H. Böhringer

Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Arching, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (453)1210.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We report a systematic multi-wavelength investigation of environments of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), using the X-ray data from the Chandra archive, and optical images taken with 34'x 27' field-of-view Subaru Suprime-Cam. Our goal is to help understand the relationship between the BCGs and their host clusters, and between the BCGs and other galaxies, to eventually address a question of the formation and co-evolution of BCGs and the clusters. Our results include: 1) Morphological variety of BCGs, or the second or the third brightest galaxy (BCG2, BCG3), is comparable to that of other bright red sequence galaxies, suggesting that we have a continuous variation of morphology between BCGs, BCG2, and BCG3, rather than a sharp separation between the BCG and the rest of the bright galaxies. 2) The offset of the BCG position relative to the cluster centre is correlated to the degree of concentration of cluster X-ray morphology (Spearman rho = -0.79), consistent with an interpretation that BCGs tend to be off-centered inside dynamically unsettled clusters. 3) Morphologically disturbed clusters tend to harbour the brighter BCGs, implying that the "early collapse" may not be the only major mechanism to control the BCG formation and evolution.
    03/2014;
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    H. Böhringer, G. Chon, C. A. Collins
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    ABSTRACT: The X-ray luminosity function is an important statistic of the census of galaxy clusters and an important means to probe the cosmological model of our Universe. Based on our recently completed REFLEX II cluster sample we construct the X-ray luminosity function of galaxy clusters for several redshift slices from $z = 0$ to $z = 0.4$ and discuss its implications. We find no significant signature of redshift evolution of the luminosity function in the redshift interval. We provide the results of fits of a parameterized Schechter function and extensions of it which provide a reasonable characterization of the data. Using a model for structure formation and galaxy cluster evolution we compare the observed X-ray luminosity function with predictions for different cosmological models. For the most interesting constraints for the cosmological parameters $\Omega_m$ and $\sigma_8$ we obatain $\Omega_m \sim 0.27 \pm 0.03$ and $\sigma_8 \sim 0.80 \pm 0.03$ based on the statistical uncertainty alone. Marginalizing over the most important uncertainties, the normalisation and slope of the $L_X - M$ scaling relation, we find $\Omega_m \sim 0.29 \pm 0.04$ and $\sigma_8 \sim 0.77 \pm 0.07$ ($1\sigma$ confidence limits). We compare our results with those of the SZ-cluster survey provided by the PLANCK mission and we find very good agreement with the results using PLANCK clusters as cosmological probes, but we have some tension with PLANCK cosmological results from the microwave background anisotropies. We also make a comparison with other cluster surveys. We find good agreement with these previous results and show that the REFLEX II survey provides a significant reduction in the uncertainties compared to earlier measurements.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Observations and cosmological simulations show galaxy clusters as a family of nearly self-similar objects with properties that can be described by scaling relations as a function of e.g. mass and time. Here we study the scaling relations between the galaxy velocity dispersion and X-ray quantities like X-ray bolometric luminosity and temperature in galaxy clusters at high redshifts (0.64 $\leq$ z $\leq$ 1.46). We also compare our results with the similar study of the local HIFLUGCS sample. For the analysis, we use a set of 15 distant galaxy clusters extracted from the literature plus a sample of 10 newly discovered clusters selected in X-rays by the \XMM Distant Cluster Project (XDCP) with more than 10 confirmed spectroscopic members per cluster. We also study the evolution of this scaling relation by comparing the high redshift results with the data from the local HIFLUGCS sample. We also investigated the $L_X - T_X$ and the $\sigma_v - T_X$ relations for the 15 clusters in the literature sample. We report the results of the X-ray and kinematic analysis of 10 newly detected high redshift clusters and provide their spectroscopic and kinematic details. For the entire, distant sample we find a slope fully consistent with the one typical of local clusters, albeit with a large associated uncertainty. The study on the evolution of the amplitude reveals a positive offset if the self-similar evolution is neglected, hence possibly indicating the need for including evolutionary effects. However, the $L_X - T_X$ relation is found to be in good agreement with the local relation without any significant redshift evolution. Finally, the $\sigma_v - T_X$ relation appears to slightly deviate from the theoretical expectation that galaxies and gas particles have a similar specific kinetic energy. However, the associated uncertainty is currently too large for making any conclusive statement in this regard.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The origin of the far-infrared emission from the nearby radio galaxy M 87 remains a matter of debate. Some studies find evidence of a far-infrared excess due to thermal dust emission, whereas others propose that the far-infrared emission can be explained by synchrotron emission without the need for an additional dust emission component. We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations of M 87, taken as part of the science demonstration phase observations of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. We compare these data with a synchrotron model based on mid-infrared, far-infrared, submm and radio data from the literature to investigate the origin of the far-infrared emission. Both the integrated SED and the Herschel surface brightness maps are adequately explained by synchrotron emission. At odds with previous claims, we find no evidence of a diffuse dust component in M 87, which is not unexpected in the harsh X-ray environment of this radio galaxy sitting at the core of the Virgo cluster.
