Grace M Egeland

McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (79)271.32 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite animal and in vitro studies demonstrating pro-oxidative effects of Hg, previous human work showed no relationship between tissue Hg and plasma levels of F2- isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), a whole body oxidative stress marker. We hypothesized that another isoprostane species, isofurans (IsoFs), was a more sensitive indicator of Hgmediated oxidative stress, which can be modified by tissue Se status. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving from a random subset (n=233) of Inuit adults from a population-based survey (n=2595) of 36 Canadian Arctic Inuit Communities to assess the relationships of plasma isoprostanes to Se and Hg status indicators. F2-IsoPs were inversely correlated with blood Se (r=-.186, p=.005) and toenail Se (r=-.146, p=.044) but not correlated with Hg. IsoFs were inversely correlated with blood Se (r=-.164, p=.014) and positively correlated with Hg (r=.228, p<.001) and Hg:Se (r=.340, p<.001). The strength of the correlations remained unchanged after multivariate adjustments. Multivariate analysis showed that F2-IsoPs were not positively associated with Hg but with Hg:Se (β=.148, p=.021). We conclude that Se and Hg status and their interactions are important factors modulating F2-IsoPs and IsoFs levels such that the Inuit may be protected from Hg-induced oxidative stress because of their high Se status.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 05/2013; · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated concentrations of mercury (Hg) are commonly found in the traditional foods, including fish and marine mammals, of Inuit living in Canada's Arctic. As a result, Inuit often have higher dietary Hg intake and elevated Hg blood concentrations. However, these same traditional foods are excellent sources of essential nutrients. The goals of this study were 1) to identify the traditional food sources of Hg exposure for Inuit, 2) to estimate the percentage of Inuit who meet specific nutrient Dietary Reference Intakes and/or exceed the Toxicological Reference Values (TRVs), and 3) to evaluate options that maximize nutrient intake while minimizing contaminant exposure. A participatory cross-sectional survey was designed in consultation with Inuit in 3 Canadian Arctic jurisdictions (Nunatsiavut, Nunavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region). Estimated intakes for EPA (20:5n3) and DHA (22:6n3) met suggested dietary targets, and estimated selenium (Se) intake fell within the Acceptable Range of Oral Intake. Estimated intakes of Hg (rs = 0.41, P < 0.001), Se (rs = 0.44, P < 0.001), EPA (rs = 0.32, P < 0.001), and DHA (rs = 0.28, P < 0.001) were correlated with their respective blood concentrations. Mean estimated Hg intake (7.9 μg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ wk(-1)) exceeded the TRV of 5.0 μg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ wk(-1), with 35% of the population above this guideline. Because the estimated intakes of each of the nutrients were strongly correlated (Se: rs = 0.92, P < 0.001; EPA: rs = 0.82, P < 0.001; DHA: rs = 0.81, P < 0.001) with estimated Hg intake, efforts to decrease Hg exposure must emphasize the overall healthfulness of traditional foods and be designed to prevent concomitant harm to the nutrient intakes of Inuit.
    Journal of Nutrition 04/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: High rates of iron deficiency and anemia are common among Inuit and Arctic women despite a traditional diet based on animal source foods. However, representative data on iron status and relevant determinants for this population are lacking. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of anemia and depletion of iron stores, then to identify correlates of iron status in non-pregnant Canadian Inuit women. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey of 1550 women in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (on a subset), C-reactive protein (CRP), RBC fatty acid composition, and H pylori serology were analyzed on fasting venous blood. Sociodemographic, food security status, anthropometric, dietary, and health data were collected. Correlates of iron status were assessed with multivariate linear and logistic models. RESULTS: Anemia was observed in 21.7% and iron deficient erythropoiesis in 3.3% of women. For women with CRP <= 10 mg/L (n = 1260) 29.4% had depleted iron stores. Inadequate iron intakes were observed in 16% of premenopausal and <1% of postmenopausal women. Among food insecure women, higher long-chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) status, which reflects a more traditional food pattern, was associated with reduced risk of iron depletion. CONCLUSIONS: Iron depletion and anemia are a concern for Inuit women despite adequate total dietary iron intake primarily from heme sources. The high prevalence of H. pylori exposure, together with dietary iron adequacy, suggests an inflammation-driven iron deficiency and mild anemia. The anti-inflammatory properties of LC-PUFA may be important for iron status in this population.
