Gustavo Salguero

Hannover Medical School, Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany

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Publications (17)92.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: De novo regeneration of immunity is a major problem after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). HCT modeling in severely compromised immune-deficient animals transplanted with human stem cells is currently limited because of incomplete maturation of lymphocytes and scarce adaptive responses. Dendritic cells (DC) are pivotal for the organization of lymph nodes and activation of naive T and B cells. Human DC function after HCT could be augmented with adoptively transferred donor-derived DC. In this study, we demonstrate that adoptive transfer of long-lived human DC coexpressing high levels of human IFN-α, human GM-CSF, and a clinically relevant Ag (CMV pp65 protein) promoted human lymphatic remodeling in immune-deficient NOD.Rag1(-/-).IL-2rγ(-/-) mice transplanted with human CD34(+) cells. After immunization, draining lymph nodes became replenished with terminally differentiated human follicular Th cells, plasma B cells, and memory helper and cytotoxic T cells. Human Igs against pp65 were detectable in plasma, demonstrating IgG class-switch recombination. Human T cells recovered from mice showed functional reactivity against pp65. Adoptive immunotherapy with engineered DC provides a novel strategy for de novo immune reconstitution after human HCT and a practical and effective tool for studying human lymphatic regeneration in vivo in immune deficient xenograft hosts.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2014; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reendothelialization after vascular injury (ie, balloon angioplasty or stent implantation) is clinically extremely relevant to promote vascular healing. We here investigated the therapeutic potential of the toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist macrophage-activating lipopeptide (MALP)-2 on reendothelialization and neointima formation in a murine model of vascular injury. The left common carotid artery was electrically injured, and reendothelialization was quantified by Evans blue staining after 3 days. A single injection of MALP-2 (1 or 10 µg, IV) after vascular injury accelerated reendothelialization (P<0.001). Proliferation of endothelial cells at the wound margins determined by EdU incorporation was significantly higher in MALP-2-treated animals (P<0.05). Furthermore, wire injury-induced neointima formation of the left common carotid artery was completely prevented by a single injection of MALP-2 (10 µg, IV). In vitro, MALP-2 induced proliferation (BrdU incorporation) and closure of an artificial wound of endothelial cells (P<0.05) but not of smooth muscle cells. Protein array and ELISA analysis of isolated primary endothelial cells and ex vivo stimulated carotid segments revealed that MALP-2 stimulated the release of multiple growth factors and cytokines predominantly from endothelial cells. MALP-2 induced a strong activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in endothelial cells, which was attenuated in smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, MALP-2 significantly enhanced circulating monocytes and hematopoietic progenitor cells. The toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist MALP-2 promotes reendothelialization and inhibits neointima formation after experimental vascular injury via enhanced proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Thus, MALP-2 represents a novel therapeutic option to accelerate reendothelialization after vascular injury.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 07/2013; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wilms' tumor 1 antigen (WT1) is overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a high risk neoplasm warranting development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Unfortunately, clinical immunotherapeutic use of WT1 peptides against AML has been inconclusive. With the rationale of stimulating multiantigenic responses against WT1, we genetically programmed long-lasting dendritic cells capable of producing and processing endogenous WT1 epitopes. A tricistronic lentiviral vector co-expressing a truncated form of WT1 (lacking the DNA-binding domain), GM-CSF and IL-4 was used to transduce human monocytes ex vivo. Overnight transduction induced self-differentiation of monocytes into immunophenotypically stable "SmartDC/tWT1" (GM-CSF+, IL-4+, tWT1+, IL-6+, IL-8+, TNF-+, MCP-1+, HLA-DR+, CD86+, CCR2+, CCR5+) that were viable for 3 weeks in vitro. SmartDC/tWT1 were produced with PBMC obtained from an FLT3-ITD+ AML patient and surplus material from a donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and used to expand CD8+ T cells in vitro. Expanded CTLs showed antigen-specific reactivity against WT1 and against WT1+ leukemia cells. SmartDC/tWT1 injected s.c. into Nod.Rag1-/-.IL2rc-/- mice were viable in vivo for more than three weeks. Migration of human T cells to the immunization site was demonstrated following adoptive transfer of huCTL into mice immunized with SmartDC/tWT1. Furthermore, SmartDC/tWT1 immunization plus adoptive transfer of T cells reactive against WT1 into mice resulted in growth arrest of a WT1+ tumor. Gene array analyses of SmartDC/tWT1 demonstrated up-regulation of several genes related to innate immunity. Thus, SmartDC/tWT1 can be produced in a single day of ex vivo gene transfer, are highly viable in vivo and have great potential for use as immunotherapy against malignant transformation over-expressing WT1.
