Grace M Egeland

McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (98)395 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims Indigenous people worldwide have a greater disease burden than their non-aboriginal counterparts with health challenges that include increased obesity and higher prevalence of diabetes. We investigate the relationships of dietary patterns with nutritional biomarkers, selected environmental contaminants and measures of insulin resistance in the Cree (Eeyouch) of northern Québec Canada. Methods and Results The cross-sectional ‘Nituuchischaayihitaau Aschii: A Multi-Community Environment-and-Health Study in Iiyiyiu Aschii’ recruited 835 adult participants (≥18 y) from 7 communities in the James Bay region of northern Québec. The three dietary patterns identified by principal component analysis (PCA) were: inland and coastal patterns with loadings on traditional foods, and a junk food pattern with high-fat and high-sugar foods. We investigated dietary patterns scores (in quantiles) in relation with nutritional biomarkers, environmental contaminants, anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, and insulin resistance. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used as surrogate markers of insulin resistance. ANCOVA ascertained relationships between dietary patterns relationship and outcomes. Greater scores for the traditional patterns were associated with higher levels of n-3 fatty acids, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (P trend <0.001). Higher scores for the junk food pattern were associated with lower levels of PCBs and Vitamin D, but higher fasting plasma insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusion Our results suggest that poor diet quality accompanied greater insulin resistance. Impacts of diet quality on insulin resistance, as a sign of metabolism perturbation, deserve more attention in this indigenous population with high rates of obesity and diabetes.
    Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 08/2014; · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A mixed-methods approach was used to develop a culturally appropriate health intervention over radio within the Inuit community of Pangnirtung, Nunavut (NU), Canada. The radio dramas were developed, recorded and tested pre-intervention through the use of Participatory Process and informed by the extended elaboration likelihood model (EELM) for education-communication. The radio messages were tested in two focus groups (n = 4 and n = 5) to determine fidelity of the radio dramas to the EELM theory. Focus group feedback identified that revisions needed to be made to two characteristics required of educational programmes by the EELM theorem: first, the quality of the production was improved by adding Inuit youth recorded music and second, the homophily (relatability of characters) of radio dramas was improved by re-recording the dramas with voices of local youth who had been trained in media communication studies. These adjustments would not have been implemented had pre-intervention testing of the radio dramas not taken place and could have reduced effectiveness of the overall intervention. Therefore, it is highly recommended that media tools for health communication/education be tested with the intended target audience before commencement of programmes. Participatory Process was identified to be a powerful tool in the development and sustainability of culturally appropriate community health programming.
    Health Promotion International 06/2014; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Assess sensitivity and specificity of each of the 18 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) questionnaire items to determine whether a rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible in an Inuit population. METHODS: Food insecurity prevalence was assessed by the 18-item USDA HFSSM in a randomized sample of Inuit households participating in the Inuit Health Survey and the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. Questions were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, predictive value (+/−), and total percent accuracy for adult and child food insecurity (yes/no). Child food security items were evaluated for both surveys. RESULTS: For children, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when it was not possible to feed the children a healthy meal because there was not enough money?” had the best performance in both samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 97.3%, respectively, for the Inuit Health Survey, and 88.5% and 95.4% for the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. For adults, the question “In the last 12 months, were there times when the food for you and your family just did not last and there was no money to buy more?” demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 93.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid assessment of child and adult food insecurity is feasible and may be a useful tool for health care and social service providers. However, as prevalence and severity of food insecurity change over time, rapid assessment techniques should not replace periodic screening by using the full USDA HFSSM questionnaire.
