[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distributions of organic pollutants (like hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and pesticides) and the risks on the ecosystem were studied in the Durance River and the Berre lagoon (France). High levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons were observed in all stations (1399 to 11,202 μg kg(-1) dw). The n-alkanes were mainly from terrigenous origin confirmed by the values of different ratios calculated (carbon preference index (CPI), natural n-alkanes ratio (NAR), terrigenous/aquatic ratio (TAR), and ratio of low molecular weight to high molecular weight (LMW/HMW)). Total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the surface sediments of the Durance River and Berre lagoon are 57-1528 and 512-863 μg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Several ratios between parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons showed that the sources of hydrocarbons in the sediments were generally more pyrolytic than petrogenic. The sum of seven PCB contents ranged from 0.03 to 13.13 μg kg(-1) dw. Higher levels of PCBs were detected in sediments from the northern parts of the Berre lagoon (stations B1 and B3). Total pesticides contents ranged from 0.02 to 7.15 μg kg(-1) dw. Among these compounds, ∑DDE and ∑DDT contents ranged, respectively, from 0.35 to 1.65 and from 0.37 to 1.52 μg kg(-1) dw. However, PAH and PCB levels are not high enough to be a threat to aquatic organisms and human beings. Total PAH levels were below the effects range low (ERL) of 3500 μg kg(-1) dw. For PCBs, only two stations (B1 and B3) are higher than the effect range median (ERM) of 180 μg kg(-1) dw. For endrin (pesticide), the concentrations are between the ERL (0.02 μg kg(-1) dw) and the ERM (45 μg kg(-1) dw).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surface sediments from the Huveaune River were analyzed for n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides (OCs and OPs) by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Concentrations of total alkanes ranged from 184 to 26,780 μg·kg− 1 sediment dry weight (dw) with a mean concentration of 6126 ± 8006 μg·kg− 1 dw, concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 572 to 4235 μg·kg− 1 dw with a mean concentration of 1966 ± 1104 μg·kg− 1 dw, concentrations of total PCB ranged from 2.8 to 435 μg·kg− 1 dw with a mean concentration of 148 ± 164 μg·kg− 1 dw and concentrations of total pesticides ranged from 0.07 to 1.25 μg·kg− 1 dw with a mean concentration of 1.23 ± 1.29 μg·kg− 1 dw. The spatial distribution of POPs reveals that pollutant concentration is relatively higher at the mouth of the river. The molecular indices of specific n-alkanes (CPI, NAR and TAR) and molecular indices of PAHs (Ant/(Ant + Phe), Fl/(Fl + Pyr), BaA/(BaA + Chry), IPyr/(Ipyr + BghiP)) were calculated to evaluate the possible sources of hydrocarbons. These molecular indices suggest mainly pyrolytic inputs which are markedly biogenic. All contaminant levels were also compared with Sediments Quality Guidelines (SQG) showing that the contamination levels in all stations were most of the time lower than their respective SQG. While, for PCBs, five stations (H5, H6, H7, H8 and H9) were higher than their effect range median (ERM) values which may indicate high potential toxicity of the sediment with probable adverse effects to the living biota.
Science of The Total Environment 04/2014; 478:141–151. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.065 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aliphatics (n-alkanes) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surface sediments
collected from 12 sampling points (P1–P12) of sewage discharge to the sea from the wastewater treatment plant of Cortiou (France). Total n-alkanes and PAHs concentrations ranged from 34 to 2,155 and 696 to 10,700 lg kg-1, respectively. Some specific hydrocarbon indexes suggested that terrestrial biogenic inputs are predominant compared to marine sources and that pyrolytic sources derived from wood and biomass combustion contribute to PAHs in the surface sediments. Total linear alkyl benzenes in Cortiou sediments ranged from 42.9 to 502.3 lg kg-1. Low internal and external (I/E) isomers ratio (P0) suggests that inadequately treated sewage is discharged into the marine environment while some environmental processes might change I/E ratios during transport seaward (P1–P12). The high contaminant levels followed by the cumulative concentration of several compounds may lead to elevated toxicity levels in the sediments.
