H. Böhringer

Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Arching, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (498)1354.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The presence of hot gaseous coronae around present-day massive spiral galaxies is a fundamental prediction of galaxy formation models. However, our observational knowledge remains scarce, since to date only four gaseous coronae were detected around spirals with massive stellar bodies ($\gtrsim2\times10^{11} \ \rm{M_{\odot}}$). To explore the hot coronae around lower mass spiral galaxies, we utilized Chandra X-ray observations of a sample of eight normal spiral galaxies with stellar masses of $(0.7-2.0)\times10^{11} \ \rm{M_{\odot}}$. Although statistically significant diffuse X-ray emission is not detected beyond the optical radii ($\sim20$ kpc) of the galaxies, we derive $3\sigma$ limits on the characteristics of the coronae. These limits, complemented with previous detections of NGC 1961 and NGC 6753, are used to probe the Illustris Simulation. The observed $3\sigma$ upper limits on the X-ray luminosities and gas masses exceed or are at the upper end of the model predictions. For NGC 1961 and NGC 6753 the observed gas temperatures, metal abundances, and electron density profiles broadly agree with those predicted by Illustris. These results hint that the physics modules of Illustris are broadly consistent with the observed properties of hot coronae around spiral galaxies. However, a shortcoming of Illustris is that massive black holes, mostly residing in giant ellipticals, give rise to powerful radio-mode AGN feedback, which results in under luminous coronae for ellipticals.
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    Gayoung Chon, Hans Boehringer, Saleem Zaroubi
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    ABSTRACT: To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we present numerical values for these criteria for a range of standard cosmological models. We express these criteria in terms of a density ratio or, alternatively, as an infall velocity and show that these two criteria give almost identical results. To better illustrate the implications of this definition, we applied our criteria to some prominent structures in the local Universe, the Local supercluster, Shapley supercluster, and the recently reported Laniakea supercluster to understand their future evolution. We find that for the Local and Shapley superclusters, only the central regions will collapse in the future, while Laniakea does not constitute a significant overdensity and will disperse in the future. Finally, we suggest that those superclusters that will survive the accelerating cosmic expansion and collapse in the future be called "superstes-clusters", where "superstes" means survivor in Latin, to distinguish them from traditional superclusters.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425591 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest all-sky catalogue of galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, of which 1203 are confirmed clusters with identified counterparts in external data-sets, and is the first SZ-selected cluster survey containing > 103 confirmed clusters. We present a detailed analysis of the survey selection function in terms of its completeness and statistical reliability, placing a lower limit of 83% on the purity. Using simulations, we find that the Y5R500 estimates are robust to pressure-profile variation and beam systematics, but accurate conversion to Y500 requires. the use of prior information on the cluster extent. We describe the multi-wavelength search for counterparts in ancillary data, which makes use of radio, microwave, infra-red, optical and X-ray data-sets, and which places emphasis on the robustness of the counterpart match. We discuss the physical properties of the new sample and identify a population of low-redshift X-ray under- luminous clusters revealed by SZ selection. These objects appear in optical and SZ surveys with consistent properties for their mass, but are almost absent from ROSAT X-ray selected samples.
  • Hans Böhringer, Gayoung Chon
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2015; 574:L8. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425435 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    Hans Boehringer, Gayoung Chon
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    ABSTRACT: Clusters of galaxies are important probes for the large-scale structure that allow us to test cosmological models. With the REFLEX II galaxy cluster survey we previously derived tight constraints on the cosmological parameters for the matter density, Omega_m, and the amplitude parameter of the matter density fluctuations, sigma_8. Whereas in these previous studies no effect of massive neutrinos was taken into account, we explore these effects in the present publication. We derive cosmological constraints for the sum of the neutrino masses of the conventional three neutrino families in the range 0 to 0.6 eV. The influence on the constraints of Omega_m and sigma_8 for the expected mass range is weak. Interesting constraints on the neutrino properties can be derived by comparing the cluster data with those from the Planck cosmic microwave background observations. The current tension between the Planck results and clusters can formally be resolved with neutrino masses of about M_nu = 0.45 (+- 0.28, 1-sigma) eV. While we caution not to consider this a firm measurement because it might also be the result of unresolved systematics, it is interesting that other measurements of the local large-scale structure fluctuation amplitude, like that of cosmic lensing shear, yield similar results and additionally confirm the effect of massive neutrinos. Among the indicators for massive neutrinos, galaxy clusters and in particular our large and well-controlled cluster survey currently provide the best potential for constraints of the total neutrino mass.
