[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV infection has commonly been found to affect lipid profile and antioxidant defense.
To determine the effects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and viral subtype on patient's cholesterol and oxidative stress markers, and determine whether in the absence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), these biochemical parameters could be useful in patient's management and monitoring disease progression in Cameroon. For this purpose, we measured total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDLC), HDL cholesterol (HDLC), total antioxidant ability (TAA), lipid peroxidation indices (LPI), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in HIV negative persons and HIV positive HAART-naïve patients infected with HIV-1 group M subtypes.
We measured serum TC, LDLC, HDLC, plasma MDA, and TAA concentrations, and calculated LPI indices in 151 HIV-positive HAART-naïve patients and 134 seronegative controls. We also performed gene sequence analysis on samples from 30 patients to determine the effect of viral genotypes on these biochemical parameters. We also determined the correlation between CD4 cell count and the above biochemical parameters.
We obtained the following controls/patients values for TC (1.96±0.54/1. 12±0. 48 g/l), LDLC (0. 67±0. 46/0. 43±0. 36 g/l), HDLC (105. 51±28. 10/46. 54±23. 36 mg/dl) TAA (0. 63±0. 17/0. 16±0. 16 mM), MDA (0. 20±0. 07/0. 41±0. 10 µM) and LPI (0. 34±0. 14/26. 02±74. 40). In each case, the difference between the controls and patients was statistically significant (p<0.05). There was a positive and statistically significant Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and HDLC (r = +0.272; p<0.01), TAA (r = +0.199; p<0.05) and a negative and statistically significant Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and LPI (r = -0.166; p<0.05). Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and TC, CD4cell count and LDLC was positive but not statistically significant while it was negative but not statistically significant with MDA. The different subtypes obtained after sequencing were CRF02_AG (43.3%), CRF01_AE (20%), A1 (23.3%), H (6.7%), and G (6.7%). None of the HIV-1 subtypes significantly influenced the levels of the biochemical parameters, but by grouping them as pure subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), the CRF significantly influenced TC levels. TC was significantly lower in patients infected with CRF (0.87±0.27 g/l) compared to patients infected with pure HIV-1 subtypes (1.32±0.68 g/l) (p<0.017). MDA levels were also significantly higher in patients infected with HIV-1CRF01_AE (0.50±0.10 µM), compared to patients infected with CRF02_AG (0. 38±0. 08 µM) (p<0.018).
These results show that HIV infection in Cameroon is associated with significant decrease in TAA, LDLC, HDLC and TC, and increased MDA concentration and LPI indices which seem to be linked to the severity of HIV infection as assessed by CD4 cell count. The data suggests increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in HIV-infected patients in Cameroon, and an influence of CRFs on TC and MDA levels.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e65126. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) programme for the Caribbean Region was established in 2008 to address health system challenges, including fragile laboratory services and systems. The laboratory component of this programme consisted of several phases: assessment of laboratory needs of all 12 countries engaged in the programme; addressing gaps identified during the assessment; and monitoring and evaluation of the progress achieved. After one year of PEPFAR collaboration with national governments and other partners, laboratory services and systems greatly improved. Some of the milestones include: (1) the accreditation of a public laboratory; (2) improved access to HIV diagnosis with faster turnaround time; (3) establishment of capacity for platforms for DNA PCR, viral load and HIV drug resistance; (4) development of the laboratory workforce; and (5) establishment of a framework for implementation of sustainable quality management systems for laboratory accreditation. The progress recorded in strengthening laboratory health systems after one year of initiating this collaboration shows that with a rigorous initial assessment, programme design and intervention and strategic partnership, national laboratory health systems can be greatly enhanced to support programme implementation. Continued collaboration and country leadership is critical to create an integrated and sustainable laboratory network in the Caribbean.
Global Public Health 04/2012; 7(6):648-60. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV diagnostic and follow up testing are usually done in laboratory settings. However, in developing countries there is a need to decentralize testing as the majority of the population lives in rural settings. In developing countries stringent quality assurance (QA) practices, which include appropriate training, development of standard operating procedures, maintenance of operator proficiency, routine use of quality control (QC) specimens, standardized data management, equipment calibration and maintenance, and biohazard safety with proper disinfection/disposal procedures are not routinely followed to ensure reliability of results and a safe work environment. The introduction of point-of-care testing technologies involving the use of non-laboratorians in routine testing has further increased the complexity of QA. Therefore, a careful approach towards improvement of laboratories that encourages best practices, coupled with incentives, and review of government policies in point-of-care testing is needed to improve quality of testing as decentralization takes place. Development of a functional laboratory tiered network that facilitates communication, referral, training and problem solving could further enhance confidence in laboratory testing. There is also a need for special considerations in implementing a step-wise approach towards quality improvement, strengthening of the supply chain management, human capacity development, infrastructure upgrade, and strong public private partnerships to ensure long term sustainability of these efforts.
The Indian Journal of Medical Research 12/2011; 134(6):779-86. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations associated with the use of protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors have been mostly mapped for HIV-1 subtype B. The prevalence of these mutations in drug-naive HIV-1 subtype B-infected individuals is low but occurs at high frequencies in treated individuals. To determine the prevalence of treatment-associated mutations in non-B viruses, we analyzed a 1613-bp pol region of specimens collected from 57 HIV-1-infected treatment-naive individuals from Cameroon. Of the 57 HIV-1 sequences, 43 belonged to CRF02-AG, two to CRF11-cpx, six to subtype A, one to subtype D, and five were unclassifiable. Of the 57 PR sequences, 100% contained at least one codon change giving substitutions at positions 10, 11, 16, 20, 33, 36, 60, 62, 64, 69, 77, and 89. These substitutions gave the following prevalence pattern, 36I/L (100%, 57/57) >89M/I (98%, 56/57)>69K/R (93%, 53/57)>20I/R (89%, 51/57)>16E (16%, 9/57)>64M (12%, 7/57)>10I (11%, 6/57)>11V (5%, 3/57)=62V (5%, 3/57)=77I (5%, 3/57)>233F/V (4%, 2/57)=60E (4%), which differed significantly from subtype B at positions 20, 36, 69, and 89. All but one (98%) of the 57 RT sequences (438 amino acid residues) carried substitutions located at codons 39A (7%), 43E (7%), 122E (7%), 312Q (2%), 333E (2%), 335C/D (89%), 356K (89%), 358K (14%), 365I (2%), 371V (81%), 376S (11%), or 399D (4%); the frequency of these substitutions ranged from <0.5% to 4% in RT of subtype B. The high prevalence of minor mutations associated with protease inhibitors (PI) and reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) represents natural polymorphisms. HIV-1 PR and RT sequences from antiretroviral (ARV)-naive HIV-infected persons in Cameroon are important for monitoring the development of resistance to PIs and RTIs as such mutations could lead to treatment failures in individuals undergoing ARV therapy.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 09/2011; 28(7):675-84. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 circulates within an infected host as a genetically heterogeneous viral population. Viral intrahost diversity is shaped by substitutional evolution and recombination. Although many studies have speculated that recombination could have a significant impact on viral phenotype, this has never been definitively demonstrated. We report here phylogenetic and subsequent phenotypic analyses of envelope genes obtained from HIV-1 populations present in different anatomical compartments. Assessment of env compartmentalization from immunologically discrete tissues was assessed utilizing a single genome amplification approach, minimizing in vitro-generated artifacts. Genetic compartmentalization of variants was frequently observed. In addition, multiple incidences of intercompartment recombination, presumably facilitated by low-level migration of virus or infected cells between different anatomic sites and coinfection of susceptible cells by genetically divergent strains, were identified. These analyses demonstrate that intercompartment recombination is a fundamental evolutionary mechanism that helps to shape HIV-1 env intrahost diversity in natural infection. Analysis of the phenotypic consequences of these recombination events showed that genetic compartmentalization often correlates with phenotypic compartmentalization and that intercompartment recombination results in phenotype modulation. This represents definitive proof that recombination can generate novel combinations of phenotypic traits which differ subtly from those of parental strains, an important phenomenon that may have an impact on antiviral therapy and contribute to HIV-1 persistence in vivo.
Journal of Virology 04/2011; 85(12):6024-37. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last few years, the use of HIV rapid testing has expanded worldwide in response to the call for universal access to prevention, care, and treatment by UNAIDS and the World Health Organization. HIV rapid testing is performed by people with varied skills in laboratory and nonlaboratory settings. Accurate HIV diagnostic testing is the first step to identifying infected persons for follow-up referral and care. However, there are several challenges related to test kit quality, test selection, testing algorithms, training, quality assurance (QA), quality of new lots, and postmarket performance. We highlight various issues that impact the quality of HIV rapid testing and provide solutions to monitor and improve test accuracy, especially in resource-limited settings. These include the use of validated kits, training with emphasis on QA, use of a standardized log book, dried-tube specimen-based proficiency testing, new kit lot verification, and postmarket surveillance. Systematic implementation of these tools should greatly enhance the quality of HIV rapid testing.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 10/2010; 134(4):573-84. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The progress of antiretroviral treatment roll-out programs in developing countries requires extensive monitoring of primary drug resistance prior to initiation of therapy. This is particularly relevant for Cameroon where a high HIV diversity has been reported.
