Heidi Krause-Steinrauf

University of Miami, كورال غيبلز، فلوريدا, Florida, United States

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Publications (32)218.28 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. To assess the morbidity of herpes viruses in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) enrolled in immunosuppressive treatment studies.Methods. EBV, CMV, HSV and VZV infections were monitored in 126 participants of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of daclizumab (DZB) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) including DZB+MMF+, DZB-MMF+, DZB+MMF- and DZB-MMF-. During the 2-year follow-up, herpesviral infections were monitored clinically, by serology and blood DNA PCR.Results and Conclusions. Among 57 baseline EBV-seronegative participants, 9 developed EBV primary infections, including 2 with infectious mononucleosis syndrome. There were no appreciable differences in the course of the primary EBV infections across treatment groups. Among 69 baseline EBV-seropositive participants, 22 had virologic reactivations, including one symptomatic DZB-MMF+ subject. Compared with 7 DZB-MMF- EBV reactivators, the 9 DZB+MMF+ reactivators tended to have more prolonged viremia (11.4 vs. 4.4 months; p=0.06) and higher cumulative viral burden (14.2 vs. 12.5 log EBV c/ml; p=0.06). Four of 85 baseline CMV-seronegative subjects developed asymptomatic primary CMV infections. There were no CMV reactivations. Of 30 baseline HSV-seropositive subjects, 8 developed ≥1 episode of herpes labialis; 1 subject had a primary HSV infection; and 1 subject without baseline serology information had a new diagnosis of genital HSV. There were no significant differences in the incidence of HSV recurrences across treatment groups. Of 100 baseline VZV-seropositive subjects, one DZB-MMF- subject developed herpes zoster and one DZB-MMF+ subject had Bell's palsy possibly related to VZV. In conclusion, DZB ±MMF was not associated with increased morbidity due to herpes viruses.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 10/2012; · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interpretation of clinical trials to alter the decline in β-cell function after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes depends on a robust understanding of the natural history of disease. Combining data from the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet studies, we describe the natural history of β-cell function from shortly after diagnosis through 2 years post study randomization, assess the degree of variability between patients, and investigate factors that may be related to C-peptide preservation or loss. We found that 93% of individuals have detectable C-peptide 2 years from diagnosis. In 11% of subjects, there was no significant fall from baseline by 2 years. There was a biphasic decline in C-peptide; the C-peptide slope was -0.0245 pmol/mL/month (95% CI -0.0271 to -0.0215) through the first 12 months and -0.0079 (-0.0113 to -0.0050) from 12 to 24 months (P < 0.001). This pattern of fall in C-peptide over time has implications for understanding trial results in which effects of therapy are most pronounced early and raises the possibility that there are time-dependent differences in pathophysiology. The robust data on the C-peptide obtained under clinical trial conditions should be used in planning and interpretation of clinical trials.
    Diabetes 06/2012; 61(8):2066-73. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: B-lymphocyte depletion with rituximab has been shown to benefit patients with various autoimmune diseases. We have previously demonstrated that this benefit is also apparent in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. The effect of rituximab on in vivo antibody responses, particularly during the period of B-lymphocyte depletion, is incompletely determined. This study was designed to assess this knowledge void. In patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes treated with rituximab (n = 46) or placebo (n = 29), antibody responses to neoantigen phiX174 during B-lymphocyte depletion and with hepatitis A (as a second neoantigen) and tetanus/diphtheria (as recall antigens) after B-lymphocyte recovery were studied. Anti- tetanus, diphtheria, mumps, measles, and rubella titers were measured before and after treatment by means of ELISA. Antibody titers and percentage IgM versus percentage IgG to phiX174 were measured by means of phage neutralization. B-lymphocyte subsets were determined by means of flow cytometry. No change occurred in preexisting antibody titers. Tetanus/diphtheria and hepatitis A immunization responses were protective in the rituximab-treated subjects, although significantly blunted compared with those seen in the controls subjects, when immunized at the time of B-lymphocyte recovery. Anti-phiX174 responses were severely reduced during the period of B-lymphocyte depletion, but with B-lymphocyte recovery, anti-phiX174 responses were within the normal range. During the time of B-lymphocyte depletion, rituximab recipients had a decreased antibody response to neoantigens and significantly lower titers after recall immunization with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. With recovery, immune responses return toward normal. Immunization during the time of B-lymphocyte depletion, although ineffective, does not preclude a subsequent response to the antigen.