[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present experiments was to clarify the subunit stoichiometry of P2X2/3 and P2X2/6 receptors, where the same
subunit (P2X2) forms a receptor with two different partners (P2X3 or P2X6). For this purpose, four non-functional Ala mutants
of the P2X2, P2X3, and P2X6 subunits were generated by replacing single, homologous amino acids particularly important for
agonist binding. Co-expression of these mutants in HEK293 cells to yield the P2X2 WT/P2X3 mutant or P2X2 mutant/P2X3 WT receptors
resulted in a selective blockade of agonist responses in the former combination only. In contrast, of the P2X2 WT/P2X6 mutant
and P2X2 mutant/P2X6 WT receptors, only the latter combination failed to respond to agonists. The effects of α,β-methylene–ATP
and 2-methylthio-ATP were determined by measuring transmembrane currents by the patch clamp technique and intracellular Ca2+ transients by the Ca2+-imaging method. Protein labeling, purification, and PAGE confirmed the assembly and surface trafficking of the investigated
WT and WT/mutant combinations in Xenopus laevis oocytes. In conclusion, both electrophysiological and biochemical investigations uniformly indicate that one subunit of P2X2
and two subunits of P2X3 form P2X2/3 heteromeric receptors, whereas two subunits of P2X2 and one subunit of P2X6 constitute
P2X2/6 receptors. Further, it was shown that already two binding sites of the three possible ones are sufficient to allow
these receptors to react with their agonists.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homomeric P2X3 receptors are present in sensory ganglia and participate in pain perception. Amino acid (AA) residues were replaced in the four supposed nucleotide binding segments (NBSs) of the human (h) P2X3 receptor by alanine, and these mutants were expressed in HEK293 cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes. Patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp measurements as well as the Ca(2+) imaging technique were used to compare the concentration-response curves of the selective P2X1,3 agonist α,β-methylene ATP obtained at the wild-type P2X3 receptor and its NBS mutants. Within these NBSs, certain Gly (Gly-66), Lys (Lys-63, Lys-176, Lys-284, Lys-299), Asn (Asn-177, Asn-279), Arg (Arg-281, Arg-295), and Thr (Thr-172) residues were of great importance for a full agonist response. However, the replacement of further AAs in the NBSs by Ala also appeared to modify the amplitude of the current and/or [Ca(2+)](i) responses, although sometimes to a minor degree. The agonist potency decrease was additive after the simultaneous replacement of two adjacent AAs by Ala (K65A/G66A, F171A/T172A, N279A/F280A, F280A/R281A) but was not altered after Ala substitution of two non-adjacent AAs within the same NBS (F171A/N177A). SDS-PAGE in the Cy5 cell surface-labeled form demonstrated that the mutants appeared at the cell surface in oocytes. Thus, groups of AAs organized in NBSs rather than individual amino acids appear to be responsible for agonist binding at the hP2X3 receptor. These NBSs are located at the interface of the three subunits forming a functional receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P2X2 receptors are members of the ATP-gated P2X family of cation channels, and they participate in neurotransmission in sympathetic ganglia and interneurons. Here, we identified 7,7'-(carbonylbis(imino-3,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-3,1-(4-methyl-phenylene)carbonylimino))bis(1-methoxy-naphthalene-3,6-disulfonic acid) tetrasodium salt (NF770) as a nanomolar-potent competitive P2X2 receptor antagonist within a series of 139 suramin derivatives. Three structural determinants contributed to the inhibition of P2X2 receptors by NF770: 1) a "large urea" structure with two symmetric phenylenecarbonylimino groups; 2) attachment of the naphthalene moiety in position 7,7'; and 3) the specific position of two sulfonic acid groups (3,3'; 6,6') and of one methoxy group (1,1') at the naphthalene moiety. This structure-activity relationship was interpreted using a rat P2X2 homology model based on the crystal structure of the closed zebrafish P2X4 receptor. Docking of the suramin derivatives into the modeled ATP-binding pocket provides a uniform explanation for the observed differences in inhibitory potencies. Changes in the chemical structure that increase the inhibitory potency of the suramin derivatives improved the spatial orientation within the ATP-binding pocket to allow for stronger polar interactions of functional groups with Gly72, Glu167, or Arg290. Gly72 is responsible for the orientation of the methoxy group close to Arg290 or Glu167. Combined mutational and functional analysis confirmed that residues Gly72 and Glu167 are as important for ATP binding as Arg290, the ATP-binding role of which has been shown in previous studies. The in silico prediction of Gly72 and Glu167 as ATP-binding residues strongly supports the validity of our homology docking.