    Human gene therapy 01/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of NRas signaling is frequently found in human myeloid leukemia and can be induced by activating mutations as well as by mutations in receptors or signaling molecules upstream of NRas. To study NRas-induced leukemogenesis, we retrovirally overexpressed wild-type NRas in a murine bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model in C57BL/6J mice. Overexpression of wild-type NRas caused myelomonocytic leukemias ∼3 months after BMT in the majority of mice. A subset of mice (30%) developed malignant histiocytosis similar to mice that received mutationally activated NRas(G12D)-expressing bone marrow. Aberrant Ras signaling was demonstrated in cells expressing mutationally active or wild-type NRas, as increased activation of Erk and Akt was observed in both models. However, more NRas(G12D) were found to be in the activated, GTP-bound state in comparison with wild-type NRas. Consistent with observations reported for primary human myelomonocytic leukemia cells, Stat5 activation was also detected in murine leukemic cells. Furthermore, clonal evolution was detected in NRas wild-type-induced leukemias, including expansion of clones containing activating vector insertions in known oncogenes, such as Evi1 and Prdm16. In vitro cooperation of NRas and Evi1 improved long-term expansion of primary murine bone marrow cells. Evi1-positive cells upregulated Bcl-2 and may, therefore, provide anti-apoptotic signals that collaborate with the NRas-induced proliferative effects. As activation of Evi1 has been shown to coincide with NRAS mutations in human acute myeloid leukemia, our murine model recapitulates crucial events in human leukemogenesis.Oncogene advance online publication, 30 July 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.329.
    Oncogene 07/2012; · 7.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (ID-LVs) show several hallmarks of conventional lentiviral vectors such as absence of cytotoxic effects and long-term expression in non-replicating target cells. The integration rate of ID-LVs into the genome of target cells is dramatically reduced, which enhances safety and opens perspectives for their use in vaccine development. ID-LVs have been shown to be effective vaccines in mouse models, but functional studies with human cells in vitro and in vivo are lacking. Here, we evaluated whether ID-LVs expressing combinations of cytokines (GM-CSF/IL-4 or GM-CSF/IFN-α) used to transduce human monocytes would result in functional "induced dendritic cells" (iDCs). Overnight transduction of monocytes with high titer ID-LVs generated highly viable (14 days) and immunophenotypically stable iDCs expressing GM-CSF/IL-4 ("SmartDCs") or GM-CSF/IFN-α ("SmyleDCs"). SmartDCs and SmyleDCs maintained in vitro continuously secreted the transgenic cytokines and showed up-regulation of several endogenously produced inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, -5, -6, and -8). Both iDC types potently stimulated T cells in mixed lymphocyte reactions at levels comparable to conventional DCs (maintained with exogenous cytokines). A single in vitro stimulation of CD8(+) T cells with autologous SmartDCs or SmyleDCs pulsed with peptide pools of pp65 (a human cytomegalovirus antigen) resulted in high expansion of central memory and effector memory CTLs reactive against different pp65 epitopes. We further evaluated the effects of SmartDCs and SmyleDCs to expand anti-pp65 CTLs in vivo using immune deficient NOD/Rag1((-/-))/IL-2rγ((-/-)) (NRG) mice. NRG mice immunized subcutaneously with SmartDCs or SmyleDCs co-expressing the full-length pp65 were subsequently infused with autologous CD8(+) T cells. Both types of iDCs effectively stimulated human CTLs reactive against different pp65 antigenic determinants in vivo. Due to the simplicity of generation, robust viability and combined capacity to stimulate homeostatic, antigenic and multivalent responses, iDCs are promising vaccines to be explored in immunization of lymphopenic patients in the post-transplantation setting.
