The current preliminary study showed that olmesartan medoxomil treatment might decrease plasma BNP levels, independent of its BP-lowering effect, in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes.
Clinical Drug Investigation 12/2010; 31(4):237-45. · 1.70 Impact Factor