[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purinergic receptors belong to the most ancient neurotransmitter system. While their relevance in neurotransmission is well characterized, it has become clear that they have many other cellular functions. During development, they participate in regulation of proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Here, we used rat embryonic telencephalon neurosphere cultures to detect purinergic P2 receptor subtype expression and possible synergistic actions of these receptors with NGF. Neurospheres proliferate in the presence of EGF and FGF-2; however, upon depletion of these growth factors, they migrate and differentiate into neurons and glial phenotypes. Expression patterns of P2X and P2Y receptors changed along neural differentiation. Gene expression of P2X2-7 and P2Y1,2,4,6,12,14 receptors was confirmed in undifferentiated and neural-differentiated neurospheres, with an up-regulation of P2X2 and P2X6 subtypes, together with a down-regulation of P2X4, P2X7 and P2Y subtypes upon induction to differentiation. BrdU-labeling and subsequent flow cytometry analysis was used to measure cell proliferation, which was increased by chronic exposure to NGF and increasing concentrations of ATP, in line with the expression levels of PCNA. Furthermore, a synergistic effect on proliferation was observed in conditions of co-incubation with ATP and NGF. While ATP and NGF independently promoted neural migration, no inter-relation between these factors was detected for this cellular process. As conclusion, an unknown synergism of ATP and NGF in proliferation is described. Future efforts may elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the interrelationship of ATP and NGF during neurogenesis.
Neurochemical Research 08/2015; 40(9). DOI:10.1007/s11064-015-1674-2 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hybrid scaffolds made of xanthan and magnetite nanoparticles (XCA/mag) were prepared by dipping xanthan membranes (XCA) into dispersions of magnetic nanoparticles for different periods of time. The resulting hybrid scaffolds presented magnetization values ranging from 0.25 emu g(-1) to 1.80 emu g(-1) at 70 kOe and corresponding iron contents ranging from 0.25% to 2.3%, respectively. They were applied as matrices for in vitro embryoid body adhesion and neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells; for comparison, neat XCA and commercial plastic plates were also used. Adhesion rates were more pronounced when cells were seeded on XCA/mag than on neat XCA or plastic dishes; however, proliferation levels were independent from those of the scaffold type. Embryonic stem cells showed similar differentiation rates on XCA/mag scaffolds with magnetization of 0.25 and 0.60 emu g(-1), but did not survive on scaffolds with 1.80 emu g(-1). Differentiation rates, expressed as the number of neurons obtained on the chosen scaffolds, were the largest on neat XCA, which has a high density of negative charge, and were smallest on the commercial plastic dishes. The local magnetic field inherent of magnetite particles present on the surface of XCA/mag facilitates synapse formation, because synaptophysin expression and electrical transmission were increased when compared to the other scaffolds used. We conclude that XCA/mag and XCA hydrogels are scaffolds with distinguishable performance for adhesion and differentiation of ESCs into neurons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The central and peripheral nervous system is built by a network of many different neuronal phenotypes together with glial and other supporting cells. The repertoire of expressed receptors and secreted neurotransmitters and neuromodulators are unique for each single neuron leading to intracellular signaling cascades, many of them involving intracellular calcium signaling. Here we suggest the use of calcium signaling analysis upon specific agonist application to reliably identify neuronal phenotypes, being important not only for basic science, but also providing a reliable tool for functional characterization of cells prior to transplantation. Calcium imaging provides various cellular information including signaling amplitudes, cell localization, duration, and frequency. Microfluorimetry reveals a signal summarizing the entire population, and its use is indicated for high-throughput screening purposes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies, participate in intercellular communication, and particularly, in paracrine and endocrine signalling. The EVs and their specific contents have been considered hallmarks of different diseases. It has been recently discovered that EVs can co-transport nucleic acids such as DNAs, ribosomal RNAs, circular RNAs (circRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lnRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, although they may also play other roles. Recent evidence supports the hypothesis that miRNAs can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) under certain circumstances. TLRs belong to a multigene family of immune system receptors and have been recently described in the nervous system. In the immune system, TLRs are important for the recognition of the invading microorganisms, whereas in the nervous system, they recognise endogenous ligands released by undifferentiated or necrotic/injured cells. In the neuronal disease field, TLRs activity has been associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), stroke, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Herein, we reviewed the current knowledge of the relationship between miRNA release by EVs and the inflammation signalling triggered by TLRs in neighbouring cells or during long-distance cell-to-cell communication. We highlight novel aspects of this communication mechanism, offering a valuable insight into such pathways in health and disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kallikrein‐kinin system (KKS) is an endogenous pathway involved in many biological processes. Although primarily related to blood pressure control and inflammation, its activation goes beyond these effects. Neurogenesis and neuroprotection might be stimulated by bradykinin
being of great interest for clinical applications following brain injury. This peptide is also an important player in spinal cord injury pathophysiology and recovery, in which bradykinin receptor blockers represent substantial therapeutic potential. Here, we highlight the participation of
kinin receptors and especially bradykinin in mediating ischemia pathophysiology in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, we explore the recent advances on mechanistic and therapeutic targets for biological, pathological, and neural repair processes involving kinins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition has been described as the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP)-evoked toxicity. OPs represent a human health threat, because chronic exposure to low doses can damage the developing brain, and acute exposure can produce long-lasting damage to adult brains, despite post-exposure medical countermeasures. Although the main mechanism of OP toxicity is AChE inhibition, several lines of evidence suggest that OPs also act by other mechanisms. We hypothesized that rat neural progenitor cells extracted on embryonic day 14.5 would be affected by constant inhibition of AChE from chronic exposure to OP or pyridostigmine (a reversible AChE blocker) during differentiation. In this work, the OP paraoxon decreased cell viability in concentrations >50 μM, as measured with the MTT assay; however, this effect was not dose-dependent. Reduced viability could not be attributed to blockade of AChE activity, since treatment with 200 µM pyridostigmine did not affect cell viability, even after 6 days. Although changes in protein expression patterns were noted in both treatments, the distribution of differentiated phenotypes, such as the percentages of neurons and glial cells, was not altered, as determined by flow cytometry. Since paraoxon and pyridostigmine each decreased neurite outgrowth (but did not prevent differentiation), we infer that developmental patterns may have been affected.