    PEDIATRICS 06/2014; 133(6):1616. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite animal and in vitro studies demonstrating pro-oxidative effects of Hg, previous human work showed no relationship between tissue Hg and plasma levels of F2- isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), a whole body oxidative stress marker. We hypothesized that another isoprostane species, isofurans (IsoFs), was a more sensitive indicator of Hgmediated oxidative stress, which can be modified by tissue Se status. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving from a random subset (n=233) of Inuit adults from a population-based survey (n=2595) of 36 Canadian Arctic Inuit Communities to assess the relationships of plasma isoprostanes to Se and Hg status indicators. F2-IsoPs were inversely correlated with blood Se (r=-.186, p=.005) and toenail Se (r=-.146, p=.044) but not correlated with Hg. IsoFs were inversely correlated with blood Se (r=-.164, p=.014) and positively correlated with Hg (r=.228, p<.001) and Hg:Se (r=.340, p<.001). The strength of the correlations remained unchanged after multivariate adjustments. Multivariate analysis showed that F2-IsoPs were not positively associated with Hg but with Hg:Se (β=.148, p=.021). We conclude that Se and Hg status and their interactions are important factors modulating F2-IsoPs and IsoFs levels such that the Inuit may be protected from Hg-induced oxidative stress because of their high Se status.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 05/2013; · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated concentrations of mercury (Hg) are commonly found in the traditional foods, including fish and marine mammals, of Inuit living in Canada's Arctic. As a result, Inuit often have higher dietary Hg intake and elevated Hg blood concentrations. However, these same traditional foods are excellent sources of essential nutrients. The goals of this study were 1) to identify the traditional food sources of Hg exposure for Inuit, 2) to estimate the percentage of Inuit who meet specific nutrient Dietary Reference Intakes and/or exceed the Toxicological Reference Values (TRVs), and 3) to evaluate options that maximize nutrient intake while minimizing contaminant exposure. A participatory cross-sectional survey was designed in consultation with Inuit in 3 Canadian Arctic jurisdictions (Nunatsiavut, Nunavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region). Estimated intakes for EPA (20:5n3) and DHA (22:6n3) met suggested dietary targets, and estimated selenium (Se) intake fell within the Acceptable Range of Oral Intake. Estimated intakes of Hg (rs = 0.41, P < 0.001), Se (rs = 0.44, P < 0.001), EPA (rs = 0.32, P < 0.001), and DHA (rs = 0.28, P < 0.001) were correlated with their respective blood concentrations. Mean estimated Hg intake (7.9 μg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ wk(-1)) exceeded the TRV of 5.0 μg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ wk(-1), with 35% of the population above this guideline. Because the estimated intakes of each of the nutrients were strongly correlated (Se: rs = 0.92, P < 0.001; EPA: rs = 0.82, P < 0.001; DHA: rs = 0.81, P < 0.001) with estimated Hg intake, efforts to decrease Hg exposure must emphasize the overall healthfulness of traditional foods and be designed to prevent concomitant harm to the nutrient intakes of Inuit.
    Journal of Nutrition 04/2013; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: High rates of iron deficiency and anemia are common among Inuit and Arctic women despite a traditional diet based on animal source foods. However, representative data on iron status and relevant determinants for this population are lacking. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of anemia and depletion of iron stores, then to identify correlates of iron status in non-pregnant Canadian Inuit women. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey of 1550 women in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (on a subset), C-reactive protein (CRP), RBC fatty acid composition, and H pylori serology were analyzed on fasting venous blood. Sociodemographic, food security status, anthropometric, dietary, and health data were collected. Correlates of iron status were assessed with multivariate linear and logistic models. RESULTS: Anemia was observed in 21.7% and iron deficient erythropoiesis in 3.3% of women. For women with CRP <= 10 mg/L (n = 1260) 29.4% had depleted iron stores. Inadequate iron intakes were observed in 16% of premenopausal and <1% of postmenopausal women. Among food insecure women, higher long-chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) status, which reflects a more traditional food pattern, was associated with reduced risk of iron depletion. CONCLUSIONS: Iron depletion and anemia are a concern for Inuit women despite adequate total dietary iron intake primarily from heme sources. The high prevalence of H. pylori exposure, together with dietary iron adequacy, suggests an inflammation-driven iron deficiency and mild anemia. The anti-inflammatory properties of LC-PUFA may be important for iron status in this population.