    A&A. 10/2013; 518:L53.
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    ABSTRACT: We have analyzed the {\it XMM-Newton} and {\it Chandra} data overlapping $\sim$16.5 deg$^2$ of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, including $\sim$4.6 deg$^2$ of proprietary {\it XMM-Newton} data that we present here. In total, 3362 unique X-ray sources are detected at high significance. We derive the {\it XMM-Newton} number counts and compare them with our previously reported {\it Chandra} Log$N$-Log$S$ relations and other X-ray surveys. The Stripe 82 X-ray source lists have been matched to multi-wavelength catalogs using a maximum likelihood estimator algorithm. We discovered the highest redshift ($z=5.86$) quasar yet identified in an X-ray survey. We find 2.5 times more high luminosity (L$_x \geq 10^{45}$ erg s$^{-1}$) AGN than the smaller area {\it Chandra} and {\it XMM-Newton} survey of COSMOS and 1.3 times as many identified by XBo\"otes. Comparing the high luminosity AGN we have identified with those predicted by population synthesis models, our results suggest that this AGN population is a more important component of cosmic black hole growth than previously appreciated. Approximately a third of the X-ray sources not detected in the optical are identified in the infrared, making them candidates for the elusive population of obscured high luminosity AGN in the early universe.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2013; 436(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • A. Weißmann, H. Böhringer, G. Chon
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Galaxy clusters are the last and largest objects to form in the standard hierarchical structure formation scenario through merging of smaller systems. The substructure frequency in the past and present epoch provides excellent means for studying the underlying cosmological model. Aims. Using X-ray observations, we study the substructure frequency as a function of redshift by quantifying and comparing the fraction of dynamically young clusters at different redshifts up to z=1.08. We are especially interested in possible biases due to the inconsistent data quality of the low-z and high-z samples. Methods. Two well-studied morphology estimators, power ratio P3/P0 and center shift w, were used to quantify the dynamical state of 129 galaxy clusters, taking into account the different observational depth and noise levels of the observations. Results. Owing to the sensitivity of P3/P0 to Poisson noise, it is essential to use datasets with similar photon statistics when studying the P3/P0-z relation. We degraded the high-quality data of the low-redshift sample to the low data quality of the high-z observations and found a shallow positive slope that is, however, not significant, indicating a slightly larger fraction of dynamically young objects at higher redshift. The w-z relation shows no significant dependence on the data quality and gives a similar result. Conclusions. We find a similar trend for P3/P0 and w, namely a very mild increase of the disturbed cluster fraction with increasing redshifts. Within the significance limits, our findings are also consistent with no evolution.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Galaxy clusters provide unique laboratories to study astrophysical processes on large scales and are important probes for cosmology. X-ray observations are currently the best means of detecting and characterizing galaxy clusters. Therefore X-ray surveys for galaxy clusters are one of the best ways to obtain a statistical census of the galaxy cluster population. Aims: In this paper we describe the construction of the REFLEX II galaxy cluster survey based on the southern part of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. REFLEX II extends the REFLEX I survey by a factor of about two down to a flux limit of 1.8 × 10-12 erg s cm (0.1-2.4 keV). Methods: We describe the determination of the X-ray parameters, the process of X-ray source identification, and the construction of the survey selection function. Results: The REFLEX II cluster sample comprises currently 915 objects. A standard selection function is derived for a lower source count limit of 20 photons in addition to the flux limit. The median redshift of the sample is z = 0.102. Internal consistency checks and the comparison to several other galaxy cluster surveys imply that REFLEX II is better than 90% complete with a contamination less than 10%. Conclusions: With this publication we give a comprehensive statistical description of the REFLEX II survey and provide all the complementary information necessary for a proper modeling of the survey for astrophysical and cosmological applications. Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory La Silla, ChileFull Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A30