    Vaccine 06/2012; 30(34):5118-31. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a major cytokine linking inflammation and angiogenesis in pathological vascular processes, such as atherosclerosis and tumor neoangiogenesis. However, signaling pathways mediating IL-1β-induced proangiogenic processes in endothelial cells (ECs) have barely been elucidated yet. Therefore, the present study investigated IL-1β-induced proangiogenic signaling in ECs. IL-1β potently induced tube formation and migration of ECs. This was associated with and dependent on activation of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) as determined by pharmacological inhibition and gene silencing. Furthermore, silencing of the adaptor protein tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) (lentiviral short hairpin RNA) inhibited these IL-1β-induced processes. Moreover, IL-1β promoted translocation of TRAF6 to insoluble cellular fractions (containing membrane rafts/caveolae) and interaction of TRAF6 with caveolin-1. Accordingly, cellular cholesterol depletion (cyclodextrin) and silencing of caveolin-1 (small interfering RNA) inhibited IL-1β-induced activation of p38-MAPK and MK2, as well as IL-1β-induced tube formation and migration. Finally, silencing of TRAF6 and MK2 deficiency inhibited IL-1β-induced microvessel outgrowth in murine aortic rings ex vivo, and deficiency of MK2 or caveolin-1 significantly reduced IL-1β-induced angiogenesis in mice in vivo (Matrigel plug assay). IL-1β assembles a proangiogenic signaling module consisting of caveolin-1, TRAF6, p38-MAPK, and MK2 in ECs, representing a potential target to intervene into angiogenesis-dependent processes and diseases.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 02/2012; 32(5):1280-8. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SmartDCs (Self-differentiated Myeloid-derived Antigen-presenting-cells Reactive against Tumors) consist of highly viable dendritic cells (DCs) induced to differentiate with lentiviral vectors (LVs) after an overnight ex vivo transduction. Tricistronic vectors co-expressing cytokines (granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF], interleukin [IL]-4) and a melanoma antigen (tyrosine related protein 2 [TRP2]) were used to transduce mouse bone marrow cells or human monocytes. Sixteen hours after transduction, the cells were dispensed in aliquots and cryopreserved for identity, potency, and safety analyses. Thawed SmartDCs readily differentiated into highly viable cells with a DC immunophenotype. Prime/boost subcutaneous administration of 1×10(6) thawed murine SmartDCs into C57BL/6 mice resulted into TRP2-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses and protection against lethal melanoma challenge. Human SmartDC-TRP2 generated with monocytes obtained from melanoma patients secreted endogenous cytokines associated with DC activation and stimulated TRP2-specific autologous T-cell expansion in vitro. Thawed human SmartDCs injected subcutaneously in NOD.Rag1(-/-).IL2rγ(-/-) mice maintained DC characteristics and viability for 1 month in vivo and did not cause any signs of pathology. For development of good manufacturing practices, CD14(+) monocytes selected by magnetic-activated cell separation were transduced in a closed bag system (multiplicity of infection of 5), washed, and cryopreserved. Fifty percent of the monocytes used for transduction were recovered for cryopreservation. Thawed SmartDCs produced in two independent runs expressed the endogenous cytokines GM-CSF and IL-4, and the resulting homogeneous SmartDCs that self-differentiated in vitro contained approximately 1.5-3.0 copies of integrated LVs per cell. Thus, this method facilitates logistics, standardization, and high recovery for the generation of viable genetically reprogrammed DCs for clinical applications.