    BMC Public Health 04/2013; 13(1):289. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    Louise M Johnson-Down, Grace M Egeland
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid development, including the building of hydroelectric projects and roads in remote areas of Northern Quebec, Canada, has led to concerns about the contamination of traditional foods (TF) and a transition to a diet characterized by increased commercial food intake. A cross-sectional study of 850 Cree adults, aged ≥19 years, from 7 of the 9 Eeyouch communities was conducted during the spring and summer seasons of 2005-2008. Anthropometric measures were collected. TF and dietary intake were assessed using food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-h recalls. Obesity was high, with 77% of the women and 64% of the men classified as obese. Past-year TF consumption was 100%, and 41% of participants reported eating TF on the 24-h recall. TF intake as reported on both the FFQs and the 24-h recalls was higher in individuals aged >50 years of age and in men, relative to younger adults and women, respectively. TF consumption increased protein, vitamin D, iron, and magnesium in all individuals, and energy, cholesterol, magnesium, sodium, and zinc in men aged 19-50 years; it decreased vitamin C in men and women aged ≥51 years. Participants reported drinking a mean daily 0.78 ± 1.34 cans of soft drinks or other high-sugar beverages per day or 5.28% ± 8.92% of total energy. It is important to identify behaviours that are contributing to obesity and its health consequences in this population and to find culturally appropriate ways to promote the consumption of TF and to reduce the consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor beverages and food items.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 03/2013; 38(3):300-5. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    Helga Saudny, Donna Leggee, Grace Egeland
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    ABSTRACT: The Canadian International Polar Year (IPY) program made it possible to undertake much needed health research in 3 jurisdictions within the Canadian Inuit Nunangat (homeland) over a 2-year period: Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), Nunavut Territory, and Nunatsiavut. The Adult Inuit Health Survey (IHS) was a cross-sectional survey and provides baseline data upon which future comparisons can be made for prospectively assessing factors leading to the progression of chronic diseases among Canadian Inuit. With the help of the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen, which was equipped with research and laboratory facilities, 33 coastal communities were visited; land survey teams visited 3 inland communities. The Adult IHS succeeded in obtaining important baseline information concerning the health status and living conditions of 2,595 adults living in ISR, Nunavut and Nunatsiavut. Information from this survey will be useful for future comparisons and the opportunity to link with the International Inuit Cohort, a follow-up evaluation, and for the development of future health policies and public health interventions.
    International journal of circumpolar health. 11/2012; 71.
  • R Lazzinnaro, G M Egeland
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 11/2012; · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study reports findings from a study of preschool-age Inuit children living in the Arctic regions of Canada and Greenland. Methods: We compare stature and obesity measures using cutoffs from the Centers for Disease Control and the International Obesity Task Force references. The sample is comprised of 1121 Inuit children (554 boys and 567 girls) aged 3-5 years living in Nunavut (n=376) and Nunavik (n=87), Canada, in the capital city of Nuuk, Greenland (n=86), and in Greenland's remaining towns and villages (n=572). Results: Greenland Inuit children were significantly taller than their Canadian counterparts, with greatest height and weight observed among children from Nuuk. Overall prevalence of stunting was low with the three cutoffs yielding similar values for height-for-age z-scores. Obesity prevalence was higher among Canadian Inuit children than their Greenland counterparts. Conclusions: Inuit children have stature values consistent with those of the Centers for Disease Control reference and low prevalence of stunting, though geographic variability in mean stature values between Canadian and Greenlandic samples likely reflects differences in both socioeconomic status and genetic admixture. Obesity prevalence is high among both Canadian and Greenland Inuit preschoolers, with children living in the city of Nuuk exhibiting lower obesity prevalence than children living in either Nunavut or Nunavik, Canada or Greenland's towns and villages. Varying obesity prevalence may reflect varying degrees of food security in remote locations as well as the influence of stature and sitting height which have not been well studied in young Inuit children.
    Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 10/2012; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The study's objective was to investigate the dietary correlates of an at-risk body mass index (BMI) among Inuit adults from thirty-six communities across the Canadian Arctic using data from the cross-sectional International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, conducted in 2007--2008. METHODS: The survey included assessments of 24-hr dietary recall, sociodemographics, physical activity, and anthropometry. Dietary characteristics of overweight and obesity were similar and therefore combined into one at- risk BMI category (>=25 kg/m2) for analyses. The relationship between an at-risk BMI and energy intake from macronutrients, high sugar drinks, high-fat foods, saturated fatty acids, and traditional foods were examined entering each dietary variable separately into a logistic regression model as an independent variable. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, region, kcalories, walking, smoking and alcohol consumption. Further multivariable models considered selected dietary variables together in one model. RESULTS: An at-risk BMI was present for 64% with a prevalence of overweight and obesity of 28% and 36%, respectively. Consumption of high-sugar drinks (>15.5% E) was significantly related with having an at-risk BMI (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2; 2.2), whereas the % E from total carbohydrate evaluated as a continuous variable and as quartiles was inversely related to an at-risk BMI (p-trend <=0.05) in multivariable analyses. While % E from high-fat foods was positively related to an at-risk BMI, the findings were not significant in a model controlling for high-sugar drinks and % E from carbohydrates. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is of public health concern among Inuit. The current findings highlight the obesogenic potential of high-sugar drink consumption in an ethnically distinct population undergoing rapid cultural changes and raises concerns regarding carbohydrate restricted diets. Health promotion programs aimed at preventing the development of an unhealthy body weight should focus on physical activity and the promotion of healthy diets with reduced intake of sugar drinks.