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    ABSTRACT: Galaxy clusters' structure, dominated by dark matter, is traced by member galaxies in the optical and hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) in X-rays. We compare the radial distribution of these components and determine the mass-to-light ratio vs. system mass relation. We use 14 clusters from the REXCESS sample which is representative of clusters detected in X-ray surveys. Photometric observations with the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2m MPG/ESO telescope are used to determine the number density profiles of the galaxy distribution out to $r_{200}$. These are compared to electron density profiles of the ICM obtained using XMM-Newton, and dark matter profiles inferred from scaling relations and an NFW model. While red sequence galaxies trace the total matter profile, the blue galaxy distribution is much shallower. We see a deficit of faint galaxies in the central regions of massive and regular clusters, and strong suppression of bright and faint blue galaxies in the centres of cool-core clusters, attributable to ram pressure stripping of gas from blue galaxies in high density regions of ICM and disruption of faint galaxies due to galaxy interactions. We find a mass-to-light ratio vs. mass relation within $r_{200}$ of $\left(3.0\pm0.4\right) \times 10^2\, h\,\mathrm{M}_{\odot}\,\mathrm{L}_{\odot}^{-1}$ at $10^{15}\,\mathrm{M}_{\odot}$ with slope $0.16 \pm 0.14$, consistent with most previous results.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2015; 448(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv097 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    Gayoung Chon, Hans Boehringer
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of the merging cluster, RXCJ2359.3-6042, from the REFLEX II cluster survey and present our results from all three detectors combined in the imaging and spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data. Also known as Abell 4067, this is a unique system, where a compact bullet penetrates an extended, low density cluster at redshift z=0.099 clearly seen from our follow-up XMM-Newton observation. The bullet goes right through the central region of the cluster without being disrupted and we can clearly watch the process how the bullet component is stripped of its layers outside the core. There is an indication of a shock heated region in the East of the cluster with a higher temperature. The bulk temperature of the cluster is about 3.12 keV implying a lower mass system. Spearheading the bullet is a cool core centred by a massive early type galaxy. The temperatures and metallicities of a few regions in the cluster derived from the spectral analysis supports our conjecture based on the surface brightness image that a much colder compact component at 1.55 keV with large metallicity (0.75 Zsol) penetrates the main cluster, where the core of the infalling component survived the merger leaving stripped gas behind at the centre of the main cluster. We also give an estimate of the total mass within r500, which is about 2e14Msol from the deprojected spherical-beta modelling of the cluster in good agreement with other mass estimates from the M--Tx and M-sigma_v relations.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2015; 574. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425143 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dusty, star-forming galaxies have a critical role in the formation and evolution of massive galaxies in the Universe. Using deep far-infrared imaging in the range 100-500um obtained with the Herschel telescope, we investigate the dust-obscured star formation in the galaxy cluster XDCP J0044.0-2033 at z=1.58, the most massive cluster at z >1.5, with a measured mass M200= 4.7x10$^{14}$ Msun. We perform an analysis of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 12 cluster members (5 spectroscopically confirmed) detected with >3$\sigma$ significance in the PACS maps, all ULIRGs. The individual star formation rates (SFRs) lie in the range 155-824 Ms/yr, with dust temperatures of 24$\pm$35 K. We measure a strikingly high amount of star formation (SF) in the cluster core, SFR (< 250 kpc) > 1875$\pm$158 Ms/yr, 4x higher than the amount of star formation in the cluster outskirts. This scenario is unprecedented in a galaxy cluster, showing for the first time a reversal of the SF-density relation at z~1.6 in a massive cluster.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the analysis of the Chandra observation of XDCP J0044.0-2033, a massive, distant (z=1.579) galaxy cluster discovered in the XDCP survey. The total exposure time of 380 ks with Chandra ACIS-S provides the deepest X-ray observation currently achieved on a massive, high redshift cluster. Extended emission from the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM) is detected at a very high significance level (S/N~20) on a circular region with a 44" radius, corresponding to $R_{ext}=375$ kpc at the cluster redshift. We perform an X-ray spectral fit of the ICM emission modeling the spectrum with a single-temperature thermal mekal model. Our analysis provides a global temperature $kT=6.7^{+1.3}_{-0.9}$ keV, and a iron abundance $Z_{Fe} = 0.41_{-0.26}^{+0.29}Z_{Fe_\odot}$ (error bars correspond to 1 $\sigma$). We fit the background-subtracted surface brightness profile with a single $\beta$-model out to 44", finding a rather flat profile with no hints of a cool core. We derive the deprojected electron density profile and compute the ICM mass within the extraction radius $R_{ext}=375$ kpc to be $M_{ICM}(r<R_{ext}) = (1.48 \pm 0.20) \times 10^{13} M_\odot$. Under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and assuming isothermality within $R_{ext}$, the total mass is $M_{2500}= 1.23_{-0.27}^{+0.46} \times 10 ^{14} M_\odot$ for $R_{2500} = 240_{-20}^{+30}$ kpc. Extrapolating the profile at radii larger than the extraction radius $R_{ext}$ we find $M_{500} = 3.2_{-0.6}^{+0.9} \times 10 ^{14}M_\odot$ for $R_{500} = 562_{-37}^{+50}$ kpc. This analysis establishes the existence of virialized, massive galaxy clusters at redshift $z\sim 1.6$, paving the way to the investigation of the progenitors of the most massive clusters today. Given its mass and the XDCP survey volume, XDCP J0044.0-2033 does not create significant tension with the WMAP-7 $\Lambda$CDM cosmology.