Heidi Rosenbaum

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (5)63.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The presence of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant, CENH3, defines centromeric (CEN) chromatin, but poorly understood epigenetic mechanisms determine its establishment and maintenance. CEN chromatin is embedded within pericentromeric heterochromatin in most higher eukaryotes, but, interestingly, it can show euchromatic characteristics; for example, the euchromatic histone modification mark dimethylated H3 Lys 4 (H3K4me2) is uniquely associated with animal centromeres. To examine the histone marks and chromatin properties of plant centromeres, we developed a genomic tiling array for four fully sequenced rice (Oryza sativa) centromeres and used chromatin immunoprecipitation-chip to study the patterns of four euchromatic histone modification marks: H3K4me2, trimethylated H3 Lys 4, trimethylated H3 Lys 36, and acetylated H3 Lys 4, 9. The vast majority of the four histone marks were associated with genes located in the H3 subdomains within the centromere cores. We demonstrate that H3K4me2 is not a ubiquitous component of rice CEN chromatin, and the euchromatic characteristics of rice CEN chromatin are hallmarks of the transcribed sequences embedded in the centromeric H3 subdomains. We propose that the transcribed sequences located in rice centromeres may provide a barrier preventing loading of CENH3 into the H3 subdomains. The separation of CENH3 and H3 subdomains in the centromere core may be favorable for the formation of three-dimensional centromere structure and for rice centromere function.
    The Plant Cell 11/2011; 23(11):4054-64. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chromatin immunoprecipitation identifies specific interactions between genomic DNA and proteins, advancing our understanding of gene-level and chromosome-level regulation. Based on chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments using validated antibodies, we define the genome-wide distributions of 19 histone modifications, one histone variant, and eight chromatin-associated proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos and L3 larvae. Cluster analysis identified five groups of chromatin marks with shared features: Two groups correlate with gene repression, two with gene activation, and one with the X chromosome. The X chromosome displays numerous unique properties, including enrichment of monomethylated H4K20 and H3K27, which correlate with the different repressive mechanisms that operate in somatic tissues and germ cells, respectively. The data also revealed striking differences in chromatin composition between the autosomes and between chromosome arms and centers. Chromosomes I and III are globally enriched for marks of active genes, consistent with containing more highly expressed genes, compared to chromosomes II, IV, and especially V. Consistent with the absence of cytological heterochromatin and the holocentric nature of C. elegans chromosomes, markers of heterochromatin such as H3K9 methylation are not concentrated at a single region on each chromosome. Instead, H3K9 methylation is enriched on chromosome arms, coincident with zones of elevated meiotic recombination. Active genes in chromosome arms and centers have very similar histone mark distributions, suggesting that active domains in the arms are interspersed with heterochromatin-like structure. These data, which confirm and extend previous studies, allow for in-depth analysis of the organization and deployment of the C. elegans genome during development.
    Genome Research 02/2011; 21(2):227-36. · 14.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We systematically generated large-scale data sets to improve genome annotation for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a key model organism. These data sets include transcriptome profiling across a developmental time course, genome-wide identification of transcription factor-binding sites, and maps of chromatin organization. From this, we created more complete and accurate gene models, including alternative splice forms and candidate noncoding RNAs. We constructed hierarchical networks of transcription factor-binding and microRNA interactions and discovered chromosomal locations bound by an unusually large number of transcription factors. Different patterns of chromatin composition and histone modification were revealed between chromosome arms and centers, with similarly prominent differences between autosomes and the X chromosome. Integrating data types, we built statistical models relating chromatin, transcription factor binding, and gene expression. Overall, our analyses ascribed putative functions to most of the conserved genome.
    Science 12/2010; 330(6012):1775-87. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Following the domestication of maize over the past approximately 10,000 years, breeders have exploited the extensive genetic diversity of this species to mold its phenotype to meet human needs. The extent of structural variation, including copy number variation (CNV) and presence/absence variation (PAV), which are thought to contribute to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity and plasticity of this important crop, have not been elucidated. Whole-genome, array-based, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed a level of structural diversity between the inbred lines B73 and Mo17 that is unprecedented among higher eukaryotes. A detailed analysis of altered segments of DNA conservatively estimates that there are several hundred CNV sequences among the two genotypes, as well as several thousand PAV sequences that are present in B73 but not Mo17. Haplotype-specific PAVs contain hundreds of single-copy, expressed genes that may contribute to heterosis and to the extraordinary phenotypic diversity of this important crop.
    PLoS Genetics 11/2009; 5(11):e1000734. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We systematically generated large-scale data sets to improve genome annotation for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a key model organism. These data sets include transcriptome profiling across a developmental time course, genome-wide identification of transcription factor–binding sites, and maps of chromatin organization. From this, we created more complete and accurate gene models, including alternative splice forms and candidate noncoding RNAs. We constructed hierarchical networks of transcription factor–binding and microRNA interactions and discovered chromosomal locations bound by an unusually large number of transcription factors. Different patterns of chromatin composition and histone modification were revealed between chromosome arms and centers, with similarly prominent differences between autosomes and the X chromosome. Integrating data types, we built statistical models relating chromatin, transcription factor binding, and gene expression. Overall, our analyses ascribed putative functions to most of the conserved genome.
    Science (New York, N.Y.), v.330, 1775-1787 (2010).