    BMC Public Health 04/2013; 13(1):289. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Louise M Johnson-Down, Grace M Egeland
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid development, including the building of hydroelectric projects and roads in remote areas of Northern Quebec, Canada, has led to concerns about the contamination of traditional foods (TF) and a transition to a diet characterized by increased commercial food intake. A cross-sectional study of 850 Cree adults, aged ≥19 years, from 7 of the 9 Eeyouch communities was conducted during the spring and summer seasons of 2005-2008. Anthropometric measures were collected. TF and dietary intake were assessed using food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-h recalls. Obesity was high, with 77% of the women and 64% of the men classified as obese. Past-year TF consumption was 100%, and 41% of participants reported eating TF on the 24-h recall. TF intake as reported on both the FFQs and the 24-h recalls was higher in individuals aged >50 years of age and in men, relative to younger adults and women, respectively. TF consumption increased protein, vitamin D, iron, and magnesium in all individuals, and energy, cholesterol, magnesium, sodium, and zinc in men aged 19-50 years; it decreased vitamin C in men and women aged ≥51 years. Participants reported drinking a mean daily 0.78 ± 1.34 cans of soft drinks or other high-sugar beverages per day or 5.28% ± 8.92% of total energy. It is important to identify behaviours that are contributing to obesity and its health consequences in this population and to find culturally appropriate ways to promote the consumption of TF and to reduce the consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor beverages and food items.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 03/2013; 38(3):300-5. · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • R Lazzinnaro, G M Egeland
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 11/2012; · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study reports findings from a study of preschool-age Inuit children living in the Arctic regions of Canada and Greenland. Methods: We compare stature and obesity measures using cutoffs from the Centers for Disease Control and the International Obesity Task Force references. The sample is comprised of 1121 Inuit children (554 boys and 567 girls) aged 3-5 years living in Nunavut (n=376) and Nunavik (n=87), Canada, in the capital city of Nuuk, Greenland (n=86), and in Greenland's remaining towns and villages (n=572). Results: Greenland Inuit children were significantly taller than their Canadian counterparts, with greatest height and weight observed among children from Nuuk. Overall prevalence of stunting was low with the three cutoffs yielding similar values for height-for-age z-scores. Obesity prevalence was higher among Canadian Inuit children than their Greenland counterparts. Conclusions: Inuit children have stature values consistent with those of the Centers for Disease Control reference and low prevalence of stunting, though geographic variability in mean stature values between Canadian and Greenlandic samples likely reflects differences in both socioeconomic status and genetic admixture. Obesity prevalence is high among both Canadian and Greenland Inuit preschoolers, with children living in the city of Nuuk exhibiting lower obesity prevalence than children living in either Nunavut or Nunavik, Canada or Greenland's towns and villages. Varying obesity prevalence may reflect varying degrees of food security in remote locations as well as the influence of stature and sitting height which have not been well studied in young Inuit children.
    Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 10/2012; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The study's objective was to investigate the dietary correlates of an at-risk body mass index (BMI) among Inuit adults from thirty-six communities across the Canadian Arctic using data from the cross-sectional International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, conducted in 2007--2008. METHODS: The survey included assessments of 24-hr dietary recall, sociodemographics, physical activity, and anthropometry. Dietary characteristics of overweight and obesity were similar and therefore combined into one at- risk BMI category (>=25 kg/m2) for analyses. The relationship between an at-risk BMI and energy intake from macronutrients, high sugar drinks, high-fat foods, saturated fatty acids, and traditional foods were examined entering each dietary variable separately into a logistic regression model as an independent variable. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, region, kcalories, walking, smoking and alcohol consumption. Further multivariable models considered selected dietary variables together in one model. RESULTS: An at-risk BMI was present for 64% with a prevalence of overweight and obesity of 28% and 36%, respectively. Consumption of high-sugar drinks (>15.5% E) was significantly related with having an at-risk BMI (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2; 2.2), whereas the % E from total carbohydrate evaluated as a continuous variable and as quartiles was inversely related to an at-risk BMI (p-trend <=0.05) in multivariable analyses. While % E from high-fat foods was positively related to an at-risk BMI, the findings were not significant in a model controlling for high-sugar drinks and % E from carbohydrates. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is of public health concern among Inuit. The current findings highlight the obesogenic potential of high-sugar drink consumption in an ethnically distinct population undergoing rapid cultural changes and raises concerns regarding carbohydrate restricted diets. Health promotion programs aimed at preventing the development of an unhealthy body weight should focus on physical activity and the promotion of healthy diets with reduced intake of sugar drinks.
    Nutrition Journal 09/2012; 11(1):73. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 06/2012; 22(8):e17-9. · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium 06/2012; 25(2):49-53. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential importance of oxidative stress, measured by isoprostanes-related compounds, as non-traditional risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We planned to examine the relationship between concentrations of plasma F(2)-isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs), isofurans (IsoFs), measures of obesity and various cardiometabolic risk factors. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study using a sub-sample from the population of a survey conducted in the summer and fall 2007 and 2008 by Canadian Coastguard Ship Amundsen in 36 Canadian Arctic Inuit communities. Subjects included a subset (n = 233) of a total study population (n = 2595) with a mean age 42.56 ± 15.39 years and body mass index 27.78 ± 5.65 kg/m(2). Plasma levels of F(2)-IsoPs and IsoFs was determined by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (GC/NICI/MS) method; and their relationships to waist circumference (WC), blood pressure C reactive proteins (CRP), blood lipids and fasting glucose were assessed by multivariate analyses. Results: Plasma F(2)-IsoPs correlated positively with CRP (r =.132, P =.048) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r =.157, P =.024) after adjustment for age, sex and body mass index. IsoFs correlated with WC (r =.190, P =.005) and SBP (r =.137, P =.048). F2-IsoPs were not found elevated in smokers (P =.034), whereas IsoFs were decreased in smokers (P =.001). WC, SBP and sex were found to be major correlates of oxidative stress in Canadian Inuit. Conclusions: Plasma measures of F(2)-IsoPs and IsoFs increase with increased obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk factors, including CRP and blood pressure. Simultaneous measurement of IsoFs provides an advantageous mechanistic insight into oxidative stress not captured by F(2)-IsoPs alone.
    Free radical research 06/2012; 46(10):1258-66. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and low magnesium (Mg) intake and status are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, Mg homeostasis may be modified by GDM. We sought to determine if a history of GDM prospectively modifies associations between Mg and glycemic variables in mothers and their offspring. Plasma and dietary Mg, anthropometric, lifestyle and glycemic variables were assessed in mothers affected by GDM during 1989-1990, a comparative group of normoglycemic women, pregnant during the same time period, and the 15-year-old, nondiabetic daughters of affected and unaffected pregnancies (n = 332). Multivariate regression analyses evaluated the cross-sectional association between plasma and dietary Mg with glycemic variables in mothers and daughters. Plasma Mg was lower in mothers with a history of GDM in comparison to control mothers after adjustment for current type 2 diabetes, race and body mass index (0.90 ± 0.01 versus 0.96 ± 0.01 mmol/L; p = 0.002). Plasma Mg was significantly associated with insulin sensitivity and was inversely associated with fasting insulin in GDM mothers only (p<0.05). Plasma and dietary Mg were significantly inversely associated with glycated hemoglobin and fasting glucose, respectively, in nondiabetic teenage daughters. For fasting glucose, plasma Mg was inversely associated in GDM-born daughters only. Associations between plasma Mg and some glycemic variables may be stronger in mothers and offspring with a history of GDM.
    Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium 06/2012; 25(2):54-63. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging Inuit women are at increased risk for low vitamin D status due to habitation at higher latitudes, darker skin, and ongoing nutrition transition. Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration and higher risk of fracture have been separately reported in Inuit women, with particular relevance to postmenopausal women. We evaluated vitamin D status, forearm bone mineral density (fBMD), and nutrition in Inuit women ≥40 years. Women (n = 568) were randomly selected to participate in the 2007-2008 International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey from 36 Arctic communities. fBMD was measured using peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were derived from 24 h recall and food-frequency questionnaires. Fasting serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, and osteocalcin (OC) were measured using a LIAISON(®) automated analyzer. The weighted prevalence of women having 25(OH)D concentration below 37.5, 50, and 75 nmol/L was 7.2 %, 17.6 %, and 48.6 %, respectively, with older women having better status. The dietary density of most nutrients increased with age, as did traditional food intake. fBMD was low in 3 (1.4 %) premenopausal (Z score < -2) and 107 (29.6 %) postmenopausal (T score < -1.5) women. Regression revealed that either weight, body mass index, or percent body fat significantly predicted fBMD in premenopausal women, in addition to age and OC in postmenopausal women. Women ≥50 years have higher vitamin D status and more nutrient-dense diets than women 40-49 years. While measures of adiposity predicted fBMD in all women, additional predictors after menopause included age and bone turnover.
    Calcified Tissue International 04/2012; 90(5):384-95. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Premature ventricular complexes (PVC) predict cardiovascular mortality among several adult populations. Increased arrhythmia prevalence has been reported during controlled magnesium (Mg) depletion studies in adults. We thus hypothesized that serum magnesium (sMg) concentrations are inversely associated with the prevalence of PVC in adults at high cardiovascular risk. Anthropometric, demographic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed in 750 Cree adults, aged > 18 yrs, who participated in an age-stratified, cross-sectional health survey in Quebec, Canada. Holter electrocardiograms recorded heart rate variability and cardiac arrhythmias for two consecutive hours. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between sMg and PVC. PVC prevalence in adults with hypomagnesemia (sMg ≤ 0.70 mmol/L) was more than twice that of adults without hypomagnesemia (50% vs. 21%, p = 0.015); results were similar when adults with cardiovascular disease history were excluded. All hypomagnesemic adults with PVC had type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Prevalence of PVC declined across the sMg concentration gradient in adults with T2DM only (p < 0.001 for linear trend). In multivariate logistic regressions adjusted for age, sex, community, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, kidney disease, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering drug use, and blood docosahexaenoic acid concentrations, the odds ratio of PVC among T2DM subjects with sMg > 0.70 mmol/L was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.06-0.98) p = 0.046 compared to those with sMg ≤ 0.70 mmol/L. sMg concentrations were inversely associated with the prevalence of PVC in patients with T2DM in a dose response manner, indicating that suboptimal sMg may be a contributor to arrhythmias among patients with T2DM.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 03/2012; 11:23. · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • Catherine Huet, Renata Rosol, Grace M Egeland
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    ABSTRACT: Indigenous peoples experience a disproportionate burden of food insecurity and the Arctic is no exception. We therefore evaluated the prevalence, socio-demographic, and dietary correlates of food insecurity in the most comprehensive assessment of food insecurity in Arctic Canada. A cross-sectional survey of 1901 Inuit households was conducted in 2007-2008. Measurements included food insecurity, 24-h dietary recalls, socio-demographics, and anthropometry. Food insecurity was identified in 62.6% of households (95% CI = 60.3-64.9%) with 27.2% (95% CI = 25.1-29.3%) of households severely food insecure. The percent with an elevated BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat was lower among individuals from food insecure households compared to food secure households (P ≤ 0.001). Adults from food insecure households had a significantly lower Healthy Eating Index score and consumed fewer vegetables and fruit, grains, and dairy products, and consumed a greater percent of energy from high-sugar foods than adults from food secure households (P ≤ 0.05). Food insecurity was associated with household crowding, income support, public housing, single adult households, and having a home in need of major repairs (P ≤ 0.05). The prevalence of having an active hunter in the home was lower in food insecure compared to food secure households (P ≤ 0.05). Food insecurity prevalence is high in Inuit communities, with implications for diet quality that over the long-term would be anticipated to exacerbate the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Actions are required to improve food security that incorporate the traditional food system and healthy market food choices.