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2014; 799(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/93 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14 May 2009 and has been scanning the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously since 12 August 2009. This paper gives an overview of the mission and its performance, the processing, analysis, and characteristics of the data, the scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. The science products include maps of the CMB and diffuse extragalactic foregrounds, a catalogue of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources, and a list of sources detected through the SZ effect. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data and a lensing likelihood are described. Scientific results include robust support for the standard six-parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements of its parameters, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large-scale anomalies in the temperature distribution of the CMB, first detected by WMAP, are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits on the number and mass of neutrinos, and has measured gravitational lensing of CMB anisotropies at greater than 25 sigma. Planck finds no evidence for non-Gaussianity in the CMB. Planck's results agree well with results from the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. Planck finds a lower Hubble constant than found in some more local measures. Some tension is also present between the amplitude of matter fluctuations derived from CMB data and that derived from SZ data. The Planck and WMAP power spectra are offset from each other by an average level of about 2% around the first acoustic peak.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2014; 571(A1):1. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201321529 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several claims have been made that we are located in a locally underdense region of the Universe based on observations of supernovae and galaxy density distributions. Two recent studies of K-band galaxy surveys have provided new support for a local underdensity in the galaxy distribution out to distances of 200 - 300 Mpc. If confirmed, such large local underdensities would have important implications on the interpretation of local measurements of cosmological parameters. Galaxy clusters have been shown to be ideal probes to trace the large-scale structure of the Universe. In this paper we study the local density distribution in the southern sky with the X-ray detected galaxy clusters from the REFLEX II cluster survey. From the normalized comoving number density of clusters we find an average underdensity of ~30 - 40% in the redshift range out to z ~0.04 (~170 Mpc) in the southern extragalactic sky with a significance larger than 3.4sigma. On larger scales from 300 Mpc to over 1 Gpc the density distribution appears remarkably homogeneous. The local underdensity seems to be dominated by the South Galactic Cap region. A comparison of the cluster distribution with that of galaxies in the K-band from a recent study shows that galaxies and clusters trace each other very closely in density. In the South Galactic Cap region both surveys find a local underdensity in the redshift range z= 0 to 0.05 and no significant underdensity in the North Galactic Cap at southern latitudes. Our results to not support cosmological models that attempt to interpret the cosmic acceleration by a large local void, since the local underdensity we find is not isotropic and limited to a size significantly smaller than 300 Mpc radius.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2014; 574. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424817 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with the Russian-Turkish 1.5-m telescope (RTT150), as a part of the optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. During this time period approximately 20% of all dark and grey clear time available at the telescope was devoted to observations of Planck objects. Some observations of distant clusters were also done at the 6-m Bolshoy Telescope Azimutal'ny (BTA) of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In total, deep, direct images of more than one hundred fields were obtained in multiple filters. We identified 47 previously unknown galaxy clusters, 41 of which are included in the Planck catalogue of SZ sources. The redshifts of 65 Planck clusters were measured spectroscopically and 14 more were measured photometrically. We discuss the details of cluster optical identifications and redshift measurements. We also present new spectroscopic redhifts for 39 Planck clusters that were not included in the Planck SZ source catalogue and are published here for the first time.
