ABSTRACT: Acute lateral ankle sprain accounts for 85% of all sprains, being generally accepted as the most common sports-related ligamentous injury. There is a lack of consensus about the optimal management of these injuries despite their frequency. The time-honoured mantra of rest, ice, elevation and compression is still commonly used, even though the current evidence for compression is conflicting.
A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out in the emergency department of a regional hospital in Ireland to compare outcomes, in terms of ankle function, pain improvement and return-to-work times, in adults presenting within 24 h of first-time acute lateral ankle sprain, among three external supports.
We found no statistically significant differences among all three treatments in terms of ankle joint function, using the Karlsson ankle function scale, at 10 or 30-days follow-up. There was a tendency for Elastoplast bandaging to provide better average ankle function at both time points, when compared with double tubigrip and no support. Participants returned to work an average 2 days earlier, if treated with Elastoplast.
This study found no statistically significant difference in ankle function between double tubigrip bandage, Elastoplast bandage and no support at 10 or 30-days follow-up.
European journal of emergency medicine: official journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine 03/2011; 18(4):225-30. · 0.73 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The volume and duration of stay of the critically ill in the emergency department (ED) is increasing and is affected by factors including case-mix, overcrowding, lack of available and staffed intensive care beds and an ageing population. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical activity associated with these high-acuity patients and to quantify resource utilization by this patient group.
The study was a retrospective review of ED notes from all patients referred directly to the intensive care team over a 6-month period from April to September 2004. We applied a workload measurement tool, Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS)-28, which has been validated as a surrogate marker of nursing resource input in the intensive care setting. A nurse is considered capable of delivering nursing activities equal to 46 TISS-28 points in each 8-h shift.
The median score from our 69 patients was 19 points per patient. Applying TISS-28 methodology, we estimated that 3 h 13 min nursing time would be spent on a single critically ill ED patient, with a TISS score of 19. This is an indicator of the high levels of personnel resources required for these patients in the ED. ED-validated models to quantify nursing and medical staff resources used across the spectrum of ED care is needed, so that staffing resources can be planned and allocated to match service demands.
European journal of emergency medicine: official journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine 12/2009; 16(6):296-300. · 0.73 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: A 21-year-old man presented to the emergency department in St James's Hospital by ambulance. He was found collapsed at home by his uncle. He was complaining of severe pain and swelling to his left lower limb, with reduced sensation to his left foot. He was hepatitis C positive from intravenous drug use, and had most recently used both heroin and cocaine 5 days previously on his release from prison. Musculoskeletal exam showed extensive swelling of his left lower limb, with tense calf compartments. Initial laboratory results showed a raised creatine kinase of more than 155,000 IU/l. Urine toxicology was positive for methadone, heroin and benzodiazepines, whereas urinary dipstick was positive for blood, which was confirmed to be myoglobin by subsequent laboratory analysis. Atraumatic rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by injury to skeletal muscle with subsequent release of intracellular contents, that is myoglobin and creatine kinase. Drugs have direct toxic effects, but may also cause coma-induced rhabdomyolysis, owing to unrelieved pressure on gravity-dependent body parts. Diagnosis is made with history (i.e. recent heroin or cocaine use), elevated serum CK, plus the possible presence of myoglobinuria. Aggressive i.v. rehydration remains the mainstay of treatment. If there is any evidence of compartment syndrome, urgent fasciotomy is required. Electrolyte imbalances should be corrected, unless very mildly abnormal. We have learned from our experience with this case that a high index of suspicion and thereby early recognition is crucial to prevent complications in intravenous drug users presenting with unusual symptoms and signs.
European Journal of Emergency Medicine 05/2008; 15(2):104-6. · 0.90 Impact Factor