    Human Gene Therapy Methods 02/2012; 23(1):38-55. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunization is a potent strategy to direct prompt and durable immune responses against viral reactivations after transplantations. Here, we show that overnight lentiviral vector (LV) gene transfer into human monocytes co-expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin (IL)-4 induced self-differentiated DCs (SMART-DCs) with stable DC immunophenotype over weeks in culture and secreted several inflammatory cytokines. SMART-DCs injected subcutaneously in immunodeficient NOD.Rag1(-/-).IL2rγ(-/-) (NRG) mice 1 day after LV transduction were stable for a month in vivo. "Conventional" DCs (cDCs) and SMART-DCs were compared with regard to their potency to accelerate the expansion, biodistribution, and antigenic stimulation of autologous human T cells. Peripheral blood cells obtained from human cytomegalovirus (hCMV)-reactive donors and full-length hCMV pp65 antigenic protein or peptides were used. DCs loaded with pp65 were administered subcutaneously into NRG mice as a preconditioning treatment a week prior to intravenous infusion with T cells. Optical imaging analyses demonstrated that in mice preconditioned with SMART-DC-pp65, T cells were directly recruited to the immunization site and subsequently spread to the spleen and other organs. A dramatic expansion of both human CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells could be observed within a few days after infusion, and this was associated with consistent measurable CD8(+) effector memory T-cell responses against different pp65 epitopes. Thus, this mouse model demonstrates the proof-of-principle for SMART-DCs to accelerate expansion of human lymphocytes, resulting in poly-functional and antigen-specific immune responses against hCMV-pp65.
    Human gene therapy 05/2011; 22(10):1209-24. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients display an internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutation in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene. FLT3-ITDs are known to drive hematopoietic stem cells towards FLT3 ligand independent growth, but the effects on dendritic cell (DC) differentiation during leukemogenesis are not clear. We compared the frequency of cells with immunophenotype of myeloid DC (mDC: Lin(-), HLA-DR(+), CD11c(+), CD86(+)) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC: Lin(-), HLA-DR(+), CD123(+), CD86(+)) in diagnostic samples of 47 FLT3-ITD(-) and 40 FLT3-ITD(+) AML patients. The majority of ITD(+) AML samples showed high frequencies of mDCs or pDCs, with significantly decreased HLA-DR expression compared with DCs detectable in ITD(-) AML samples. Interestingly, mDCs and pDCs sorted out from ITD(+) AML samples contained the ITD insert revealing their leukemic origin and, upon ex vivo culture with cytokines, they acquired DC morphology. Notably, mDC/pDCs were detectable concurrently with single lineage mDCs and pDCs in all ITD(+) AML (n = 11) and ITD(-) AML (n = 12) samples analyzed for mixed lineage DCs (Lin(-), HLA-DR(+), CD11c(+), CD123(+)). ITD(+) AML mDCs/pDCs could be only partially activated with CD40L and CpG for production of IFN-α, TNF-α, and IL-1α, which may affect the anti-leukemia immune surveillance in the course of disease progression.
    Annals of Hematology 04/2011; 90(9):1047-58. · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Development of lentiviral vectors (LVs) in the field of immunotherapy and immune regeneration will strongly rely on biosafety of the gene transfer. We demonstrated previously the feasibility of ex vivo genetic programming of mouse bone marrow precursors with LVs encoding granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), which induced autonomous differentiation of long-lived dendritic cells (DCs), referred to as self-differentiated myeloid-derived antigen-presenting-cells reactive against tumors (SMART-DCs). Here, LV biosafety was enhanced by using a DC-restricted and physiological promoter, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II promoter, and including co-expression of the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (sr39HSV-TK) conditional suicide gene. Tricistronic vectors co-expressing sr39HSV-TK, GM-CSF and IL-4 transcriptionally regulated by the MHCII promoter or the ubiquitous cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter were compared. Despite the different gene transfer effects, such as the kinetics, levels of transgene expression and persistency of integrated vector copies, both vectors induced highly viable SMART-DCs, which persisted for at least 70 days in vivo and could be ablated with the pro-drug Ganciclovir (GCV). SMART-DCs co-expressing the tyrosine-related protein 2 melanoma antigen administered subcutaneously generated antigen-specific, anti-melanoma protective and therapeutic responses in the mouse B16 melanoma model. GCV administration after immunotherapy did not abrogate DC vaccination efficacy. This demonstrates proof-of-principle of genetically programmed DCs that can be ablated pharmacologically.