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    ABSTRACT: Superclusters are the largest, observed matter density structures in the Universe. Recently Chon et al.(2013) presented the first supercluster catalogue constructed with a well-defined selection function based on the X-ray flux-limited cluster survey, REFLEX II. For the construction of the sample we proposed a concept to find the large objects with a minimum overdensity such that most of their mass will collapse in the future. The main goal of the paper is to provide support for our concept using simulations that we can, on the basis of our observational sample of X-ray clusters, construct a supercluster sample defined by a certain minimum overdensity, and to test how superclusters trace the underlying dark matter distribution. Our results confirm that an overdensity in the number of clusters is tightly correlated with an overdensity of the dark matter distribution. This enables us to define superclusters such that most of the mass will collapse in the future and to get first-order mass estimates of superclusters on the basis of the properties of the member clusters. We also show that in this context the ratio of the cluster number density and dark matter mass density is consistent with the theoretically expected cluster bias. Our previous work provided evidence that superclusters are a special environment for density structures of the dark matter to grow differently from the field as characterised by the X-ray luminosity function. Here we confirm for the first time that this originates from a top-heavy mass function at high statistical significance provided by a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We also find in close agreement with observations that the superclusters occupy only a small volume of few percent while they contain more than half of the clusters in the present day Universe.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2014; 567. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424047 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present observations and analysis of a sample of 123 galaxy clusters from the 2013 Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich sources with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI), a ground-based radio interferometer. AMI provides an independent measurement with higher angular resolution, 3 arcmin compared to the Planck beams of 5-10 arcmin. The AMI observations thus provide validation of the cluster detections, improved positional estimates, and a consistency check on the fitted 'size' ($\theta_{s}$) and 'flux' ($Y_{\rm tot}$) parameters in the Generalised Navarro, Frenk and White (GNFW) model. We detect 99 of the clusters. We use the AMI positional estimates to check the positional estimates and error-bars produced by the Planck algorithms PowellSnakes and MMF3. We find that $Y_{\rm tot}$ values as measured by AMI are biased downwards with respect to the Planck constraints, especially for high Planck-SNR clusters. We perform simulations to show that this can be explained by deviation from the 'universal' pressure profile shape used to model the clusters. We show that AMI data can constrain the $\alpha$ and $\beta$ parameters describing the shape of the profile in the GNFW model provided careful attention is paid to the degeneracies between parameters, but one requires information on a wider range of angular scales than are present in AMI data alone to correctly constrain all parameters simultaneously.