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 09/2011; 128(6):1295-1302.e5. · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is believed to be due to the autoimmune destruction of β-cells by T lymphocytes, but a single course of rituximab, a monoclonal anti-CD20 B lymphocyte Ab, can attenuate C-peptide loss over the first year of disease. The effects of B cell depletion on disease-associated T cell responses have not been studied. We compare changes in lymphocyte subsets, T cell proliferative responses to disease-associated target Ags, and C-peptide levels of participants who did (responders) or did not (nonresponders) show signs of β-cell preservation 1 y after rituximab therapy in a placebo-controlled TrialNet trial. Rituximab decreased B lymphocyte levels after four weekly doses of mAb. T cell proliferative responses to diabetes-associated Ags were present at baseline in 75% of anti-CD20- and 82% of placebo-treated subjects and were not different over time. However, in rituximab-treated subjects with significant C-peptide preservation at 6 mo (58%), the proliferative responses to diabetes-associated total (p = 0.032), islet-specific (p = 0.048), and neuronal autoantigens (p = 0.005) increased over the 12-mo observation period. This relationship was not seen in placebo-treated patients. We conclude that in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, anti-B cell mAb causes increased proliferative responses to diabetes Ags and attenuated β-cell loss. The way in which these responses affect the disease course remains unknown.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2011; 187(4):1998-2005. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The TrialNet Study Group evaluated rituximab, a B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody, for its effect in new-onset patients with type 1A diabetes. Rituximab decreased the loss of C-peptide over the first year of follow-up and markedly depleted B lymphocytes for 6 months after administration. This article analyzes the specific effect of rituximab on multiple islet autoantibodies. A total of 87 patients between the ages of 8 and 40 years received either rituximab or a placebo infusion weekly for four doses close to the onset of diabetes. Autoantibodies to insulin (IAAs), GAD65 (GADAs), insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA2As), and ZnT8 (ZnT8As) were measured with radioimmunoassays. The primary outcome for this autoantibody analysis was the mean level of autoantibodies during follow-up. Rituximab markedly suppressed IAAs compared with the placebo injection but had a much smaller effect on GADAs, IA2As, and ZnT8As. A total of 40% (19 of 48) of rituximab-treated patients who were IAA positive became IAA negative versus 0 of 29 placebo-treated patients (P < 0.0001). In the subgroup (n = 6) treated within 50 days of diabetes, IAAs were markedly suppressed by rituximab in all patients for 1 year and for four patients as long as 3 years despite continuing insulin therapy. Independent of rituximab treatment, the mean level of IAAs at study entry was markedly lower (P = 0.035) for patients who maintained C-peptide levels during the first year of follow-up in both rituximab-treated and placebo groups. A single course of rituximab differentially suppresses IAAs, clearly blocking IAAs for >1 year in insulin-treated patients. For the patients receiving insulin for >2 weeks prior to rituximab administration, we cannot assess whether rituximab not only blocks the acquisition of insulin antibodies induced by insulin administration and/or also suppresses preformed insulin autoantibodies. Studies in prediabetic non-insulin-treated patients will likely be needed to evaluate the specific effects of rituximab on levels of IAAs.
    Diabetes 08/2011; 60(10):2560-5. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed whether differing autoantibody screening criteria for type 1 diabetes (T1D) prevention trials result in different baseline metabolic profiles of those who screen positive. Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) participants were screened for islet cell autoantibodies, whereas TrialNet Natural History Study (TNNHS) participants were screened for biochemical autoantibodies. In both studies, those determined to be autoantibody positive underwent baseline oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in which glucose and C-peptide were measured. The percentage of those with an OGTT in the diabetic range was higher among the DPT-1 participants (10.0% of 956 vs. 6.4% of 645, p < 0.01). In a logistic regression analysis with adjustments for age and gender, the difference persisted (p < 0.01). Among those in the non-diabetic range (n = 860 for DPT-1 and n = 604 for the TNNHS), glucose levels were similar at all time points, except for higher fasting glucose levels in the TNNHS participants (p < 0.001). There was a higher percentage of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in the TNNHS participants (10.9 vs. 6.7%, p < 0.01); however, with adjustments for age and gender, there was no longer a significant difference. There was no significant difference in the percentages with impaired glucose tolerance. C-peptide levels were much lower in the DPT-1 cohort at all OGTT time points (p < 0.001 for all). Differing criteria for autoantibody screening can result in marked differences in the baseline metabolic profiles of prospective participants of T1D prevention trials.