International journal of Environmental Science and Technology 02/2013; 12(2). DOI:10.1007/s13762-013-0430-x · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The future 'Calanque National Park' coastlines of the Bouches-du-Rhône and Var departments in France, constitute one of the ten biodiversity hot spots identified in the Mediterranean basin that receives industrial and urban wastewaters discharged from Marseille and its suburbs.
Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediments collected from 12 sampling sites (C1-C12) of sewage discharge to the sea from the wastewater treatment plant of Cortiou-Marseille. This study aims to determine the extent of these compounds in the sediments and to establish the possible sources of these contaminants.
Total pesticides in the sediments ranged from 1.2 to 190.6 ng g(-1) dry weight of sediment. The highest value was found at station C1, with a decreasing trend in total OC concentrations seaward. Among these compounds, the concentrations of the sum of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ΣDDT) were the highest, ranging from 0.7 to 114.3 ng g(-1). PCB concentrations, expressed as equivalent to Arochlor 1260, varied from 9.1 to 226.9 ng g(-1). Individually, the dominant coplanar PCB congeners CB-153, CB-138 and CB-101. Generally, PCB concentrations at stations C2, C3, C5 and C7 were higher than those at stations C10, C11 and C12. Through some pollution indices, we showed the long-term contamination input of these OCs (DDT, endosulfan, HCH and heptachlor cases) rather than a recent release resulting from degradation and long-term weathering (dieldrin, aldrin and methoxychlor cases). Occurrence of PCBs might be due to their resistance to degradation processes or/and chronic inputs.
By comparison with available sediment quality guideline (SQG) values, the environmental significance and toxicological implications of PCBs and OCs (i) reveal the probable adverse effects for the sediments from C1, C5, C6, C9 and (ii) confirm the adverse effect for marine biota and more particularly for benthic communities at C2-C4, C7 and C8.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11/2011; 19(5):1524-35. DOI:10.1007/s11356-011-0640-z · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Arc River and Berre lagoon are one of important river basin hydrosystem in the South of France that receives industrial and municipal wastewaters from the adjacent area.
Due to its social and economic impact as well as ecological function of basin, an assessment of environmental risk due to mobilization of contaminants is necessary. Thus, the study aims to determine the spatial distribution of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides in surface sediments and their potential origins by using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.
Total alkanes concentrations ranged from 563 to 5,068 μg kg(-1) sediment dry weight (dw), the sum of 17 PAHs ranged from 153 to 1,311 μg kg(-1) dw, the sum of seven PCBs concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 466.8 μg kg(-1) dw, and the total pesticides concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 7.15 μg kg(-1) dw. Ratios of specific n-alcanes (carbon preference index, natural n-alkanes ratio, and terrigenous/aquatic ratio) and ratios of selected PAH (anthracene (Ant)/(Ant + Phe), fluoranthene (Fl)/(Fl + pyrène (Pyr)), BaA/(BaA + chrysene (Chry)), indeno[1,2,3,c,d]pyrene (IPyr)/(IPyr + BghiP)) were calculated to evaluate the possible sources of hydrocarbons.
The evaluations suggest the sources of hydrocarbons in the sediments were generally biogenic and markedly more pyrolytic rather than petrogenic. In the perspectives of environmental risk assessment, all contaminants levels were also compared with sediments quality guidelines (SQG) resulting that the contamination levels in all stations were most of the time lower than their respective SQG. While, for PCBs concentrations, three stations (A8, B1, and B2) were higher than their effect range median values which may indicate high potential toxicity of the sediment with probable adverse effects to the living biota.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 08/2011; 19(2):559-76. DOI:10.1007/s11356-011-0582-5 · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The i.r. absorption spectra in different physical states and the Raman spectra in the liquid or solid state of 5-monosubstituted isothiazole derivatives, C3NSH2Y (Y = CH3, CD3, Cl, Br, I) have been analyzed. An assignment of the fundamental modes of vibration of these molecules is given.
Canadian Journal of Chemistry 02/2011; 53(11):1642-1646. DOI:10.1139/v75-231 · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The infrared absorption spectra in different physical states (liquid, solution, vapor) and the Raman spectra in the liquid or solid state of di- and trisubstituted isothiazole derivatives have been analyzed. For some compounds a study of the normal vibrations has also been done. An assignment of the fundamental modes of vibration of these molecules is given and discussed.
Canadian Journal of Chemistry 02/2011; 55(12):2302-2309. DOI:10.1139/v77-316 · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nodules of fossil resin or amber, first drifted and then deposited in the marine series with cephalopods, were discovered in several areas of High-Provence, in geological series of the Cretaceous system. These areas are located around the Mountain of Lure; amber nodules have been found in the upper Albian (Ongles, Revest-des-Brousses) and in the lower Cenomanian (Saint-Étienne-les-Orgues, Aubignosc and Salignac). These ambers have very homogeneous and characteristic FTIR spectra, making it possible to distinguish them not only from more recent ambers of the upper Cretaceous of Provence (Santonian), but also from tertiary ambers of the Baltic sea. These organic matters in marine environment, brought by the currents and deposited in shallow waters of the Ventoux-Lure area, are in agreement with close emerged grounds, which were set up by the Albo-Cenomanian tectonic movements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An archaebacterium (strain EH4) able to biodegrade saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons has been isolated from a sail-marsh. Maximum growth on eicosane (62% of biodegradation, 10 h generation time) was reached in a medium prepared with a natural hypersaline water collected from a salt-marsh (3.5 mol/1 NaCl concentration). No growth on hydrocarbons was observed for NaCl concentration lower than 1.8 mol/1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diamond crystal ATR FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid technique with virtually no sample preparation which requires small sample amounts and showed potential in the study of ambers. FTIR spectra of ambers present discriminating patterns and can be used to distinguish amber from immature resins as copal, to determine local or Baltic origin of archaeological ambers and to detect most of the falsifications encountered in the amber commercialisation.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 09/2007; 67(5):1407-11. DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2006.10.033 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyrolyser-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soil without preliminary extraction. Experimental research methodology was used to obtain optimal performance of the system. After determination of the main factors (desorption time, Curie point temperature, carrier gas flow), modeling was done using a Box-Behnken matrix. Study of the response surface led to factor values that optimize the experimental response and achieve better chromatographic results.
Environmental Research 07/2007; 104(2):209-15. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2004.06.008 · 4.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sedimentary hydrocarbons have been studied quantitatively and qualitatively in 11 coastal stations located in the Gulf of Fos (French Mediterranean coast). Hydrocarbon levels ranged from 10 to 260 mg kg(-1) sed. dry weight. A new parameter "NAR" (Natural n-alkane ratio) is proposed to evaluate the contribution of terrestrial inputs of hydrocarbons in the sediments. The origins of hydrocarbons are multiple: terrestrial inputs, biogenic, pyrolytic (industry emissions mainly steel and iron industries, ship and road traffic). Generally, the main source of contamination is not petroleum. Several ratios between parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons show that the sources of hydrocarbons in the sediments are generally much more pyrolytic than petrogenic.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work presents the results of the determination of total hydrocarbons in marine samples using conventional infrared grating spectrometers and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers. These results given by the two methods are compared and discussed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy allows many difficult measurements to be made much more easily. The importance of this technique is pointed out as regards the detection threshold of the hydrocarbons, the accuracy, the sensitivity and the considerable time saving.
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 12/2006; 21(3):239-260. DOI:10.1080/03067318508078385 · 1.30 Impact Factor