    Nutrition Journal 09/2012; 11(1):73. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    Science of The Total Environment 08/2012; 431:437–438. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    Jessy El Hayek, Grace Egeland, Hope Weiler
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    ABSTRACT: Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32'-72° 40'N). Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296). Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall) and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin). Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.). Children divided by speed of sound (SoS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) quartiles were not different for age (years), sex (M/F), calcium (mg/d) and vitamin D intake (µg/d) and plasma 25(OH)D concentration (nmol/L). However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF) and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.
    International journal of circumpolar health. 07/2012; 71:18999.
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    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 06/2012; 22(8):e17-9. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential importance of oxidative stress, measured by isoprostanes-related compounds, as non-traditional risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We planned to examine the relationship between concentrations of plasma F(2)-isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs), isofurans (IsoFs), measures of obesity and various cardiometabolic risk factors. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study using a sub-sample from the population of a survey conducted in the summer and fall 2007 and 2008 by Canadian Coastguard Ship Amundsen in 36 Canadian Arctic Inuit communities. Subjects included a subset (n = 233) of a total study population (n = 2595) with a mean age 42.56 ± 15.39 years and body mass index 27.78 ± 5.65 kg/m(2). Plasma levels of F(2)-IsoPs and IsoFs was determined by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (GC/NICI/MS) method; and their relationships to waist circumference (WC), blood pressure C reactive proteins (CRP), blood lipids and fasting glucose were assessed by multivariate analyses. Results: Plasma F(2)-IsoPs correlated positively with CRP (r =.132, P =.048) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r =.157, P =.024) after adjustment for age, sex and body mass index. IsoFs correlated with WC (r =.190, P =.005) and SBP (r =.137, P =.048). F2-IsoPs were not found elevated in smokers (P =.034), whereas IsoFs were decreased in smokers (P =.001). WC, SBP and sex were found to be major correlates of oxidative stress in Canadian Inuit. Conclusions: Plasma measures of F(2)-IsoPs and IsoFs increase with increased obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk factors, including CRP and blood pressure. Simultaneous measurement of IsoFs provides an advantageous mechanistic insight into oxidative stress not captured by F(2)-IsoPs alone.
    Free Radical Research 06/2012; 46(10):1258-66. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and low magnesium (Mg) intake and status are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, Mg homeostasis may be modified by GDM. We sought to determine if a history of GDM prospectively modifies associations between Mg and glycemic variables in mothers and their offspring. Plasma and dietary Mg, anthropometric, lifestyle and glycemic variables were assessed in mothers affected by GDM during 1989-1990, a comparative group of normoglycemic women, pregnant during the same time period, and the 15-year-old, nondiabetic daughters of affected and unaffected pregnancies (n = 332). Multivariate regression analyses evaluated the cross-sectional association between plasma and dietary Mg with glycemic variables in mothers and daughters. Plasma Mg was lower in mothers with a history of GDM in comparison to control mothers after adjustment for current type 2 diabetes, race and body mass index (0.90 ± 0.01 versus 0.96 ± 0.01 mmol/L; p = 0.002). Plasma Mg was significantly associated with insulin sensitivity and was inversely associated with fasting insulin in GDM mothers only (p<0.05). Plasma and dietary Mg were significantly inversely associated with glycated hemoglobin and fasting glucose, respectively, in nondiabetic teenage daughters. For fasting glucose, plasma Mg was inversely associated in GDM-born daughters only. Associations between plasma Mg and some glycemic variables may be stronger in mothers and offspring with a history of GDM.
    Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium 06/2012; 25(2):54-63. · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium 06/2012; 25(2):49-53. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    Natalia Zienczuk, Grace M Egeland
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among Inuit undergoing rapid cultural changes. A cross-sectional health survey of 2,592 Inuit adults from 36 communities in the Canadian Arctic. Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, respectively) and as characteristics were similar, groups were combined into an at-risk BMI category (BMI>25 kg/m2). Logistic regression was used to determine the association between various sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28 and 36%, respectively, with a total prevalence of overweight and obesity of 64%. In analyses of sociodemographic variables adjusted for age, gender and region, higher education, any employment, personal income, and private housing were all significantly positively correlated with an at-risk BMI (p≤0.001). Smoking, Inuit language as primary language spoken at home, and walking were inversely associated with overweight and obesity. The current findings highlight the social disparities in overweight and obesity prevalence in an ethnically distinct population undergoing rapid cultural changes.
    International journal of circumpolar health. 05/2012; 71:1-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Aging Inuit women are at increased risk for low vitamin D status due to habitation at higher latitudes, darker skin, and ongoing nutrition transition. Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration and higher risk of fracture have been separately reported in Inuit women, with particular relevance to postmenopausal women. We evaluated vitamin D status, forearm bone mineral density (fBMD), and nutrition in Inuit women ≥40 years. Women (n = 568) were randomly selected to participate in the 2007-2008 International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey from 36 Arctic communities. fBMD was measured using peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were derived from 24 h recall and food-frequency questionnaires. Fasting serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, and osteocalcin (OC) were measured using a LIAISON(®) automated analyzer. The weighted prevalence of women having 25(OH)D concentration below 37.5, 50, and 75 nmol/L was 7.2 %, 17.6 %, and 48.6 %, respectively, with older women having better status. The dietary density of most nutrients increased with age, as did traditional food intake. fBMD was low in 3 (1.4 %) premenopausal (Z score < -2) and 107 (29.6 %) postmenopausal (T score < -1.5) women. Regression revealed that either weight, body mass index, or percent body fat significantly predicted fBMD in premenopausal women, in addition to age and OC in postmenopausal women. Women ≥50 years have higher vitamin D status and more nutrient-dense diets than women 40-49 years. While measures of adiposity predicted fBMD in all women, additional predictors after menopause included age and bone turnover.
    Calcified Tissue International 04/2012; 90(5):384-95. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Premature ventricular complexes (PVC) predict cardiovascular mortality among several adult populations. Increased arrhythmia prevalence has been reported during controlled magnesium (Mg) depletion studies in adults. We thus hypothesized that serum magnesium (sMg) concentrations are inversely associated with the prevalence of PVC in adults at high cardiovascular risk. Anthropometric, demographic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed in 750 Cree adults, aged > 18 yrs, who participated in an age-stratified, cross-sectional health survey in Quebec, Canada. Holter electrocardiograms recorded heart rate variability and cardiac arrhythmias for two consecutive hours. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between sMg and PVC. PVC prevalence in adults with hypomagnesemia (sMg ≤ 0.70 mmol/L) was more than twice that of adults without hypomagnesemia (50% vs. 21%, p = 0.015); results were similar when adults with cardiovascular disease history were excluded. All hypomagnesemic adults with PVC had type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Prevalence of PVC declined across the sMg concentration gradient in adults with T2DM only (p < 0.001 for linear trend). In multivariate logistic regressions adjusted for age, sex, community, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, kidney disease, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering drug use, and blood docosahexaenoic acid concentrations, the odds ratio of PVC among T2DM subjects with sMg > 0.70 mmol/L was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.06-0.98) p = 0.046 compared to those with sMg ≤ 0.70 mmol/L. sMg concentrations were inversely associated with the prevalence of PVC in patients with T2DM in a dose response manner, indicating that suboptimal sMg may be a contributor to arrhythmias among patients with T2DM.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 03/2012; 11:23. · 3.71 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
395.00 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2014
    • McGill University
      • • Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment
      • • School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition
      • • Department of Geography
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2012
    • Norwegian Institute of Public Health
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
    • University of Manitoba
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2000–2012
    • University of Bergen
      • Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2011
    • University of Ottawa
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Bellevue University
      Bellevue, Nebraska, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1995–1998
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • National Center for Environmental Health
      Druid Hills, GA, United States