To determine HIV diversity in Yaoundé, Cameroon, in a cohort of HIV-infected subjects with advanced disease. To characterize HIV-1 mutations conferring primary drug resistance and to assess primary resistance patterns in the RNase H domain of the reverse transcriptase of these viruses.
HIV-1 RNA was extracted from plasma of 59 HIV-1 infected, drug-naïve subjects with CD4+ T-cell counts<200/microl. HIV-1 pol (PR, RT and RNase H) regions were sequenced for subtyping and for identifying drug resistance mutations in pol (PR, RT and RNase H).
A complex HIV-1 diversity was seen, with multiple subtypes (A1, A2, C, D, F2, H, group O), CRFs (02_AG, 09_cpx, 11_cpx, 13_cpx, 22_01A1, 30_0206, 43_02G) and URFs. Primary drug resistance was low in PR (2%) and in RT regions (4%). RNase H mutations Q509L and Q547K were found in non-CRF02_AG strains.
A high HIV-1 diversity was already present in Cameroon in the early 90s, when the subjects were likely infected. Primary HIV-1 drug resistance was low. Occurrence of RNase H mutations with proven phenotypic effect on susceptibility to antiretrovirals encourages further assessment of their impact in treatment outcome in the context of complex HIV genetic diversity and in a subtype-specific fashion.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 07/2010; 48(3):173-9. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-seronegative Cameroonians with exposure to nonhuman primates were tested for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Seroreactivity was correlated with exposure risk (p<0.001). One person had strong humoral and weak cellular immune reactivity to SIVcol peptides. Humans are exposed to and possibly infected with SIV, which has major public health implications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish a baseline for monitoring resistance to protease inhibitors (PIs) and examining the efficacy of their use among persons in Cameroon infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we analyzed genetic variability and PI resistance-associated substitutions in PCR-amplified protease (PR) sequences in strains isolated from 110 HIV-1-infected, drug-naïve Cameroonians. Of the 110 strains, 85 were classified into six HIV-1 PR subtypes, A (n = 1), B (n = 1), F (n = 4), G (n = 7), H (n = 1), and J (n = 7), and a circulating recombinant form, CRF02-AG (n = 64). PR genes from the remaining 25 (23%) specimens were unclassifiable, whereas 2% (7 of 301) unclassifiable PR sequences were reported for a global collection. Two major PI resistance-associated mutations, 20M and 24I, were detected in strains from only two specimens, whereas secondary mutations were found in strains from all samples except one strain of subtype B and two strains of CRF02-AG. The secondary mutations showed the typical PI resistance-associated pattern for non-subtype B viruses in both classifiable and unclassifiable PR genes, with 36I being the predominant (99%) mutation, followed by 63P (18%), 20R (15%), 77I (13%), and 10I or 10V (11%). Of these mutations, dual and triple PI resistance-associated substitutions were found in 38% of all the Cameroonian strains. Compared with classifiable PR sequences, unclassifiable sequences had significantly more dual and triple substitutions (64% versus 30%; P = 0.004). Phenotypic and clinical evaluations are needed to estimate whether PI resistance during antiretroviral drug treatment occurs more rapidly in individuals infected with HIV-1 strains harboring multiple PI resistance-associated substitutions. This information may be important for determination of appropriate drug therapies for HIV-1-infected persons in Cameroon, where more than one-third of HIV-1 strains were found to carry dual and triple minor PI resistance-associated mutations.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/2002; 40(3):837-45. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic analysis of the gp41 region of 123 HIV-1-seropositive specimens from Cameroon showed that 89 were subtype A (71% of these sequences were IbNg-like), 12 (10%) were subtype D, 11 (9%) were subtype G, 5 (4%; closely related to subtype F2) were subtype F, 1 was subtype H, 2 (1.6%) remained unclassifiable, while 3 were group O. Further analysis of the two unclassifiable specimens in gag(p24), pol(prot), and env (C2V3 or gp41) showed that one (98CM19) was a complex mosaic between subtype A in p24 and subtype J prot, and unclassifiable in env (C2V3 or gp41). The second, 98CM63, clustered distinctly from all known subtypes in p24, prot, C2V3, or gp41. 98CM63 clustered with a specimen from Cyprus and these two geographically and epidemiologically unlinked specimens, with their distinct clustering pattern, may represent a new subcluster of subtype A. In conclusion, these findings confirm the high HIV-1 genetic variability and further suggest the continuous appearance of new viral strains in this population.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 10/2000; 16(13):1319-24. · 2.71 Impact Factor