    Gene therapy 03/2011; 18(8):750-64. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known primarily as pathogen recognition receptors of the innate immunity, initiating inflammatory pathways to organize the immune defense. More recently, an involvement of TLRs in various physiologic and pathologic processes has been reported. Because many of these processes implicate angiogenesis, we here elucidated the role of a TLR2/6-dependent pathway on angiogenesis using the TLR2/6 agonist macrophage-activating lipopeptide of 2 kDa (MALP-2), a common bacterial lipopeptide. In vivo and in vitro Matrigel assays demonstrated that MALP-2 promoted angiogenesis in a TLR2/6-dependent manner. Moreover, MALP-2 induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration and a strong secretion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). GM-CSF release in response to MALP-2 from isolated vascular segments was completely prevented when the endothelium was removed. MALP-2 containing Matrigel implants exhibited vascular structures as well as CD45(+) cells. MALP-2 induced migration of leukocytes and likewise GM-CSF release, particularly from the monocyte population. Inhibition of GM-CSF by siRNA or antibodies suppressed MALP-2-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. These results clearly identified a TLR2/6-dependent induction of angiogenesis by the bacterial lipopeptide MALP-2, which is mediated by GM-CSF. This might represent a general mechanism to enhance or restore blood flow and recruit immune cells for pathogen defense and tissue regeneration.
    Blood 03/2010; 115(12):2543-52. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation and vascular remodeling are hallmarks of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and restenosis after angioplasty. Here we investigated the role of the hepatocyte gp130-dependent systemic acute phase response on vascular remodeling after carotid artery ligation. Mice with a hepatocyte-specific gp130 knockout on an apolipoprotein E(-/-) background (gp130-) were compared with control mice (gp130(flox)). Vascular remodeling was induced by permanent ligation of the left common carotid artery. This, in turn, activated the systemic acute phase reaction in gp130(flox) mice, as measured by serum amyloid A plasma levels, which was completely abrogated in gp130- mice (P<0.05). Morphometric analysis of the carotid artery revealed severe neointima formation and media thickening 28 days after ligation in gp130(flox) mice, which was suppressed in gp130- mice (P<0.01). Serial sections from gp130- carotid segments showed significantly less smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and monocyte recruitment (P<0.01). To evaluate the impact of the gp130-dependent systemic acute phase response on SMCs, hepatocytes from gp130(flox) and gp130- mice were stimulated with interleukin 6. Interleukin 6-induced secretion of serum amyloid A was completely abolished in gp130- hepatocytes (P<0.01). Moreover, when stimulated with supernatants from gp130- hepatocytes, SMCs showed significantly less migration and proliferation compared with supernatants from gp130(flox) hepatocytes (P<0.01). Recombinant serum amyloid A induced SMC migration and proliferation (P<0.05) and serum amyloid A injection after carotid artery ligation restored vascular remodeling in gp130- mice (P<0.01). These results imply a critical role for the gp130-dependent systemic acute phase response for vascular inflammation and SMC migration, as well as proliferation, and, subsequently, for vascular remodeling.
