[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Dirofilaria repens is the causative agent of subcutaneous dirofilariosis of dogs, other animals and humans. This nematode is transmitted by mosquitoes of Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera. In dogs, the parasite may cause subclinical infection or cutaneous signs. Recently, D. repens has emerged and spread in different geographical areas, with an increase of cases in dogs and humans. Chemoprevention in dogs in endemic areas is the most reliable approach for controlling this infection. This paper describes a randomized, blocked and multicentric clinical field study investigating the efficacy of an oral, chewable formulation containing milbemycin oxime/praziquantel (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of subcutaneous dirofilariosis in dogs.
This study was conducted in endemic areas of Italy. A total of 249 dogs, at two sites, negative for D. repens, were allocated into two groups (i.e. Treated -T1 vs Untreated-T2) with a ratio of 1:1, and subjected to clinical visits and blood sampling once monthly until the end of the study. All blood samples were microscopically and genetically examined. Animals belonging to T1 group received a minimum target dose of 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight of milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg of praziquantel in commercial tablets (Milbemax®) according body weight once every 4 weeks. Animals of group T2 were not treated with Milbemax® but received, when necessary, specific parasiticide treatments. The study duration was 336 ± 2 days for each dog.
A total of 219 dogs completed the study (i.e. 111 in T1 and 108 in T2), while 30 dogs (i.e. 13 in T1, 17 in T2) were withdrawn for a variety of reasons unrelated to administration of Milbemax®. The percentages of animals not showing microfilariae of D. repens were 100% (111 animals) in T1 and 94.7% (108 animals out of 114) in group T2. Milbemax® was shown to be safe in treated dogs.
The results of this study confirm that the monthly use of Milbemax® in dogs is effective and safe for the prevention of subcutaneous dirofilariosis in endemic areas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nematode Capillaria aerophila (Trichuroidea, Trichuridae) affects the respiratory system of cats and other animals and occasionally of human beings. Infected cats may show bronchovesicular sounds, inflammation, sneezing, wheezing and, chronic cough and, sometimes, bronchopneumonia and respiratory failure. The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the antiparasitic spot-on formulation containing imidacloprid 10 %/moxidectin 1 % (Advocate®, Bayer Animal Health) in the treatment of natural feline infection with the lungworm C. aerophila. The efficacy of Advocate® administered once was tested on days 7 ± 1 and 11 ± 1 following treatment at day 0 and compared to faecal egg counts on days -6 ± 1 and -2 ± 1. Overall, 36 cats treated either with Advocate® (treatment group, n = 17 cats) or left untreated (control group, n = 19 cats) were included in the study. Geometric means of faecal egg counts values in eggs per gram of faeces were 124.03 prior to treatment and 0.26 posttreatment in treatment group, while 107.03 and 123.94 pre- and posttreatment in the untreated cats. Post-baseline egg counts showed a 99.79 % reduction in Advocate®-treated animals in comparison with cats which were left untreated. Also, treated cats showed no adverse events. This trial demonstrated that Advocate® spot-on formulation is safe and effective in the treatment of feline lung capillariosis caused by C. aerophila.
Parasitology Research 07/2012; 111(4):1793-8. DOI:10.1007/s00436-012-3025-4 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this GCP-compliant clinical field study was to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of moxidectin (minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight) and imidacloprid (minimum dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight) spot-on (Advocate(®)) as a preventive and therapeutic treatment of natural infection by Dirofilaria repens in dogs in the Czech Republic.There were two arms of the study, both negatively controlled. 34 animals were randomly allocated to two groups of the treatment arm; 90 negative animals were randomly allocated to the prevention arm groups. All enrolled dogs were observed physically and blood was sampled monthly for Dirofilaria repens microfilaria counts for 18 months by modified Knott test and PCR. 34 dogs were positive for microfilaria and enrolled in the treatment arm of this study (treated: 18, untreated: 16). The reduction of the log-transformed microfilaria counts was significantly higher in the treatment group on day 28 (p = 0.007), 56, 84 and 112 (p < 0.001). All animals treated were negative after a single treatment. In the untreated control group 93.75 % remained positive (p < 0.001). 87 dogs were negative for microfilaria prior to allocation to the "preventive" arm (treated: 49; untreated: 38; 3 excluded). One dog in the untreated control group became positive for Dirofliaria repens microfilaria, while none of the treated dogs became positive. Advocate(®) was effective in the treatment of dogs infected with microfilaria of Dirofilaria repens. Due to the low rate of natural infections the preventive efficacy could not be proven, but no dog treated became positive.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this GCP compliant, randomised and negatively controlled clinical field study the preventive and therapeutic efficacy of Advocate® against natural infection by microfilaria of Dirofilaria repens was evaluated in dogs in the Czech Republic. In the therapeutic arm the reduction of the log transformed microfilaria counts was significantly higher in the Investigational Veterinary Product (IVP) group on day 28 (P=0.007), 56, 84, and 112 (p<0.001). All animals treated with the IVP were negative after a single treatment. In the control group 93.75% of the animals remained positive (P<0.001). In the prevention arm one dog in the untreated control group became positive for Dirofliaria repens microfilaria, while none of the IVP treated dogs became positive. Advocate® was effective in the treatment of dogs infected with microfilaria of Dirofilaria repens. Due to the low rate of natural infections the preventive efficacy was not proven, but no dog treated became positive.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors compared the symptomatic effectiveness of a complex homeopathic preparation Zeel (1-3 tablets orally per day depending on body weight) to carprofen (4 mg/kg body weight) in dogs (n=68) aged >1 yr diagnosed with osteoarthritis in a multicenter, prospective, observational open-label cohort study in 12 German veterinary clinics. The active treatment period was 56 days. Symptomatic effectiveness, lameness, stiffness of movements, and pain on palpation were evaluated by treating veterinarians and owners. Clinical signs of osteoarthritis improved significantly (P<0.05) at all time points (days 1, 28, and 56) with both therapies. At the end of the treatment period, effectiveness was comparable in both groups. Both treatment regimens were well tolerated with only three treatment-related adverse events, all in the carprofen group.
Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 01/2011; 47(1):12-20. DOI:10.5326/JAAHA-MS-5483 · 0.86 Impact Factor