    Pediatric Diabetes 03/2011; 12(2):85-90. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This trial tested whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) alone or with daclizumab (DZB) could arrest the loss of insulin-producing beta-cells in subjects with new-onset type 1 diabetes. A multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked trial was initiated by Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet at 13 sites in North America and Europe. Subjects diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and with sufficient C-peptide within 3 months of diagnosis were randomized to either MMF alone, MMF plus DZB, or placebo, and then followed for 2 years. The primary outcome was the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide from the 2-h mixed meal tolerance test. One hundred and twenty-six subjects were randomized and treated during the trial. The geometric mean C-peptide AUC at 2 years was unaffected by MMF alone or MMF plus DZB versus placebo. Adverse events were more frequent in the active therapy groups relative to the control group, but not significantly. Neither MMF alone nor MMF in combination with DZB had an effect on the loss of C-peptide in subjects with new-onset type 1 diabetes. Higher doses or more targeted immunotherapies may be needed to affect the autoimmune process.
    Diabetes care 04/2010; 33(4):826-32. · 7.74 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Immunology 01/2010; 135. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with T-lymphocyte autoimmunity. However, there is growing evidence that B lymphocytes play a role in many T-lymphocyte-mediated diseases. It is possible to achieve selective depletion of B lymphocytes with rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. This phase 2 study evaluated the role of B-lymphocyte depletion in patients with type 1 diabetes. We conducted a randomized, double-blind study in which 87 patients between 8 and 40 years of age who had newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes were assigned to receive infusions of rituximab or placebo on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of the study. The primary outcome, assessed 1 year after the first infusion, was the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC) for the serum C-peptide level during the first 2 hours of a mixed-meal tolerance test. Secondary outcomes included safety and changes in the glycated hemoglobin level and insulin dose. At 1 year, the mean AUC for the level of C peptide was significantly higher in the rituximab group than in the placebo group. The rituximab group also had significantly lower levels of glycated hemoglobin and required less insulin. Between 3 months and 12 months, the rate of decline in C-peptide levels in the rituximab group was significantly less than that in the placebo group. CD19+ B lymphocytes were depleted in patients in the rituximab group, but levels increased to 69% of baseline values at 12 months. More patients in the rituximab group than in the placebo group had adverse events, mostly grade 1 or grade 2, after the first infusion. The reactions appeared to be minimal with subsequent infusions. There was no increase in infections or neutropenia with rituximab. A four-dose course of rituximab partially preserved beta-cell function over a period of 1 year in patients with type 1 diabetes. The finding that B lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes may open a new pathway for exploration in the treatment of patients with this condition. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00279305.)
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/2009; 361(22):2143-52. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adrenergic activation is an important determinant of outcomes in chronic heart failure. Adrenergic activity is regulated in part by prejunctional alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptors (ARs), which exhibit genetic variation in humans. Bucindolol is a novel beta-AR blocking agent that also lowers systemic norepinephrine and thus is also a sympatholytic agent. This study investigated whether alpha(2C)-AR polymorphisms affect sympatholytic effects of bucindolol in patients with heart failure. In the beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial, adrenergic activation was estimated by systemic venous norepinephrine measured at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months posttreatment in patients treated with placebo or bucindolol. In the beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial AR polymorphism substudy, DNA was collected from 1040 of the 2708 randomized patients, and alpha(2C)-AR gene polymorphisms (alpha(2C) Del322-325 or the wild-type counterpart) were measured by polymerase chain reaction and gel electrophoresis. Patients who were alpha(2C) Del carriers (heterozygotes or homozygotes) exhibited a much greater sympatholytic response to bucindolol (decrease in norepinephrine at 3 months of 153+/-57 pg/mL, P=0.012 compared with placebo versus decrease of 50+/-13 pg/mL in alpha(2C) wild type, P=0.0005 versus placebo; P=0.010 by interaction test). alpha(2C) Del carriers had no evidence of a favorable survival benefit from bucindolol (mortality compared with placebo hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.57 to 2.08; P=0.80), whereas bucindolol-treated subjects who were wild type for the alpha(2C)-AR had a 30% reduction in mortality (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.96; P=0.025). In the beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial AR polymorphism substudy, the norepinephrine lowering and clinical therapeutic responses to bucindolol were strongly influenced by alpha(2C) receptor genotype.