    Hypertension 10/2009; 54(5):1035-42. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pro-inflammatory processes initiated in the endothelium represent a crucial step in the pathogenesis of inflammatory cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis. Recent observations pointed to potential anti-inflammatory properties of the cardiac glycoside digitoxin. Therefore, the present study investigated potential anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective properties of digitoxin as well as the underlying signaling pathways affected in endothelial cells (EC). Digitoxin, employing therapeutical concentrations used in patients (3-30nM), potently inhibited the IL-1beta-induced expression of MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in EC and the capacity of corresponding cell culture supernatants on monocyte migration as well as monocyte adhesion to endothelial monolayers, respectively. Furthermore, digitoxin prevented the IL-1beta-induced activation of p44/42-MAPK and NF-kappaB without affecting activation of JNK and p38-MAPK. Inhibition of NF-kappaB signaling but not p44/42-MAPK mimicked the observed inhibitory effects of digitoxin on MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration. Moreover, digitoxin inhibited NF-kappaB signaling at the level of TAK-1/IKK. Additionally, digitoxin prevented TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in EC accompanied by activation of Akt. Blockade of PI-3-kinase, activator of Akt, prevented the anti-apoptotic properties of digitoxin and impaired its inhibitory action on NF-kappaB signaling and MCP-1 expression. Finally, digitoxin activated endothelial NO-synthase, which was blocked by inhibition of PI-3-kinase, Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent-proteinkinase-II and chelation of intracellular calcium. Digitoxin elicits anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective properties by blocking NF-kappaB and activating PI-3-kinase/Akt signaling as well as Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent-proteinkinase-II in EC. These observations indicate a potential therapeutical application of digitoxin in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis.
    Atherosclerosis 04/2009; 206(2):390-6. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell-based therapy after myocardial infarction (MI) is a promising therapeutic option but the relevant cell subsets and dosage requirements are poorly defined. We hypothesized that cell therapy for myocardial infarction is improved by ex vivo expansion and high-dose transplantation of defined hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Since beta-catenin promotes self-renewal of stem cells we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of beta-catenin-mediated ex vivo expansion of mouse HPCs in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion followed by intraarterial cell delivery. The impact of cell dose was determined by comparing a low-dose (LD, 5 x 10(5) cells) vs. a high-dose (HD, 1 x 10(7) cells) cell transplantation regimen of beta-catenin-HPCs. The impact of beta-catenin modification of HPCs was determined by comparing control-transduced HPCs (GFP-HPCs) vs. transgenic beta-catenin-HPCs. HD beta-catenin-HPCs significantly improved LV function and end-systolic and end-diastolic dimensions as compared to saline and LD beta-catenin-HPCs. Furthermore, while treatment with HD GFP-HPC resulted in a modest cardiac improvement the application of beta-catenin-HPCs was superior, resulting in a significant improvement in EF, FS and LVESD over saline and control GFP-HPC treatment. Although myocardial engraftment of HPCs was only transient, as determined by cell quantification after dye labeling, beta-catenin-HPC treatment significantly decreased infarct size, reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased capillary angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Ex vivo expanded HPCs improve cardiac function and remodeling post MI in a cell number- and beta-catenin-dependent manner.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 10/2008; 45(3):394-403. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enhanced mechanical forces, e.g. in arterial hypertension, stimulate the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NAD(P)H oxidase. Since bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to vascular remodeling and repair, we investigated whether renovascular hypertension stimulates EPC mobilization in a NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent manner. Renovascular hypertension was induced by two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) in C57BL/6 (WT) and in mice lacking the p47phox subunit of the NAD(P)H oxidase (p47phox-/-). In WT, 2K1C increased blood pressure levels by 32.4 +/- 4 mmHg, which was associated with a four-fold increase in circulating EPCs (Sca-1+;Flk-1+). In p47phox-/- mice, the increase in blood pressure was significantly reduced (15.1 +/- 1.8 mmHg, P < 0.05) and not associated with increased EPCs. Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and nonspecific vasodilators normalized blood pressure and inhibited EPC mobilization in WT mice after 2K1C. In addition, p47phox deficiency and pharmacological ROS blockage abrogated 2K1C-induced blood pressure elevation and EPC mobilization. Stromal cell derived factor (SDF)-1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity in the bone marrow, required for EPC mobilization, were modulated in WT mice after 2K1C. In contrast, no alterations in SDF-1 and MMP-9 were observed in p47phox-/- mice. Moreover, enhanced migration of Lin- bone marrow mononuclear cells was observed when stimulated with plasma from 2K1C WT mice but not when stimulated with plasma from 2K1C p47phox-/- mice. Enhanced mechanical stretch in renovascular hypertension induces EPC mobilization in a p47phox-dependent manner, involving bone marrow SDF-1 and MMP-9 which may contribute to compensatory vascular adaptation in renovascular hypertension.