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    ABSTRACT: In a previous paper we investigated the energy transfer of massive stars to the interstellar medium as a function of time and the geometrical configuration of three massive stars via 3D-mesh-refining hydrodynamics simulations, following the complete evolution of the massive stars and their supernovae except non-thermal processes . We analysed our ISM simulation results with the help of spectra for plasma temperatures between 0.1 and 10 keV and computed the spectral evolution and the spatio-temporal distribution of the hot gas. Results. Despite significant input of high temperature gas from supernovae and fast stellar winds, the resulting thermal X-ray spectra are generally very soft, with most of the emission well below 1 keV. We show that this is due to mixing triggered by resolved hydrodynamic instabilities. Supernovae enhance the X-ray luminosity of a superbubble by 1-2 orders of magnitude for a time span of about 0.1 Myr; longer if a supernova occurs in a larger superbubble and shorter in higher energy bands. Peak superbubble luminosities of the order of 10^{36} erg/s are reproduced well. The strong decay of the X-ray luminosity is due to bubble expansion, hydrodynamic instabilities related to the acceleration of the superbubble's shell thanks to the sudden energy input, and subsequent mixing. We also find global oscillations of our simulated superbubbles, which produce spatial variations of the X-ray spectrum, similar to what we see in the Orion-Eridanus cavity. We calculated the fraction of energy emitted in X-rays and find that with a value of a few times 10^{-4}, it is about a factor of ten below the measurements for nearby galaxies.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2014; 566. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423871 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Observations and cosmological simulations show galaxy clusters as a family of nearly self-similar objects with properties that can be described by scaling relations as a function of mass and time. Here we study the scaling relations between the galaxy velocity dispersion (σv) and X-ray quantities, such as X-ray bolometric luminosity (LBolX,500) and temperature (TX) in galaxy clusters at high redshifts (0.64 ≤ z ≤ 1.46). We also compare our results with the analogous study of the local HIFLUGCS sample. Methods: For the analysis, we use a set of 15 distant galaxy clusters extracted from the literature and selected via different methods. We also use a sample of ten newly discovered clusters selected via their X-ray emission by the XMM-Newton Distant Cluster Project (XDCP), with more than ten confirmed spectroscopic members per cluster. For both samples, the same method was used to determine σv. We also study the evolution of this scaling relation by comparing the high redshift results with the data from the HIFLUGCS sample, which is taken as a representative of the conditions in the local Universe. For such an analysis, we restrict the study to the clusters in the common LBolX,500 range. We also investigate the LX - TX and the σv - TX relations for the 15 clusters from the literature sample. Results: We report the results of the X-ray and kinematic analysis of ten newly detected high redshift clusters and provide their spectroscopic and kinematic details. For the entire distant sample, we find a slope fully consistent with the one typical of local clusters, albeit with a large associated uncertainty (~26%). We repeat the fit by freezing the slope to the value found for the HIFLUGCS systems restricted to the same luminosity range as our sample to investigate the evolution of the amplitude alone. We find a positive offset of ΔA/A = 0.44 ± 0.22 if the self-similar evolution is neglected, hence indicating the possible need for including evolutionary effects. However, the LX - TX relation is found to be in good agreement with the local relation without any significant redshift evolution. Finally, the σv - TX relation appears to slightly deviate from the theoretical expectation that galaxies and gas particles have a similar specific kinetic energy. However, the associated uncertainty is currently too large for making any conclusive statement in this regard.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2014; 564. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201322321 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a systematic multi-wavelength investigation of environments of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), using the X-ray data from the Chandra archive, and optical images taken with 34'x 27' field-of-view Subaru Suprime-Cam. Our goal is to help understand the relationship between the BCGs and their host clusters, and between the BCGs and other galaxies, to eventually address a question of the formation and co-evolution of BCGs and the clusters. Our results include: 1) Morphological variety of BCGs, or the second or the third brightest galaxy (BCG2, BCG3), is comparable to that of other bright red sequence galaxies, suggesting that we have a continuous variation of morphology between BCGs, BCG2, and BCG3, rather than a sharp separation between the BCG and the rest of the bright galaxies. 2) The offset of the BCG position relative to the cluster centre is correlated to the degree of concentration of cluster X-ray morphology (Spearman rho = -0.79), consistent with an interpretation that BCGs tend to be off-centered inside dynamically unsettled clusters. 3) Morphologically disturbed clusters tend to harbour the brighter BCGs, implying that the "early collapse" may not be the only major mechanism to control the BCG formation and evolution.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2014; 440(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu311 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    Hans Boehringer, Gayoung Chon, Chris A. Collins