    Circulation Heart Failure 10/2009; 3(1):21-8. · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to describe a pilot trial of using an omega-3 fatty acid (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) to prevent islet cell autoimmunity in infants with an increased risk for developing type 1 diabetes (T1D). Infants from pregnant mothers who either have T1D (or the father or a previous child has T1D) and who entered the study in the third trimester or infants younger than age 5 months having a first-degree family member with T1D were eligible for the study. Infants from either group also had to have an increased genetic (HLA) risk for T1D (or multiple first-degree relatives with T1D) to be eligible. The study is a multicenter, 2-arm, randomized, double-masked clinical trial that will last 4 years (1 year of recruitment and 3 years of treatment). Treatment with DHA (or control) began in the last trimester of pregnancy or in the first 5 months after birth. Inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, eicosanoids, and C-reactive protein, are being measured along with fatty acids in maternal and infant blood. Ninety-eight infants were enrolled (41 during pregnancy and 57 in the 5 months after birth). HLA results of the 97 eligible infants (1 infant had a protective 0602 allele and was thus ineligible) showed that 90 have DR3 and/or DR4. Seven infants were enrolled without DR3/4 but who instead had multiple first-degree relatives with T1D. Compliance has been excellent, and no families have discontinued participation. Intervention trials in this high-risk group are feasible but require significant effort to identify potential participants.
    ICAN Infant Child & Adolescent Nutrition 01/2009; 1(2):98-107.
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    ABSTRACT: TrialNet's goal to test preventions for type 1 diabetes has created an opportunity to gain new insights into the natural history of pre-type 1 diabetes. The TrialNet Natural History Study (NHS) will assess the predictive value of existing and novel risk markers for type 1 diabetes and will find subjects for prevention trials. The NHS is a three-phase, prospective cohort study. In phase 1 (screening), pancreatic autoantibodies (glutamic acid decarboxylase, insulin, ICA-512, and islet cell antibodies) are measured. Phase 2 (baseline risk assessment) includes oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in antibody-positive subjects and estimation of 5-yr diabetes risks according to the OGTT and number of confirmed positive antibody tests. Phase 3 (follow-up risk assessments) requires OGTTs every 6 months. In phases 2 and 3, samples are collected for future tests of T-lymphocyte function, autoantibody isotypes, RNA gene expression, and proteomics. The primary outcome is diabetes onset. Of 12 636 relatives screened between March 2004 and December 2006, 605 (4.8%) were positive for at least one biochemical antibody. Of these, 322 were confirmed antibody positive and completed phase 2, of whom 296 subjects were given preliminary 5-yr diabetes risks of <25% (n = 132), > or =25% (n = 36), and > or =50% (n = 128) where the latter two categories represent different subjects based on number of confirmed positive antibodies (2, > or =25%; 3 or more, > or =50%) and/or an abnormal OGTT (> or =50%). The NHS is identifying potential prevention trial subjects and is assembling a large cohort that will provide new natural history information about pre-type 1 diabetes. Follow-up to diabetes will help establish the biological significance and clinical value of novel type 1 diabetes risk markers.
    Pediatric Diabetes 10/2008; 10(2):97-104. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serial neurohormones may serve as markers of efficacy of congestive heart failure (CHF) therapy. We measured serial plasma big-endothelin (Big-ET), ET-1, N-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in 206 patients randomized to bucindolol or placebo in Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST). Neurohormones were measured at baseline and 3 and 12 months. At baseline, BNP and Big-ET levels were greater in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class IV than in Class III patients (median 122 pg/mL versus 447 pg/mL, P = .001; and 20.0 pg/mL versus 9.9 pg/mL, P = .003), and in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < or = 20% compared with LVEF > 20% (median 211 pg/mL versus 99.1 pg/mL; and 12.9 pg/mL versus 8.0 pg/mL, both P = .003). Big-ET and BNP were the strongest predictors of the composite end point of CHF hospitalization or death. LVEF at 12 months correlated inversely with 12-month BNP levels (r = -0.41, P = .0001). Bucindolol had no effect on neurohormones except that bucindolol treated patients had lower Big-ET levels at 3 months than patients receiving placebo (median 9.1 pg/mL versus 10.9 pg/mL, P = .05). A decline in ET-1 was associated with increased risk of the composite endpoint. Lack of effect of bucindolol on natriuretic peptide levels appears consistent with its overall lack of efficacy in BEST.