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Major astrophysical questions related to the formation and evolution of structures, and more specifically of galaxy groups and clusters, will still be open in the coming decade and beyond: what is the interplay of galaxy, supermassive black hole, and intergalactic gas evolution in the most massive objects in the Universe - galaxy groups and clusters? What are the processes driving the evolution of chemical enrichment of the hot diffuse gas in large-scale structures? How and when did the first galaxy groups in the Universe, massive enough to bind more than 10^7 K gas, form? Focussing on the period when groups and clusters assembled (0.5<z<2.5), we show that, due to the continuum and line emission of this hot intergalactic gas at X-ray wavelengths, Athena+, combining high sensitivity with excellent spectral and spatial resolution, will deliver breakthrough observations in view of the aforementioned issues. Indeed, the physical and chemical properties of the hot intra-cluster gas, and their evolution across time, are a key to understand the co-evolution of galaxy and supermassive black hole within their environments.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Like REFLEX I, the extended survey covers the southern sky outside the band of the Milky Way (|bII|>=20°) with regions around the Magellanic clouds excised (3 in LMC, 3 in SMC). The total survey area after this excision amounts to 4.24 steradian (or 13924°2) which corresponds to 33.75% of the sky. Different from REFLEX I, we use the refined RASS product RASS III (Voges et al. 1999, Cat. IX/10). (2 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 06/2013;
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    N. Ota, Y. Fujino, Y. Ibaraki, H. Boehringer, G. Chon
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    ABSTRACT: Context: We present results of Suzaku observations of a nearby galaxy cluster A76 at z=0.0395. This cluster is characterized by extremely low X-ray surface brightness and is hereafter referred to as the LSB cluster. Aims: To understand the nature and thermodynamic evolution of the LSB cluster by studying the physical properties of the hot intracluster medium in A76. Methods: We conducted two-pointed Suzaku observations of A76 and examined the global gas properties of the cluster by XIS spectral analysis. We also performed deprojection analysis of annular spectra and derived radial profiles of gas temperature, density and entropy out to approximately 850 kpc (~ 0.6 r_200) and 560 kpc (~0.4 r_200) in A76 East and A76 West, respectively. Results: The measured global temperature and metal abundance are approximately 3.3 keV and 0.24 solar, respectively. From the deprojection analysis, the entropy profile is found to be flat with respect to radius. The entropy within the central region (r < 0.2r_200) is exceptionally high (~400 keV cm^2). This phenomenon is not readily explained by either gravitational heating or preheating. The X-ray morphology is clumped and irregular, and the electron density is extremely low (1e-4 -- 1e-3 cm^-3) for the observed high temperature, suggesting that A76 is in the early phase of cluster formation and the gas compression due to gravitational potential confinement is lagging behind the gas heating.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • V. Biffi, K. Dolag, H. Böhringer
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    ABSTRACT: Non-thermal motions in the intra-cluster medium (ICM) are believed to play a non-negligible role in the pressure support to the total gravitating mass of galaxy clusters. Future high-precision X-ray missions will allow us to directly detect the signature of these motions from highly resolved spectra of the ICM. With this perspective, we will present here a study on a set of clusters extracted from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, for which we simulated X-ray observations and characterized them via the non-thermal velocity amplitude of the ICM. We have applied the X-ray virtual telescope PHOX to generate mock observations of the simulated clusters and estimated in an observational fashion global X-ray properties. We included ICM non-thermal motions as additional parameter to further identify non-regular clusters. In particular, the influence of internal gas motions on the location of clusters in the L_X-T plane was investigated and was found that objects with the largest amount of non-thermal velocity have on average higher X-ray luminosities.