    Journal of Nutrition 03/2012; 142(3):541-7. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accelerated loss of traditional lifestyles may place Inuit at risk of iron depletion given that anemia has been observed among Arctic men. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of anemia, storage iron depletion, and iron overload and to identify correlates of iron status in Canadian Inuit men. In a cross-sectional survey of 994 men in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008, hemoglobin, serum ferritin (SF), soluble transferrin receptor (on a subset), CRP, RBC fatty acid composition, and Helicobacter pylori serology were measured in venous blood drawn from fasting men. Anthropometric, dietary, sociodemographic, and health data were collected. Dietary and nondietary correlates of iron status were assessed with multiple linear and logistic models. For men with CRP ≤10 mg/L (n = 804), 6.5% had depleted, 19.8% had low, and 10.3% had elevated iron stores. Anemia was moderately prevalent (16.1%), but iron deficiency anemia was less common (2.4%). There was a low probability of dietary iron inadequacy (2.4% < Estimated Average Requirement) and excess iron intakes (10.7% > Tolerable Upper Intake Level). Food-insecure men and those without a household hunter had a higher risk of low or depleted iron stores. Adiposity, traditional food intake, long-chain RBC PUFA status, and inflammation were positively associated with SF and food insecurity, smoking, and H. pylori seropositivity were negatively associated with SF. Despite a moderate prevalence of anemia, iron stores are largely adequate in this population, although lower than expected based on iron intake. The regulation of iron metabolism in this population and the high prevalence of anemia in older men warrants further investigation.
    Journal of Nutrition 02/2012; 142(4):764-70. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    Helga Saudny, Zhirong Cao, Grace M Egeland
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the extent to which demographic characteristics, clinical measurements and biomarkers were associated with poor self-reported health (SRH) among Inuit adults in the Canadian Arctic. Cross-sectional survey was adopted as the study design. The International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey carried out in 36 Canadian Arctic communities in 2007 and 2008 included Inuit men and women, aged 18 years or older, recruited from randomly selected households. The main outcome measure was SRH, which was dichotomized into good health (excellent, very good and good responses) and poor health (fair and poor responses). Of the 2,796 eligible households, 1,901 (68%) households and 2,595 participants took part in the survey. The weighted prevalence of poor SRH was 27.8%. Increasing age was significantly associated with poor SRH. The relative risk ratios for poor SRH was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-3.1) for men aged 50 years or older and 2.3 (95% CI 1.7-3.0) for women aged 50 years or older, compared with men and women aged 29 years or younger. After adjusting for age, gender and body mass index, poor SRH was significantly associated with smoking status (odds ratio [OR]=1.5; CI 1.1-2.0), at-risk fasting glucose levels (≥6.1 mmol/L) (OR=2.5; 95%; CI 1.5-4.2) and elevated hs C-reactive protein levels (>3-≤10 mg/L) (OR=2.1; 95% CI 1.4-3.1). Poor SRH was also significantly associated with a hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (high-risk waist circumference ≥102 cm for men and ≥88 cm for women with high triglyceride levels, ≥1.7 mmol/L), adjusted for age and gender, OR=1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.3. Clinically relevant indicators of chronic disease risk were related to subjective assessment of SRH among Inuit.
    International journal of circumpolar health. 01/2012; 71.