    Journal of Hypertension 02/2008; 26(2):257-68. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue regeneration involves the formation of new blood vessels regulated by angiogenic factors. We reported recently that the expression of the angiogenic factor CCN1 is up-regulated under various pathophysiologic conditions within the cardiovascular system. Because CD34+ progenitor cells participate in cardiovascular tissue regeneration, we investigated whether CCN1-detected for the first time in human plasma-promotes the recruitment of CD34+ progenitor cells to endothelial cells, thereby enhancing endothelial proliferation and neovascularization. In this study, we demonstrated that CCN1 and supernatants from CCN1-stimulated human CD34+ progenitor cells promoted proliferation of endothelial cells and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, CCN1 induced migration and transendothelial migration of CD34+ cells and the release of multiple growth factors, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) from these cells. Moreover, the CCN1-specific integrins alpha(M)beta(2) and alpha(V)beta(3) are expressed on CD34+ cells and CCN1 stimulated integrin-dependent signaling. Furthermore, integrin antagonists (RGD-peptides) suppressed both binding of CCN1 to CD34+ cells and CCN1-induced adhesion of CD34+ cells to endothelial cells. These data suggest that CCN1 promotes integrin-dependent recruitment of CD34+ progenitor cells to endothelial cells, which may contribute to paracrine effects on angiogenesis and tissue regeneration.
    Blood 09/2007; 110(3):877-85. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation leads to increased production of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), and both have been implicated in the initiation and progression of arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiac hypertrophy. The cytosolic subunit p47phox is critically involved in agonist-induced NAD(P)H oxidase activation. Here, we investigated the role of p47phox in blood pressure control, endothelium-dependent relaxation, cardiac hypertrophy, RAS activation, and renal oxidative stress under resting conditions. Mice deficient in p47phox (on C57BL/6 background) developed significantly higher systolic blood pressure levels compared to C57BL/6 wild-type animals (136.0+/-3.0 mmHg vs. 112.2+/-2.6, P<0.01, n=16) as measured by the tail cuff method from week 6 up to week 12 post partum. The increase in blood pressure in p47phox-/- mice was associated with an impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation (P<0.005 vs. wild-type, n=11). At the age of 12 weeks p47phox-/- mice showed increased plasma renin activity as analyzed by radioimmunoassay (14.5+/-1.8 ng/mL/h vs. 9.6+/-1.7 ng/mL/h, P<0.05, n=10) and enhanced angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the kidney and aorta as measured by Hip-His-Leu cleavage (7.6+/-0.8 vs. 4.8+/-0.9 nmol/L His-Leu/mg protein, P<0.05, n=5) compared to wild-type mice. No differences in oxygen radical formation was determined in kidney samples by lucigenin- and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence or by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Consistently, treatment with the radical scavenger tempol did not lower blood pressure in p47phox-/- mice, whereas ACE and angiotensin II type I receptor inhibition normalized blood pressure. Deficiency of the NAD(P)H oxidase subunit p47phox leads to RAS activation, which subsequently contributes to blood pressure increase in a ROS-independent manner.
    Cardiovascular Research 08/2006; 71(3):596-605. · 5.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

164 Citations
92.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2013
    • Hannover Medical School
      • • Clinic for Hematology, Hemostasis, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation
      • • Department of Cardiology and Angiology
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2009
    • The University of Manchester
      • Faculty of Life Sciences
      Manchester, ENG, United Kingdom