    Astronomische Nachrichten 04/2013; · 1.40 Impact Factor
  • H. Böhringer, N. Schartel
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    ABSTRACT: The field of research on galaxy clusters has received an enormous increase in attention in the last years, since galaxy clusters have been more and more recognized as very important laboratories for astrophysical studies and observational probes for testing cosmological models. X-ray observations of these largest clearly defined objects in our Universe have been by far the most fruitful approach that has provided us with rich astrophysical and cosmological insights. ESA's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra observatories have been the powerhorses of this research. In this article we therefore like to summarize the major advances made in the field of galaxy cluster research primarily by these two instruments. We will touch the progress in understanding the structure of galaxy clusters and its statistics, the AGN feedback processes in the center of clusters, cosmic evolution of clusters, cluster mass measurements, the thermodynamic structure of the intracluster medium and its chemistry, X-ray surveys of clusters, and the use of galaxy clusters for cosmological tests.
    Astronomische Nachrichten 04/2013; · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The XMM-Newton Distant Cluster Project (XDCP) aims at the identification of a well defined sample of X-ray selected clusters of galaxies at redshifts z ≥ 0.8. As part of this project, we analyse the deep archival XMM-Newton exposure of LBQS 2212-1759 to quantify the cluster content. We validate the optical follow-up strategy as well as the X-ray selection function. We base the cluster identification of the extended X-ray sources on deep imaging with the ESO-VLT and on the CFHT-LS. The confirmation of cluster candidates is done by VLT/FORS2 spectroscopy. Photometric redshifts from CFTH-LS D4 are utilised to confirm the effectiveness of the X-ray cluster selection method. The survey sensitivity is computed to have a flux limit of S_{0.5-2.0 keV}˜ 2.5×10-15 erg s-1 for 50 % completeness in an area ˜ 0.13 deg2. We detect six clusters of galaxies above this level both in X-rays and the optical. Two newly discovered X-ray luminous clusters of galaxies in this work are at z≥1.0 and one is at z=0.41. The constructed log N-log S tends to favour a scenario where no evolution in the cluster X-ray luminosity function takes place.
    Astronomische Nachrichten 04/2013; · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present constraints on cosmological parameters using number counts as a function of redshift for a sub-sample of 189 galaxy clusters from the Planck SZ (PSZ) catalogue. The PSZ is selected through the signature of the Sunyaev--Zeldovich (SZ) effect, and the sub-sample used here has a signal-to-noise threshold of seven, with each object confirmed as a cluster and all but one with a redshift estimate. We discuss the completeness of the sample and our construction of a likelihood analysis. Using a relation between mass $M$ and SZ signal $Y$ calibrated to X-ray measurements, we derive constraints on the power spectrum amplitude $\sigma_8$ and matter density parameter $\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}$ in a flat $\Lambda$CDM model. We test the robustness of our estimates and find that possible biases in the $Y$--$M$ relation and the halo mass function are larger than the statistical uncertainties from the cluster sample. Assuming the X-ray determined mass to be biased low relative to the true mass by between zero and 30%, motivated by comparison of the observed mass scaling relations to those from a set of numerical simulations, we find that $\sigma_8=0.75\pm 0.03$, $\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}=0.29\pm 0.02$, and $\sigma_8(\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}/0.27)^{0.3} = 0.764 \pm 0.025$. The value of $\sigma_8$ is degenerate with the mass bias; if the latter is fixed to a value of 20% we find $\sigma_8(\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}/0.27)^{0.3}=0.78\pm 0.01$ and a tighter one-dimensional range $\sigma_8=0.77\pm 0.02$. We find that the larger values of $\sigma_8$ and $\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}$ preferred by Planck's measurements of the primary CMB anisotropies can be accommodated by a mass bias of about 40%. Alternatively, consistency with the primary CMB constraints can be achieved by inclusion of processes that suppress power on small scales relative to the $\Lambda$CDM model, such as a component of massive neutrinos (abridged).