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    ABSTRACT: The X-ray luminosity function is an important statistic of the census of galaxy clusters and an important means to probe the cosmological model of our Universe. Based on our recently completed REFLEX II cluster sample we construct the X-ray luminosity function of galaxy clusters for several redshift slices from $z = 0$ to $z = 0.4$ and discuss its implications. We find no significant signature of redshift evolution of the luminosity function in the redshift interval. We provide the results of fits of a parameterized Schechter function and extensions of it which provide a reasonable characterization of the data. Using a model for structure formation and galaxy cluster evolution we compare the observed X-ray luminosity function with predictions for different cosmological models. For the most interesting constraints for the cosmological parameters $\Omega_m$ and $\sigma_8$ we obatain $\Omega_m \sim 0.27 \pm 0.03$ and $\sigma_8 \sim 0.80 \pm 0.03$ based on the statistical uncertainty alone. Marginalizing over the most important uncertainties, the normalisation and slope of the $L_X - M$ scaling relation, we find $\Omega_m \sim 0.29 \pm 0.04$ and $\sigma_8 \sim 0.77 \pm 0.07$ ($1\sigma$ confidence limits). We compare our results with those of the SZ-cluster survey provided by the PLANCK mission and we find very good agreement with the results using PLANCK clusters as cosmological probes, but we have some tension with PLANCK cosmological results from the microwave background anisotropies. We also make a comparison with other cluster surveys. We find good agreement with these previous results and show that the REFLEX II survey provides a significant reduction in the uncertainties compared to earlier measurements.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2014; 570. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201323155 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observations and cosmological simulations show galaxy clusters as a family of nearly self-similar objects with properties that can be described by scaling relations as a function of e.g. mass and time. Here we study the scaling relations between the galaxy velocity dispersion and X-ray quantities like X-ray bolometric luminosity and temperature in galaxy clusters at high redshifts (0.64 $\leq$ z $\leq$ 1.46). We also compare our results with the similar study of the local HIFLUGCS sample. For the analysis, we use a set of 15 distant galaxy clusters extracted from the literature plus a sample of 10 newly discovered clusters selected in X-rays by the \XMM Distant Cluster Project (XDCP) with more than 10 confirmed spectroscopic members per cluster. We also study the evolution of this scaling relation by comparing the high redshift results with the data from the local HIFLUGCS sample. We also investigated the $L_X - T_X$ and the $\sigma_v - T_X$ relations for the 15 clusters in the literature sample. We report the results of the X-ray and kinematic analysis of 10 newly detected high redshift clusters and provide their spectroscopic and kinematic details. For the entire, distant sample we find a slope fully consistent with the one typical of local clusters, albeit with a large associated uncertainty. The study on the evolution of the amplitude reveals a positive offset if the self-similar evolution is neglected, hence possibly indicating the need for including evolutionary effects. However, the $L_X - T_X$ relation is found to be in good agreement with the local relation without any significant redshift evolution. Finally, the $\sigma_v - T_X$ relation appears to slightly deviate from the theoretical expectation that galaxies and gas particles have a similar specific kinetic energy. However, the associated uncertainty is currently too large for making any conclusive statement in this regard.

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,354.67 Total Impact Points


  • 1970–2015
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2001–2011
    • Liverpool John Moores University
      • Astrophysics Research Institute
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2003–2009
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Physics
      New York, New York, United States
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2007
    • Utrecht University
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2006
    • Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2005
    • National Space Science
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore County
      • Department of Physics
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2002
    • Princeton University
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
    • Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)
      Batavia, Illinois, United States
  • 2000
    • Churchill College
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1998
    • Chiba University
      • Department of Information Processing and Computer Science
      Tiba, Chiba, Japan
  • 1997
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy DIFA
      Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1996
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Physics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1994
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1989–1993
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1990
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • Institute of Theoretical Physics
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany