[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of endovascular intervention for pancreatitis-related hemorrhage at a single institution.
From January 2000 to October 2012, thirty-seven patients underwent endovascular intervention for the management of pancreatitis-related hemorrhage. The underlying etiology of the disease, clinical symptoms and laboratory findings, abnormalities seen on computed tomography, and details regarding the endovascular procedures were assessed, as were the outcome of each procedure and procedure-related complications.
A total of 41 endovascular procedures were performed in 37 patients. The splenic artery (34.8%) was the most commonly treated artery, and pseudoaneurysm was the most commonly detected abnormality on digital subtraction angiography (78.3%). Transcatheter embolization was performed in the majority of patients (95.1%), while two patients were treated with stent-grafts. Successful hemostasis without rebleeding was achieved in 34 patients (91.9%). Two cases of rebleeding were successfully treated by reintervention. Focal splenic infarction, which developed in eight patients, was either asymptomatic or accompanied by mild, transient fever. Splenic abscess was the only major complication occurring in three patients. Two of these patients died from resulting sepsis, while the third recovered after antibiotic treatment.
Endovascular management is effective for achieving hemostasis in patients with pancreatitis-related bleeding and demonstrates low recurrence and mortality rates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for stopping bleeding following hip surgery.
We performed a 12-year retrospective analysis of 13 patients (M:F = 6:7, median age 72 years) who underwent angiography for bleeding following hip surgery. The types of surgery, latency time, angiographic findings, TAE details, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Technical success was defined as no further bleeding detected on angiography following embolization.
Total hip replacement arthroplasty was the most common surgery performed for these patients (n = 10). Seven of the 13 study patients underwent angiography the same day as their surgery. Angiograms showed active (n = 11) or suspicious (n = 1) bleeding in 12 of the 13 patients. Gelatin sponge particles, coils, NBCA, PVA, and their combinations were used as the embolic material. For the one patient without obvious signs of bleeding, prophylactic TAE was done to achieve bleeding control. For the 11 patients with active bleeding, 10 underwent technically successful TAE, and 1 patient underwent surgery due to a large pseudoaneurysm located near the bifurcation of the common femoral artery. There were no major procedure-related complications or patient mortality. The 30-day mortality rate was 15 % (2/13), and both of these patients died of multiorgan failure.
Transcatheter angiography is useful for identifying bleeding arteries. TAE is safe and effective for managing bleeding after hip surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the incidence and management of postoperative abdominal bleeding after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and to identify risk factors for abdominal bleeding.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1039 patients who underwent OLT at our institution from January 2008 to December 2010 seeking to identify subjects with posttransplantation abdominal bleeding, defined as any hemorrhage requiring radiologic intervention or laparotomy within the first month.
Among the 1039 patients, 94 (9%) showed abdominal bleeding, occurring at a mean of 6.1 days (range, day 1 to 21 days). Active bleeding was controlled by endovascular interventional techniques (n = 37; 39%), by surgical ligation or vascular reconstruction (n = 43; 46%), or by sequential combinations of endovascular intervention and surgery (n = 14; 15%). The most frequent bleeding sites for radiologic intervention were the right inferior phrenic artery (n = 14), right and left epigastric arteries (n = 7), intercostal artery (n = 5) and right renal capsular artery (n = 4). The most frequent bleeding sites requiring laparotomy were the hepatic artery (n = 9), diaphragm (n = 8), inferior vena cava (n = 5), abdominal drain insertion site (n = 4), portal vein anastomosis site (n = 4), abdominal wall (n = 3), liver graft cut surface (n = 3), hilar plate (n = 3), and greater omentum (n = 3). Bleeding episodes were associated with greater patient age and increased intraoperative blood loss.
The risk of bleeding from coagulopathy and iatrogenic injury is high during the early posttransplantation period. This risk of bleeding can be minimized by meticulous surgical dissection and bleeding control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the efficacy of percutaneous transcatheter embolization in the management of patients with spermatic varicocoeles persisting or recurring after surgery.
Over a period of 10 years, 28 patients (age range 13-55 years) were referred for percutaneous transcatheter embolization of postsurgical, recurrent varicocoeles. Medical documents were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate past surgical history, subjective symptoms, and results of scrotal examination, ultrasound, and semen parameters. Pre-embolization venograms were analysed to assess the anatomy of the testicular vein. The technical and clinical outcomes of embolization were then determined.
The 28 patients included in the study had undergone laparoscopic varicocoelectomy (39.3%), high retroperitoneal ligation (25%), or inguinal ligation (25%). Subjective symptoms were scrotal pain (60.7%) and a palpable scrotal mass (50%) exclusively on the left side. Venograms revealed abnormalities of the left testicular vein in all cases. Embolization was technically successful in all but two cases, thus yielding an occlusion rate of 93%; a single case of suspected thrombophlebitis was the only complication. After excluding two, technically unsuccessful cases and one patient who was lost to follow-up, 25 patients underwent scrotal examination after embolization, which revealed complete resolution in 20 cases (80%), partial improvement in four cases (16%), and no improvement in a single case (4%). Among the follow-up group of patients, of the 12 who initially presented with scrotal pain, six (50%) were symptom-free and four (33.3%) had partial improvement.
Percutaneous transcatheter embolization of the testicular vein is technically feasible and effective for managing postsurgical recurrent varicocoeles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the effect of splenic artery embolization (SAE) on blood flow in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) recipients with splenic artery steal syndrome (SASS) based on changes in caliber of related arteries upon serial computed tomography (CT) scans.
Between 2004 and 2007, nine OLT recipients with SASS underwent SAE. They had CT scans before and after SAE: short-, mid-, and long-term, ie, approximately 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year, respectively. The diameters of the celiac axis (CA), common hepatic artery (CHA), and splenic artery (SA) were measured with arterial phase of each CT scan and the ratios of SA to CHA diameter (SA/CHA) calculated to analyze their changes during the follow-up period.
The diameters of celiac axis, CHA, and SA and SA/CHA changed most rapidly during the short-term period. The CHA diameter significantly increased short-term post-SAE by CT and slightly decreased thereafter. However, the mid-term and long-term post-SAE CT values were still significantly greater than those on the pre-SAE CT. The SA diameter steadily decreased throughout the follow-up. The SA/CHA decreased until the mid-term. The SA diameter and SA/CHA were significantly smaller upon mid-term and long-term post-SAE CT compared with those at pre-SAE CT.
The effect of SAE to improve hepatic arterial flow in OLT recipients with SASS might be expected for at least approximately one year. The effect maximally occurred during the short-term after SAE on the basis of changes in the caliber of related arteries upon CT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both curative resection and minimized in-hospital mortality offer the only chance of long-term survival in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The reported resectability rates for hilar cholangiocarcinoma have increased by virtue of combined major hepatectomy, but this procedure is technically demanding and still associated with a significant morbidity and mortality that must be carefully balanced against the chances of long-term survival.
Between January 2001 and December 2008, 350 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma underwent exploration for the purpose of potentially curative resection, of whom 302 (86.3%) were resected in the Department of Hepato-Biliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine. Combined hepatectomy was carried out in 268 (88.7%) of 302 resected patients. Major hemihepatectomy and parenchyma-preserving hepatectomy were performed in 257 and 11 patients, respectively. Portal vein resection was associated in 40 (14.9%) of 268 hepatectomized patients. To control preoperative cholangitis and reduce risk of postoperative hepatic failure, biliary decompression through endoscopic and/or percutaneous transhepatic drainage and portal vein embolization were preoperatively applied in 329 (94.0%) of 350 explored patients and in 91 (54.2%) of 168 extended hepatectomized patients (154 right hemihepatectomy, 9 right trisectionectomy, 5 left trisectionectomy), respectively. Liver transplantation was not performed as primary treatment for hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
There were 5 cases (1.7%) of in-hospital death after resection and 1 postoperative liver failure that was successfully treated with liver transplantation. Major complications were encountered in 23 patients (7.0%), and the overall morbidity rate was 43%. In 302 resections, 214 (70.9%) were curative resections (R0) and 88 (29.1%) were palliative resections (R1). The overall 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates after resection, including in-hospital deaths, were 84.6, 50.7 and 47.3% in the R0 group and 69.9, 33.3 and 7.5% in the R1 group, respectively. The 5-year survival rate of extended hemihepatectomy of 36.4% was better than that of parenchyma-preserving hepatectomy at 10.5%. Two significant predictive factors adversely affecting survival after resection were lymph node metastasis and incurability of surgery (P < 0.001). Two patients with vascular involvement who underwent concomitant hepatic artery and portal vein reconstruction are alive after more than 3 years.
Preoperative biliary decompression and portal vein embolization enabled us to reduce in-hospital deaths associated with extended hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Major hemihepatectomy offers an increased survival because of the higher possibility of curative resection than bile duct resection alone and parenchyma-preserving hepatectomy, but it still carries a certain mortality. Less extensive procedures can be conducted safely and are beneficial for aged patients in poor condition with a less advanced tumor stage if tumor-free resectional margins are obtained.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is uncommon. Because of its rarity, the risk factors, aetiology and natural history are unclear, and there is no consensus on the optimal treatment strategy.
Seven consecutive patients with symptomatic spontaneous isolated SMA dissection who received conservative treatment between March 2003 and February 2008 were included in this study. Their clinical characteristics, treatment methods and outcomes were analysed retrospectively.
Acute abdominal pain was the most common clinical manifestation. Initial contrast-enhanced dynamic computed tomography (CT) showed isolated SMA dissection with partial thrombosis in all seven patients. Full anticoagulation was carried out immediately after the diagnosis. Clinical symptoms disappeared within 14 days and follow-up CT showed complete resolution of the dissection in four patients. After a mean follow-up of 23 months, there was no mortality or morbidity related to the dissection.
In patients with symptomatic spontaneous isolated dissection of the SMA, conservative management is feasible if there is no evidence of bowel infarction or bleeding.
British Journal of Surgery 07/2009; 96(7):720-3. DOI:10.1002/bjs.6631 · 5.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) has been regarded as a bridging therapy in the management of massive haemoptysis until a more definite therapy can be pursued. The long-term effectiveness of BAE and the factors associated with failure to control bleeding in an Asian setting of tuberculosis are unknown and were investigated.
Over approximately 4 years, 139 patients received BAE to treat haemoptysis at a single centre, of these, 118 had been followed up for more than 1 year (median 23 months) and were retrospectively recruited into the study. Patients were divided into those who required readmission for treatment of recurrent haemoptysis after BAE (re-bleeding group), and those who did not (non-rebleeding group).
Of the 118 patients, 112 (95.8%) had haemoptysis of greater than 100 mL per day. The most common underlying cause of haemoptysis was pulmonary tuberculosis. Eight patients, four of whom had advanced lung cancer, died after BAE. There were 32 patients (27.1%) in the re-bleeding group. Aspergillosis was significantly associated with re-bleeding after BAE (P<0.05). There were no differences in gender, age, degree of haemoptysis, or APACHE II scores between the re-bleeding and non-rebleeding groups. Twelve patients in the re-bleeding group had a repeat BAE only, whereas seven underwent surgery after repeat BAE. Of the 118 patients who underwent initial BAE, one showed a transient spinal ischaemia.
BAE with appropriate medical treatment should be sufficient for most patients with massive haemoptysis. In patients with massive haemoptysis due to aspergilloma, however, elective surgery should be considered if bleeding is not controlled by repeated BAE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To retrospectively evaluate the long-term patency and prognostic factors affecting patency after removal of nasolacrimal stents.
Lacrimal polyurethane stents were removed from 317 lacrimal drainage systems of 275 patients because the stent ceased to function, and immediate and maintained patency were determined with follow-up dacryocystography (DCG) after stent removal. Prognostic factors for patency after stent removal were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses for immediate patency and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariate analysis for maintained patency.
All stents were successfully removed under fluoroscopic or endoscopic guidance. After stent removal, 243 lacrimal systems (77%) showed immediate patency. The size of the lacrimal sac was the same (65% of cases), widened (2%), or contracted (33%) after stent removal. The shape of the lacrimal sac was normal in 30% and irregular in 70% of cases after stent removal. Seven-day follow-up DCG was obtained in 169 cases, and maintained patency of the lacrimal system was confirmed on 7-day follow-up DCG in 125 cases. Epiphora recurred in 70 cases (56%) during the mean 8-month follow-up period (range, 1-48 months). The mean maintained patency period after stent removal was 15.7 +/- 2.1 months. The maintained patency rates were 41% at 1 year, 31% at 2 years, and 14% at 4 years after stent removal. Multivariate analysis showed that the size of the lacrimal sac (P < .001) was the only factor affecting immediate and maintained patency after stent removal.
After stent removal in patients with nasolacrimal stent obstruction, the immediate patency rate was 77%; however, the rate of maintained patency decreased progressively with time. The major factor negatively affecting immediate and maintained patency after stent removal was contraction of the lacrimal sac at the time of stent removal.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 07/2006; 17(7):1125-30. DOI:10.1097/01.RVI.0000228340.31347.40 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered retrievable expandable nitinol stents in tracheobronchial strictures.
With fluoroscopic guidance, PTFE-covered retrievable expandable nitinol stents were placed in 15 symptomatic patients with benign (n = 6) or malignant (n = 9) tracheobronchial strictures. Complications and improvement in respiratory status were evaluated. Stents were removed electively 6 months after placement in benign strictures or if complications occurred. Membrane degradation or separation from the wire mesh was evaluated in removed stents.
A total of 17 stents were successfully placed and were well tolerated in all patients. Sputum retention, stent migration, and tissue hyperplasia occurred in 23.5% (n = 4), 17.6% (n = 3), and 17.6% (n = 3) of stents, respectively. A total of 11 stents were successfully removed electively 6 months after placement (n = 4) or when complications occurred (n = 7). All 11 such stents were removed without difficulty with use of standard techniques, antecedent balloon dilation being necessary in two cases as a result of tissue hyperplasia. No removed stent showed signs of membrane degradation, and two removed stents showed signs of membrane separation from the mesh.
PTFE-covered retrievable expandable nitinol stents were effective in the treatment of tracheobronchial strictures. Stent removal was easy with use of standard techniques, and no removed stent showed evidence of membrane degradation.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 05/2006; 17(4):657-63. DOI:10.1097/01.RVI.0000203803.98007.9F · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation of gastric outlet obstruction caused by benign anastomotic stricture.
Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation was performed on 17 patients with gastric outlet obstruction caused by benign anastomotic stricture. Fourteen patients underwent surgery for malignant disease and three patients for complication of benign gastric ulcer. The sites of anastomotic stricture were gastrojejunal (n = 12) or gastroduodenal (n = 5). An upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series was performed just following and 1 month after balloon dilation to evaluate both the clinical success of the procedure and any complications. A dietary intake was evaluated by using the score for patients with malignant dysphagia and the pre- and postballoon dilation scores were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test.
In all patients, fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation was performed in one (n = 15) or two (n = 2) sessions and was technically and clinically successful (100%). The diameters of the balloon catheters used were 15 mm (n = 4), 20 mm (n = 14), and 25 mm (n = 1 mm; mean, 19.5 mm) in a total of 19 sessions. All patients had significant improvement of their levels of dietary intake (P < .001). Two of the 17 patients required the second procedure due to recurrent symptom nine and 15 months, respectively, after initial balloon dilation. Overall, 16 patients (94%) showed good results and no recurrence during a mean follow-up period of 13.5 months (range, 5-39 months). There were no major complications associated with balloon dilation.
Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation seems to be effective and safe for patients with gastric outlet obstruction caused by benign anastomotic stricture. Achieving a luminal diameter of 20 mm seems to be necessary to prevent recurrence of symptoms.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 05/2005; 16(5):699-704. DOI:10.1097/01.RVI.0000153923.38343.72 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluoroscopically guided balloon (15 or 20 mm in diameter) dilation was performed on eight patients with benign duodenal strictures caused by peptic ulcers (n = 6), Crohn's disease (n = 1), and postoperative adhesion (n = 1). The procedure was technically and clinically successful without complications in seven of the eight patients (88%). Duodenal perforation occurred immediately after 20-mm-diameter balloon dilation in one patient who underwent emergency surgery. During the mean follow-up of 30 months (range, 2-103 months), there was recurrence in two of the seven patients (29%) who then underwent surgery. The other five patients (71%) showed good results with no recurrence.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 05/2005; 16(4):543-8. DOI:10.1097/01.RVI.0000150033.13928.D4 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and technical feasibility of the use of a covered retrievable tracheobronchial hinged stent and investigate the histopathologic airway changes after placement and removal of the stent in dogs.
The experimental stent was composed of tracheal and bronchial stents that were connected together at their ends. Each stent was woven from a single thread of 0.2-mm-diameter nitinol wire filament in a tubular configuration and covered with polyurethane solution by a dipping method. Drawstrings were attached at the upper end of the tracheal stent for stent removal. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 20 stents were placed at the lower trachea and left main bronchus in 20 dogs and were electively removed 4 weeks (n = 10) or 8 weeks (n = 10) after placement. Ten dogs were killed just after stent removal and the remaining 10 were killed 2 weeks after stent removal.
Stents were successfully placed in all dogs. Pneumonia was observed in three dogs. Stent migration occurred in seven dogs (35%). Except for two cases of stent expectoration, 18 stents were easily removed within a few minutes. There was considerable granulation tissue proliferation and inflammatory reaction in the airways of the dogs that were killed just after stent removal. The pathologic changes of the airways returned to almost-normal conditions 2 weeks after stent removal.
Placement and removal of a covered retrievable tracheobronchial hinged stent seems to be feasible, and histopathologic changes of the airway related to the stents returned to normal 2 weeks after stent removal.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 01/2002; 12(12):1429-36. DOI:10.1016/S1051-0443(07)61704-7 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the initial and long-term results of balloon dacryocystoplasty in the treatment of epiphora caused by obstruction of the lacrimal system with analysis of the procedure's favorable effects.
Four hundred thirty eyes of 350 patients with obstructions of the lacrimal system were enrolled. Dacryocystoplasty was performed with use of a balloon catheter and a ball-tipped guide wire. The lesions were categorized according to cause, severity, site of the obstruction, and diameter and inflation time of the balloon. The technical success, initial success (improvement of symptoms after 1 week), and long-term patency rates were calculated. These rates in each group were compared with the chi(2) test and the Kaplan-Meier method.
The overall technical success rate was 95.3%. The overall initial success rate was 57.4%. There was no significant complication except for mild epistaxis in 12%. The 2-month, 1-year, and 5-year patency rates were 48.2%, 39.4%, and 36.9%, respectively. Initial success was influenced by the severity (P =.014) and the site (P <.001) of the obstruction, and the diameter of the balloon (P =.047). Long-term patency was affected by the site of the obstruction (P <.001) and the balloon inflation time (P <.001). Among the 183 initially ineffective and 88 recurrent cases, 62 underwent repeat balloon dacryocystoplasty, and the initial success rate was 38.7%.
The initial success rate of balloon dacryocystoplasty is relatively low. However, long-term patency can be expected in cases with initial success. Some additional factors also should be considered for better results.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 04/2001; 12(4):500-6. DOI:10.1016/S1051-0443(07)61891-0 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose was to evaluate angiographic and CT manifestations of vascular Behçet's disease. The medical records of 64 patients with Behçet's disease, treated in our hospital during the last 4 years, were reviewed. 37 patients underwent angiography or CT in the symptomatic regions because of symptoms or clinical signs of vascular involvement by Behçet's disease. 33 (male:female ratio 28:5; mean age 35 years) of the 37 patients demonstrated vascular involvement, which was surgically proven (18 patients) or diagnosed on angiography (15 patients). Angiograms and CT images of these 33 patients were retrospectively analysed for lesion type, location, extent and other characteristic findings of vascular involvement. 12 patients had only venous lesions, 11 had only arterial lesions and 10 had both arterial and venous lesions. The major angiographic findings of vascular Behçet's disease were acute or chronic thrombosis in deep veins of the lower extremities (19 patients), in the inferior vena cava (4 patients) and in the superior vena cava (2 patients), pseudoaneurysms of large or medium sized arteries (11 patients), and occlusions/ stenoses of distal run-off arteries (13 patients). Common CT findings were obliterated deep veins (8 patients) and non-calcified thickened aneurysmal walls (9 patients), with or without contrast enhancement. The combination of these angiographic and CT findings with clinical manifestations are helpful in distinguishing vascular Behçet's disease from other vasculitides.
British Journal of Radiology 01/2001; 73(876):1270-4. DOI:10.1259/bjr.73.876.11205670 · 2.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of balloon dilation for the treatment of congenital lacrimal system obstruction.
Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation was attempted in 20 eyes of 16 patients with an age range of 12-78 months (mean, 33 mo) for congenital lacrimal system obstruction. Fifteen eyes had complete obstruction at the valve of Hasner, three eyes had completely obstruction at the junction between the lacrimal sac and the nasolacrimal duct, and two eyes had partial obstruction at the nasolacrimal duct. Under general anesthesia, a ball-tipped guide wire was introduced through the superior punctum into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity and pulled out through the naris with use of a hook. A deflated 3-mm-diameter balloon catheter was then advanced in a retrograde direction and the balloon was dilated. Every patient underwent an ophthalmic evaluation before the procedure and was scheduled to be followed with office examination at 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure.
There were no major complications. "Technical success" was defined as free passage of contrast medium through the entire lacrimal system to the nasal cavity. The procedure failed in one eye. After balloon dilation, all 19 eyes in which technical success was achieved showed improvement of epiphora. During the follow-up period of 2-33 months (mean, 16 mo), all eyes maintained improvement of epiphora and needed no further treatment.
Balloon dilation is a safe and effective therapeutic technique for the treatment of congenital lacrimal system obstruction.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 11/2000; 11(10):1319-24. DOI:10.1016/S1051-0443(07)61309-8 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and long-term effectiveness of balloon catheter dilation in the treatment of common canalicular obstruction of the lacrimal system.
Fluoroscopically guided dilation with a 3-mm-diameter balloon catheter was attempted in 195 eyes of 148 patients (26 men, 122 women; mean age, 57 years; age range, 33-78 years) with epiphora due to common canalicular obstruction. Eighty-four of 195 eyes had complete obstruction, and 111 had partial obstruction.
Complications were self-limited nasal bleeding (n = 8), false passage (n = 7), and extravasation of contrast material (n = 6). Initial technical success was achieved in 76 (90%) of 84 eyes with complete obstruction and in 104 (94%) of 111 eyes with partial obstruction. In the 180 eyes with technical success, immediate clinical improvement was achieved in 76 eyes with complete obstruction and in 100 eyes with partial obstruction. The mean follow-up period was 36 weeks (range, 4-168 weeks). The cumulative patency rates were 51% at 6-month, 43% at 12-month, and 40% at 24-month follow-up.
Although the long-term recurrence rate is relatively high, balloon catheter dilation is a safe and effective therapeutic technique to be used initially in common canalicular obstruction.