    03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the all-sky Planck catalogue of clusters and cluster candidates derived from Sunyaev--Zeldovich (SZ) effect detections using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. The catalogue contains 1227 entries, making it over six times the size of the Planck Early SZ (ESZ) sample and the largest SZ-selected catalogue to date. It contains 861 confirmed clusters, of which 178 have been confirmed as clusters, mostly through follow-up observations, and a further 683 are previously-known clusters. The remaining 366 have the status of cluster candidates, and we divide them into three classes according to the quality of evidence that they are likely to be true clusters. The Planck SZ catalogue is the deepest all-sky cluster catalogue, with redshifts up to about one, and spans the broadest cluster mass range from (0.1 to 1.6) 10^{15}Msun. Confirmation of cluster candidates through comparison with existing surveys or cluster catalogues is extensively described, as is the statistical characterization of the catalogue in terms of completeness and statistical reliability. The outputs of the validation process are provided as additional information. This gives, in particular, an ensemble of 813 cluster redshifts, and for all these Planck clusters we also include a mass estimated from a newly-proposed SZ-mass proxy. A refined measure of the SZ Compton parameter for the clusters with X-ray counter-parts is provided, as is an X-ray flux for all the Planck clusters not previously detected in X-ray surveys.
    03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the relation between the galaxy cluster mass M and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect signal D2 A Y500 for a sample of 19 objects for which weak lensing (WL) mass measurements obtained from Subaru Telescope data are available in the literature. Hydrostatic X-ray masses are derived from XMM-Newton archive data, and the SZ effect signal is measured from Planck all-sky survey data. We find an MWL−D2 A Y500 relation that is consistent in slope and normalisation with previous determinations using weak lensing masses; however, there is a normalisation offset with respect to previous measures based on hydrostatic X-ray mass-proxy relations. We verify that our SZ effect measurements are in excellent agreement with previous determinations from Planck data. For the present sample, the hydrostatic X-ray masses at R500 are on average ∼20 percent larger than the corresponding weak lensing masses, which is contrary to expectations. We show that the mass discrepancy is driven by a difference in mass concentration as measured by the two methods and, for the present sample, that the mass discrepancy and difference in mass concentration are especially large for disturbed systems. The mass discrepancy is also linked to the offset in centres used by the X-ray and weak lensing analyses, which again is most important in disturbed systems. We outline several approaches that are needed to help achieve convergence in cluster mass measurement with X-ray and weak lensing observations.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2013; 550(A129):1-20. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Taking advantage of the all-sky coverage and broad frequency range of the Planck satellite, we study the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) and pressure profiles of 62 nearby massive clusters detected at high significance in the 14-month nominal survey. Careful reconstruction of the SZ signal indicates that most clusters are individually detected at least out to R500. By stacking the radial profiles, we have statistically detected the radial SZ signal out to 3 × R500, i.e., at a density contrast of about 50–100, though the dispersion about the mean profile dominates the statistical errors across the whole radial range. Our measurement is fully consistent with previous Planck results on integrated SZ fluxes, further strengthening the agreement between SZ and X-ray measurements inside R500. Correcting for the effects of the Planck beam, we have calculated the corresponding pressure profiles. This new constraint from SZ measurements is consistent with the X-ray constraints from XMM-Newton in the region in which the profiles overlap (i.e., [0.1–1] R500), and is in fairly good agreement with theoretical predictions within the expected dispersion. At larger radii the average pressure profile is slightly flatter than most predictions from numerical simulations. Combining the SZ and X-ray observed profiles into a joint fit to a generalised pressure profile gives best-fit parameters [P0, c500, γ, α, β] = [6.41, 1.81, 0.31, 1.33, 4.13]. Using a reasonable hypothesis for the gas temperature in the cluster outskirts we reconstruct from our stacked pressure profile the gas mass fraction profile out to 3 R500. Within the temperature driven uncertainties, our Planck constraints are compatible with the cosmic baryon fraction and expected gas fraction in halos.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2013; 550(A131):1-24. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the final results from the XMM-Newton validation follow-up of new Planck galaxy cluster candidates. We observed 15 new candidates, detected with signal-to-noise ratios between 4.0 and 6.1 in the 15.5-month nominal Planck survey. The candidates were selected using ancillary data flags derived from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) and Digitized Sky Survey all-sky maps, with the aim of pushing into the low SZ flux, high-z regime and testing RASS flags as indicators of candidate reliability. Fourteen new clusters were detected by XMM-Newton, ten single clusters and two double systems. Redshifts from X-ray spectroscopy lie in the range 0.2 to 0.9, with six clusters at z > 0.5. Estimated masses (M500) range from 2.5 × 1014 to 8 × 1014 M�. We discuss our results in the context of the full XMM-Newton validation programme, in which 51 new clusters have been detected. This includes four double and two triple systems, some of which are chance projections on the sky of clusters at different redshifts. We find that association with a source from the RASS-Bright Source Catalogue is a robust indicator of the reliability of a candidate, whereas association with a source from the RASS-Faint Source Catalogue does not guarantee that the SZ candidate is a bona fide cluster. (abridged)
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2013; 550(A130):1-19. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The survey of galaxy clusters performed by Planck through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich e�ect has already discovered many interesting objects, thanks to its full sky coverage. One of the SZ candidates detected in the early months of the mission near to the signal-to-noise threshold, PLCKG214.6+37.0, was later revealed by XMM-Newton to be a triple system of galaxy clusters. We present the results from a deep XMM-Newton re-observation of PLCKG214.6+37.0, part of a multi-wavelength programme to investigate Planck discovered superclusters. The characterisation of the physical properties of the three components has allowed us to build a template model to extract the total SZ signal of this system with Planck data.We have partly reconciled the discrepancy between the expected SZ signal derived from X-rays and the observed one, which are now consistent within 1.2�. We measured the redshift of the three components with the iron lines in the X-ray spectrum, and confirm that the three clumps are likely part of the same supercluster structure. The analysis of the dynamical state of the three components, as well as the absence of detectable excess X-ray emission, suggests that we are witnessing the formation of a massive cluster at an early phase of interaction.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2013; 550(A132):1-14. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, we present F-VIPGI, a new version of the VIMOS Interactive Pipeline and Graphical Interface (VIPGI) adapted to handle FORS2 spectroscopic data. Secondly, we investigate the spectro-photometric properties of a sample of galaxies residing in distant X-ray selected galaxy clusters, the optical spectra of which were reduced with this new pipeline. We provide basic technical information about the innovations of the new software and, as a demonstration of the capabilities of the new pipeline, we show results obtained for 16 distant (0.65 < z < 1.25) X-ray luminous galaxy clusters selected within the XMM-Newton Distant Cluster Project. We performed a spectral indices analysis of the extracted optical spectra of their members, based on which we created a library of composite high signal-to-noise ratio spectra representative of passive and star-forming galaxies residing in distant galaxy clusters. The spectroscopic templates are provided to the community in electronic form. By comparing the spectro-photometric properties of our templates with the local and distant galaxy population residing in different environments, we find that passive galaxies in clusters appear to be well evolved already at z = 0.8 and even more so than the field galaxies at similar redshift. Even though these findings would point toward a significant acceleration of galaxy evolution in densest environments, we cannot exclude the importance of the mass as the main evolutionary driving element either. The latter effect may indeed be justified by the similarity of our composite passive spectrum with the luminous red galaxies template at intermediate redshift.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
1,210.67 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1970–2013
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006
    • Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2005
    • Tokyo University of Science
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • University of Michigan
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2001–2005
    • Liverpool John Moores University
      • Astrophysics Research Institute
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002
    • Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)
      Batavia, Illinois, United States
  • 2000
    • Churchill College
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 1998
    • Chiba University
      • Department of Information Processing and Computer Science
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
  • 1997
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy DIFA
      Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1996
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Physics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1994
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy