[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three new species from the Pseudocoremia modica complex are described based upon morphological characters. These species are Pseudocoremia foxi from Mt Taranaki, Pseudocoremia hudsoni from the north-east South Island and Pseudocoremia hollyae from the Murchison Mountains of Fiordland. Phylogenetic analysis shows that these species form a paraphyletic group and are in the same clade as P. ombrodes, P. terrena and P. berylia.
New Zealand Entomologist 02/2007; DOI:10.1080/00779962.2007.9722153 · 0.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Life-history details of the live-bearing Peripatoides novaezealandiae (Hutton) were obtained by measuring and dissecting field collected animals. As in other studies, the sexes were found to have different demographics. Sex-specific weight frequency distributions and regression of weight vs length suggest sex differences in patterns of growth and/or mortality. Mature males were smaller than mature females; females apparently undergo a further period of growth between maturity and the onset of embryo production. The sex ratio of the whole sample was female biased; the sex ratio in the smallest size class was 1:1, and then oscillated from female- to male-, and then back to female-biased as size increased. Embryos were unable to be sexed. The sex ratios in individuals of mature (i.e. mating) size, and of reproductive size, were both 1:1. Females, especially but not exclusively before the onset of embryo production, had widely varying numbers of sperm in their haemolymph, indicating dermal-haemocoelic sperm transfer. These data also suggest that females are able to mate throughout life. Numbers of sperm in spermathecae of females were negatively correlated with body size. Fecundity increased with size in both sexes, somewhat more so in females. Embryo weight was correlated with maternal weight only at the beginning of the embryo's development. Rotting logs containing small populations contained a disproportionate number of large females.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two new species of Pseudocoremia (tribe Boarmiini) are described, Pseudocoremia amaculata sp. nov. from St Arnaud, Nelson Lakes National Park, and Pseudocoremia dugdalei sp. nov. from the Waitakere Range, Auckland. It is also determined that P. pergrata, which has been synomynised with P. insignita, should be reassigned species status.
New Zealand Entomologist 12/2003; 26(1). DOI:10.1080/00779962.2003.9722109 · 0.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract A population of Hemideina crassidens (the Wellington tree weta) was monitored over a 4-year period after the eradication of Rattus exulans (the Polynesian rat kiore) and Gallirallus australis australis (the South Island weka) from Nukuwaiata (Chetwode Islands), Pelorus Sound, New Zealand. A novel survey technique (entrance scores) was used in combination with a conventional technique (random searches for active weta) to measure changes in weta population parameters after the removal of predation pressure and to investigate impacts of exotic predators on tree weta. Tree weta density did not increase markedly over the 4-year period, but the proportion of active adults did increase. Weta were observed to move into larger and more crowded galleries (refuges), to occupy galleries closer to the ground, and to spend less time sitting in gallery entrances. It was concluded that endemic tree weta are well adapted to withstand some introduced vertebrate predators but are able to live a more “relaxed” lifestyle in the absence of this predation. The most significant change detected was in weta age structure, with adults increasing their proportion of the population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A study of beetle (Coleoptera) communities was conducted in three revegetated sites of different ages (5, 17, and 100 years) and in a remnant coastal habitat dominated by Muehlenbeckia complexa (a liane) on Matiu-Somes Island, Wellington Harbor, New Zealand. The 25-ha island has had a 110-year history as a pastoral agricultural quarantine station. Beetles were surveyed from May 1997 to April 1998 using pitfall traps. We collected a total of 3,430 adult beetles from 78 beetle species belonging to 22 families. Various environmental factors influencing the distribution of beetles in revegetated habitats were investigated. The most important factors were canopy height and canopy density (functions of vegetation age). Overall, results suggest that as habitat/vegetational heterogeneity increases at a site, beetle diversity and abundance also increase. Thus, older replanted sites contained a greater species richness and abundance of beetles than newly replanted sites. Revegetation is, thus, successfully facilitating the establishment and recolonization of the beetle fauna on Matiu-Somes Island.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that indigenous beetle diversity reflects indigenous plant diversity in modified and remnant habitats. This study examines the indigenous: introduced relationship at a locality where degraded pasture has been progressively revegetated. Pitfall traps were used to collect beetles from three revegetated sites of different ages (5, 17 and 100 years) and in a coastal Muehlenbeckia habitat on Matiu-Somes Island (25 ha), Wellington Harbour, New Zealand. A total of 78 morphospecies were found over 12 months. The indigenous: introduced status of 74 species were determined; 67 were classified as 'indigenous', and 7 as 'introduced'. A positive trend was found between the proportion of ground-dwelling indigenous beetle species collected and the proportion of indigenous plant species present at a study site. As the revegetated site matured, the proportion of indigenous beetle species increased. We collected 20 (83%), 37 (88%) and 48 (92%) indigenous beetle species from the 5-year scrubland, 17-year shrubland and 100-year forest, respectively.
New Zealand Journal of Ecology 01/2000; 24(2). · 1.06 Impact Factor