Publications (3)2.26 Total impact
Article: Saturated ablation in metal hydrides and acceleration of protons and deuterons to keV energies with a soft-x-ray laser.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Studies of materials under extreme conditions have relevance to a broad area of research, including planetary physics, fusion research, materials science, and structural biology with x-ray lasers. We study such extreme conditions and experimentally probe the interaction between ultrashort soft x-ray pulses and solid targets (metals and their deuterides) at the FLASH free-electron laser where power densities exceeding 10(17) W/cm(2) were reached. Time-of-flight ion spectrometry and crater analysis were used to characterize the interaction. The results show the onset of saturation in the ablation process at power densities above 10(16) W/cm(2). This effect can be linked to a transiently induced x-ray transparency in the solid by the femtosecond x-ray pulse at high power densities. The measured kinetic energies of protons and deuterons ejected from the surface reach several keV and concur with predictions from plasma-expansion models. Simulations of the interactions were performed with a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium code with radiation transfer. These calculations return critical depths similar to the observed crater depths and capture the transient surface transparency at higher power densities.Physical Review E 01/2011; 83(1 Pt 2):016403. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mg-Ti alloys have uncommon optical and hydrogen absorbing properties, originating from a “spinodal-like” microstructure with a small degree of chemical short-range order in the atomic distribution. In the present study we artificially engineer short-range order by depositing Pd-capped Mg/Ti multilayers with different periodicities. Notwithstanding the large lattice mismatch between Mg and Ti, the as-deposited metallic multilayers show good structural coherence. On exposure to H2 gas a two-step hydrogenation process occurs with the Ti layers forming the hydride before Mg. From in situ measurements of the bilayer thickness Λ at different hydrogen pressures, we observe large out-of-plane expansions of Mg and Ti layers on hydrogenation, indicating strong plastic deformations in the films and a consequent shortening of the coherence length. On unloading at room temperature in air, hydrogen atoms remain trapped in the Ti layers due to kinetic constraints. Such loading/unloading sequence can be explained in terms of the different thermodynamic properties of hydrogen in Mg and Ti, as shown by diffusion calculations on a model multilayered systems. Absorption isotherms measured by hydrogenography can be interpreted as a result of the elastic clamping arising from strongly bonded Mg/Pd and broken Mg/Ti interfaces.Phys. Rev. B. 81(22).
Article: Saturated ablation in metal hydrides and acceleration of protons and deuterons to keV energies with a soft-x-ray laserPhys. Rev. E. 83(1):016403.