Neurochemical Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11064-015-1548-7 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When retinal cell cultures were mechanically scratched, cell growth over the empty area was observed. Only dividing and migrating, 2 M6-positive glial cells were detected. Incubation of cultures with apyrase (APY), suramin, or Reactive Blue 2 (RB-2), but not MRS 2179, significantly attenuated the growth of glial cells, suggesting that nucleotide receptors other than P2Y1 are involved in the growth of glial cells. UTPγS but not ADPβS antagonized apyrase-induced growth inhibition in scratched cultures, suggesting the participation of UTP-sensitive receptors. No decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA(+)) cells was observed at the border of the scratch in apyrase-treated cultures, suggesting that glial proliferation was not affected. In apyrase-treated cultures, glial cytoplasm protrusions were smaller and unstable. Actin filaments were less organized and alfa-tubulin-labeled microtubules were mainly parallel to scratch. In contrast to control cultures, very few vinculin-labeled adhesion sites could be noticed in these cultures. Increased Akt and ERK phosphorylation was observed in UTP-treated cultures, effect that was inhibited by SRC inhibitor 1 and PI3K blocker LY294002. These inhibitors and the FAK inhibitor PF573228 also decreased glial growth over the scratch, suggesting participation of SRC, PI3K, and FAK in UTP-induced growth of glial cells in scratched cultures. RB-2 decreased dissociated glial cell attachment to fibronectin-coated dishes and migration through transwell membranes, suggesting that nucleotides regulated adhesion and migration of glial cells. In conclusion, mechanical scratch of retinal cell cultures induces growth of glial cells over the empty area through a mechanism that is dependent on activation of UTP-sensitive receptors, SRC, PI3K, and FAK.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CONTENTS 1. Introduction 1 1.1. Brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) 1 1.2. Cancer stem cell (CSC) paradigm 2 1.3. GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) 4 2. Isolation methodologies of GSCs 4 2.1. SP and ABC transporters 5 2.2. Isolation based on biomarkers 5 2.2.1. CD133 5 2.2.2. ALDH 5 2.2.3. Aptamers 5 3. Enrichment of GSC cultures 6 3.1. Effects of medium and substrates 6 3.2. Effects of hypoxia 7 3.3. Effects of endothelial cells 8 3.4. Effects of pericyte cells 9 3.5. Effects of immunosuppressed animals 9 4. Validation of the GSC phenotype 10 4.1. Sphere-formation assay 10 4.2. Tumor formation in vivo 10 4.3. Expression of biomarkers 11 4.4. Chemoresistance assay 11 4.5. Differentiation assay 12 5. Conclusions 12 Acknowledgments 13 References 13 Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) stem-like cells (GSCs) represent the most undifferentiated state of malignant cells with distinct biological characteristics. The fraction of these cells within a glial brain tumor, ranging from 2–30%, is correlating with the increasing WHO stage and poor prognosis of patients' survival. GSCs represent the least vulnerable, thus most preferential target cell population to be exposed to various therapeutic modalities, although the underlying mechanisms of this resistance are not yet fully understood. For the development of GSC-targeting therapies, further in depth studies are needed using enriched and stable GSC cell populations. Here, we discuss the current approaches of GSC isolation and validation based on expression of stemness and oncogenic markers as well as on functional assays. The enrichment of GSC phenotypes in established cell lines and/or primary tumor cultures, achieved by different strategies, is reviewed, providing a comprehensive comparison of selected studies and contemplating the characterization of the plethora of variants of reported GBM population exhibiting the GSC phenotype. ABBREVIATIONS: Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) Brain tumor initiating cells (BTIC) Cancer stem cell (CSC) Epidermal growth factor (EGF) Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) Glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSC) Iso-dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) Neural progenitor cell (NPC) Neural stem cell (NSC) O-6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) Temozolomide (TMZ)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uric acid and purines (such as adenosine) regulate mood, sleep, activity, appetite, cognition, memory, convulsive threshold, social interaction, drive, and impulsivity. A link between purinergic dysfunction and mood disorders was first proposed a century ago. Interestingly, a recent nationwide population-based study showed elevated risk of gout in subjects with bipolar disorder (BD), and a recent meta-analysis and systematic review of placebo-controlled trials of adjuvant purinergic modulators confirmed their benefits in bipolar mania. Uric acid may modulate energy and activity levels, with higher levels associated with higher energy and BD spectrum. Several recent genetic studies suggest that the purinergic system - particularly the modulation of P1 and P2 receptor subtypes - plays a role in mood disorders, lending credence to this model. Nucleotide concentrations can be measured using brain spectroscopy, and ligands for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of adenosine (P1) receptors have been developed, thus allowing potential target engagement studies. This review discusses the key role of the purinergic system in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Focusing on this promising therapeutic target may lead to the development of therapies with antidepressant, mood stabilization, and cognitive effects.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 11/2014; PMID: 25445063. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.10.016 · 3.69 Impact Factor