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    Natalia Zienczuk, Grace M Egeland
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among Inuit undergoing rapid cultural changes. A cross-sectional health survey of 2,592 Inuit adults from 36 communities in the Canadian Arctic. Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, respectively) and as characteristics were similar, groups were combined into an at-risk BMI category (BMI>25 kg/m2). Logistic regression was used to determine the association between various sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28 and 36%, respectively, with a total prevalence of overweight and obesity of 64%. In analyses of sociodemographic variables adjusted for age, gender and region, higher education, any employment, personal income, and private housing were all significantly positively correlated with an at-risk BMI (p≤0.001). Smoking, Inuit language as primary language spoken at home, and walking were inversely associated with overweight and obesity. The current findings highlight the social disparities in overweight and obesity prevalence in an ethnically distinct population undergoing rapid cultural changes.
    International journal of circumpolar health. 01/2012; 71:1-7.
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    Jessy El Hayek, Grace Egeland, Hope Weiler
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    ABSTRACT: Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32'-72° 40'N). Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296). Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall) and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin). Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.). Children divided by speed of sound (SoS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) quartiles were not different for age (years), sex (M/F), calcium (mg/d) and vitamin D intake (µg/d) and plasma 25(OH)D concentration (nmol/L). However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF) and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.
    International journal of circumpolar health. 01/2012; 71:18999.
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    Helga Saudny, Donna Leggee, Grace Egeland
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    ABSTRACT: The Canadian International Polar Year (IPY) program made it possible to undertake much needed health research in 3 jurisdictions within the Canadian Inuit Nunangat (homeland) over a 2-year period: Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), Nunavut Territory, and Nunatsiavut. The Adult Inuit Health Survey (IHS) was a cross-sectional survey and provides baseline data upon which future comparisons can be made for prospectively assessing factors leading to the progression of chronic diseases among Canadian Inuit. With the help of the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen, which was equipped with research and laboratory facilities, 33 coastal communities were visited; land survey teams visited 3 inland communities. The Adult IHS succeeded in obtaining important baseline information concerning the health status and living conditions of 2,595 adults living in ISR, Nunavut and Nunatsiavut. Information from this survey will be useful for future comparisons and the opportunity to link with the International Inuit Cohort, a follow-up evaluation, and for the development of future health policies and public health interventions.
    International journal of circumpolar health. 01/2012; 71.
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluate housing characteristics across Inuit regions in Canada that participated in the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY) Inuit Health Survey. A cross-sectional Inuit Health Survey. Housing characteristics were ascertained as part of the IPY Inuit Health Survey through interviews conducted in 33 coastal and 3 inland communities, representing all communities in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR) of NWT, Nunavut and Nunatsiavut of northern Labrador. Variable descriptive statistics were weighted and presented by region and by whether children were present or not in each household. A total of 2,796 Inuit households were approached, of which 68% participated (n=1,901 households). In ISR and Nunavut, approximately 20% of homes provided shelter to the homeless compared to 12% in Nunatsiavut (p≤0.05). The prevalence of public housing and household crowding also varied by region, with Nunavut having a statistically significantly higher prevalence of crowding (30%) than Nunatsiavut (12%) and ISR (12%). Household crowding was more prevalent among homes with children. Overall, 40% of homes were in need of major repairs and problems with mould were reported in 20% of households. Adequate shelter is a basic human need and an essential foundation for thriving population health. The results indicate that improvements in housing indicators are needed. Of utmost concern is the high prevalence of overcrowding in Inuit homes with children, which poses potential consequences for children's health and well-being. Further, the high percentage of homes providing shelter to the homeless suggests that hidden homelessness needs to be addressed by further research and program implementation.
    International journal of circumpolar health. 12/2011; 70(5):520-31.

Publication Stats

803 Citations
271.32 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2013
    • McGill University
      • • School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition
      • • Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment
      • • Department of Geography
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2012
    • University of Bergen
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
    • University of Manitoba
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    • Norwegian Institute of Public Health
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 2011
    • University of Ottawa
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Bellevue University
      Bellevue, Nebraska, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1995–1998
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • National Center for Environmental Health
      Druid Hills, GA, United States