    Journal of cardiac failure 08/2007; 13(6):437-44. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heterogeneity of heart failure (HF) phenotypes indicates contributions from underlying common polymorphisms. We considered polymorphisms in the beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR), a beta-blocker target, as candidate pharmacogenomic loci. Transfected cells, genotyped human nonfailing and failing ventricles, and a clinical trial were used to ascertain phenotype and mechanism. In nonfailing and failing isolated ventricles, beta(1)-Arg-389 had respective 2.8 +/- 0.3- and 4.3 +/- 2.1-fold greater agonist-promoted contractility vs. beta(1)-Gly-389, defining enhanced physiologic coupling under relevant conditions of endogenous expression and HF. The beta-blocker bucindolol was an inverse agonist in failing Arg, but not Gly, ventricles, without partial agonist activity at either receptor; carvedilol was a genotype-independent neutral antagonist. In transfected cells, bucindolol antagonized agonist-stimulated cAMP, with a greater absolute decrease observed for Arg-389 (435 +/- 80 vs. 115 +/- 23 fmol per well). Potential pathophysiologic correlates were assessed in a placebo-controlled trial of bucindolol in 1,040 HF patients. No outcome was associated with genotype in the placebo group, indicating little impact on the natural course of HF. However, the Arg-389 homozygotes treated with bucindolol had an age-, sex-, and race-adjusted 38% reduction in mortality (P = 0.03) and 34% reduction in mortality or hospitalization (P = 0.004) vs. placebo. In contrast, Gly-389 carriers had no clinical response to bucindolol compared with placebo. Those with Arg-389 and high baseline norepinephrine levels trended toward improved survival, but no advantage with this allele and exaggerated sympatholysis was identified. We conclude that beta(1)AR-389 variation alters signaling in multiple models and affects the beta-blocker therapeutic response in HF and, thus, might be used to individualize treatment of the syndrome.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2006; 103(30):11288-93. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients who had advanced heart failure and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) in the beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST) and to investigate whether bucindolol alters the risk of developing nonfatal MI. Of the 2,708 patients enrolled in the study, 142 had suspected MI and 69 had confirmed MI; there were 860 deaths overall. The rate of nonfatal MI in the BEST was low over the 4.1 years of follow-up (4.8% had suspected events and 2.4% had adjudicated events) and was similar to that in high-risk populations. Cox's proportional hazard model with 23 prespecified candidate variables associated advanced age, heart failure symptoms, male gender, ischemic etiology, diabetes, and hypertension with nonfatal MI or cardiovascular death. The 2-year mortality rate was 56% for the cohort that had suspected nonfatal MI versus 30% for the cohort that did not (p = 0.01). Likewise, the risk of hospitalization for congestive heart failure was twofold greater. Beta-blocker therapy with bucindolol resulted in a 52% decrease in suspected nonfatal MI (2.9% vs 5.5%, p = 0.001). In conclusion, nonfatal MI occurs at low rates but increases the risks for mortality and hospitalization in patients who have advanced heart failure. Beta-blocker therapy with bucindolol appears to attenuate the risk of nonfatal MI in this population.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 04/2005; 95(5):558-64. · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • M. R. Bristow, H. Krause-Steinrauf, R. Nuzzo
    ACC Current Journal Review 01/2005; 14(2):36-36.
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    ABSTRACT: Adrenergic activation is thought to be an important determinant of outcome in subjects with chronic heart failure (CHF), but baseline or serial changes in adrenergic activity have not been previously investigated in a large patient sample treated with a powerful antiadrenergic agent. Systemic venous norepinephrine was measured at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months in the beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST), which compared placebo treatment with the beta-blocker/sympatholytic agent bucindolol. Baseline norepinephrine level was associated with a progressive increase in rates of death or death plus CHF hospitalization that was independent of treatment group. On multivariate analysis, baseline norepinephrine was also a highly significant (P<0.001) independent predictor of death. In contrast, the relation of the change in norepinephrine at 3 months to subsequent clinical outcomes was complex and treatment group-dependent. In the placebo-treated group but not in the bucindolol-treated group, marked norepinephrine increase at 3 months was associated with increased subsequent risks of death or death plus CHF hospitalization. In the bucindolol-treated group but not in the placebo-treated group, the 1st quartile of marked norepinephrine reduction was associated with an increased mortality risk. A likelihood-based method indicated that 18% of the bucindolol group but only 1% of the placebo group were at an increased risk for death related to marked reduction in norepinephrine at 3 months. In BEST, a subset of patients treated with bucindolol had an increased risk of death as the result of sympatholysis, which compromised the efficacy of this third-generation beta-blocker.
