[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is classified in CRS without nasal polyp (CRSsNP) and CRS with nasal polyp (CRSwNP) in western countries, whereas this classification was not common so far in Japan. Studying inflammatory mediators in clearly defined disease subgroups may lead to a better differentiation of chronic sinus diseases.
Homogenates of sinonasal mucosal tissue from 14 controls, 9 CRSsNP patients, and 19 CRSwNP patients were assayed for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, interleukin (IL)-5, immunoglobulin E (IgE), Staphylococcus enterotoxin (SAE)-IgE, eosinophil-catioic protein (ECP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or UNICAP system.
CRSwNP had significantly higher levels of IL-5, IgE, SAE-IgE, and ECP compared with CRSsNP and controls. CRSsNP was characterized by high levels of TGF-β, while CRSwNP showed a Th2 polarization and lower levels of TGF-β. Especially, in CRSwNP samples, 68.4% were eosinophilic (ECP/MPO ratio >1), and 52.6% were SAE-IgE positive. On the other hand, in 9 CRSsNP patients, eosinophilic or SAE-IgE positive sample was only one sample respectively. Additionally, 31.6% of CRSwNP were asthmatic patients, while none of CRSsNP patient was suffering from bronchial asthma.
This study is thought to be the first one that showed the cytokine profiles in Japanese CRSs/wNP similar to those of European CRS. Based on mediator profiles, we suggest that CRSsNP and CRSwNP are distinct disease entities within the group of chronic sinus diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)-a systemic autosomal dominant disorder adversely affecting skin, mucous membranes, and visceral blood vessels-typically shows epistaxis. In this pathological condition, even minor stimulation may cause bleeding and hemostasis is unlikely to occur. Subjects with HHT showing severe nasal bleeding require nasal dermoplasty (ND). We report our experience in 22 cases of HHT undergoing ND seen from January 2000 to November 2009. Average age at surgery was 55.8 years. Since April 2008, we modified ND, cut the harvested skin graft from the lateral thigh in halves and spread each strip on the anterior halves of the nasal cavity. Placement was circumferential in the sequence of agger nasi, nasal valve, septum, floor, and inferior turbinate. Before this technique was used, bleeding could not be controlled in 3 of 14 cases. Two of the 3 had histories of arterial embolization. Subjects undergoing the new technique have enjoyed improved quality of life.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasal dermoplasty is effective in controlling epistaxis in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Skin graft take failure occurs mostly in cases of large septal perforation. The MW method was developed as a modification of nasal dermoplasty designed for patients with HHT having a large septal perforation. It seems to be a safe and effective approach and should be tried for recurrent bleeders with septal perforation.
The Laryngoscope 08/2011; 121(8):1715-7. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent epistaxis as a manifestation of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is usually difficult to control. Although no treatment is regarded to be completely efficacious, nostril closure is considered a modality of choice for the most severe cases. The cessation of airflow resulting from this procedure can stop bleeding by minimizing risk factors. However, loss of nasal functions is a disadvantage of nostril closure. We conducted a questionnaire survey of patients who underwent nostril closure surgery, regarding the effects and disadvantages of the operation.
Seven patients were asked questions on issues including frequency and severity of epistaxis pre- and post-operatively, satisfaction of treatment, and impairment in daily living activities.
Most patients reported complete cessation of bleeding. Some still had bleeding, but the frequency and severity were far lower. No transfusions were required in any of the cases. Patients reported some disadvantages, for example, respiratory, olfactory, and phonatory issues. Six out of seven patients were very satisfied with the outcome of surgery.
Nostril closure surgery can remarkably reduce frequency and volume of epistaxis. Our survey indicated that satisfactory results were achieved. However, difficulties caused by complete nasal obstruction varied. Thus, individualized coping strategies are required.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasal polyps are one of the most common findings of physical examination in the otolaryngology area and the experimental model of nasal polyps in the rabbit maxillary sinus is helpful for clarifying the mechanism of polyp formation. Several protocols have been reported for this model, but most of them involved infectious polyps without eosinophil infiltration. We have attempted to establish a novel rabbit model of polyps associated with eosinophil infiltration.
Rabbits were either untreated (group A) or sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA; groups B-D). After repeated exposure to OVA, some animals further received valine-glycine-serine-glutamine (group C) or poly-L-arginine (group D) in their maxillary sinuses for 4 weeks. Subsequently, sinus tissues were dissected and subjected to histological analysis. The changes in mRNA expression were analyzed by DNA microarray.
Remarkable histological changes were observed in groups C and D but not in group B in eosinophil number in the maxillary sinus mucosa, the width of the lamina propria, and polyp scoring. These changes in group D were greater than those in group C. DNA microarray analysis revealed that up-regulated genes in group D included those related to inflammation and extracellular matrix metabolism. On the other hand, down-regulated genes in group D involved those related to anti-inflammation.
Our results indicate that treatment with inflammatory agents, in combination with an antigen-dependent immune response, could induce nasal polyp formation associated with eosinophil infiltration and mucosal hypertrophy. The gene expression profile supported the clinical relevance of this model.
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy 09/2010; 24(5):341-7.