    Circulation 10/2004; 110(11):1437-42. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine the influence of gender on baseline characteristics, response to treatment, and prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF) and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Under-representation of women in HF clinical trials has limited our understanding of gender-related differences in patients with HF. The impact of gender was assessed in the Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST) which randomized 2,708 patients with New York Heart Association class III/IV and LVEF < or =0.35 to bucindolol versus placebo. Women (n = 593) were compared with men (n = 2,115). Mean follow-up period was two years. Significant differences in baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics were found. Women were younger, more likely to be black, had a higher prevalence of nonischemic etiology, higher right and left ventricular ejection fraction, higher heart rate, greater cardiothoracic ratio, higher prevalence of left bundle branch block, lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation, and lower plasma norepinephrine level. Ischemic etiology and measures of severity of HF were found to be predictors of prognosis in women and men. However, differences in the predictive values of various variables were noted; most notably, coronary artery disease and LVEF appear to be stronger predictors of prognosis in women. In the nonischemic patients, women had a significantly better survival rate compared with men. In HF patients with impaired LVEF, significant gender differences are present, and the prognostic predictive values of some variables vary in magnitude between women and men. The survival advantage of women is confined to patients with nonischemic etiology.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2003; 42(12):2128-34. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent large randomized, controlled trials (BEST [Beta-blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial], CIBIS-II [Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Trial II], COPERNICUS [Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival Study], and MERIT-HF [Metoprolol Randomized Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure]) have addressed the usefulness of beta-blockade in the treatment of advanced heart failure. CIBIS-II, COPERNICUS, and MERIT-HF have shown that beta-blocker treatment with bisoprolol, carvedilol, and metoprolol XL, respectively, reduce mortality in advanced heart failure patients, whereas BEST found a statistically nonsignificant trend toward reduced mortality with bucindolol. We conducted a post hoc analysis to determine whether the response to beta-blockade in BEST could be related to differences in the clinical and demographic characteristics of the study populations. We generated a sample from BEST to resemble the patient cohorts studied in CIBIS-II and MERIT-HF to find out whether the response to beta-blocker therapy was similar to that reported in the other trials. These findings are further compared with COPERNICUS, which entered patients with more severe heart failure. To achieve conformity with the entry criteria for CIBIS-II and MERIT-HF, the BEST study population was adjusted to exclude patients with systolic blood pressure <100 mm Hg, heart rate <60 bpm, and age >80 years (exclusion criteria employed in those trials). The BEST comparison subgroup (BCG) was further modified to more closely reflect the racial demographics reported for patients enrolled in CIBIS-II and MERIT-HF. The association of beta-blocker therapy with overall survival and survival free of cardiac death, sudden cardiac death, and progressive pump failure in the BCG was assessed. In the BCG subgroup, bucindolol treatment was associated with significantly lower risk of death from all causes (hazard ratio (HR)=0.77 [95% CI=0.65, 0.92]), cardiovascular death (HR=0.71 [0.58, 0.86]), sudden death (HR=0.77 [0.59, 0.999]), and pump failure death (HR=0.64 [0.45, 0.91]). Although not excluding the possibility of differences resulting from chance alone or to different properties among beta-blockers, this study suggests the possibility that different heart failure population subgroups may have different responses to beta-blocker therapy.
    Journal of Cardiac Failure 11/2003; 9(5):354-63. · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine whether hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an improved prognosis in women with advanced heart failure (HF) and systolic dysfunction. There are about two million postmenopausal women in the U.S. with HF. However, limited data are available to assess the effects of HRT on survival in this large group of patients. A retrospective analysis of women age 50 years and over entered into the Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST) was conducted using Cox regression analysis comparing survival in HRT users and non-users after correcting for baseline variables known to predict survival in women with HF and systolic dysfunction. In 493 women age 50 years and older, HRT was associated with a significant reduction in mortality-21% mortality in HRT users and 34% in non-users (p = 0.025). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a hazard ratio for mortality of 0.6 (95% confidence interval = 0.36 to 0.97) (p = 0.039) for HRT users. The benefits of HRT were noted only in women with a nonischemic etiology of HF (n = 237). Hormone replacement therapy is associated with a marked improvement in survival in postmenopausal women with advanced HF. A prospective, randomized trial of HRT should be performed in this large group of patients.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 11/2003; 42(7):1238-45. · 14.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
218.28 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • University of Miami
      كورال غيبلز، فلوريدا, Florida, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • George Washington University
      • Biostatistics Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2010
    • University of Colorado
      • Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes
      Denver, CO, United States
  • 2009
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2008
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002–2005
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      Maryland, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Dallas, TX, United States
    • Louisiana State University in Shreveport
      Shreveport, Louisiana, United States