F L Margolis

University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (150)539.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has a dual role as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult central nervous system (CNS) and as a signaling molecule exerting largely excitatory actions during development. The rate-limiting step of GABA synthesis is catalyzed by two glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms GAD65 and GAD67 coexpressed in the GABAergic neurons of the CNS. Here we report that the two GADs show virtually nonoverlapping expression patterns consistent with distinct roles in the developing peripheral olfactory system. GAD65 is expressed exclusively in undifferentiated neuronal progenitors confined to the proliferative zones of the sensory vomeronasal and olfactory epithelia In contrast GAD67 is expressed in a subregion of the nonsensory epithelium/vomeronasal organ epithelium containing the putative Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) progenitors and GnRH neurons migrating from this region through the frontonasal mesenchyme into the basal forebrain. Only GAD67+, but not GAD65+ cells accumulate detectable GABA. We further demonstrate that GAD67 and its embryonic splice variant embryonic GAD (EGAD) concomitant with GnRH are dynamically regulated during GnRH neuronal migration in vivo and in two immortalized cell lines representing migratory (GN11) and postmigratory (GT1–7) stage GnRH neurons, respectively. Analysis of GAD65/67 single and double knock-out embryos revealed that the two GADs play complementary (inhibitory) roles in GnRH migration ultimately modulating the speed and/or direction of GnRH migration. Our results also suggest that GAD65 and GAD67/EGAD characterized by distinct subcellular localization and kinetics have disparate functions during olfactory system development mediating proliferative and migratory responses putatively through specific subcellular GABA pools. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2014
    Developmental Neurobiology 08/2014; · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Successful axonal regeneration is a complex process determined by both axonal environment and endogenous neural capability of the regenerating axons in the central and the peripheral nervous systems. Numerous external inhibitory factors inhibit axonal regeneration after injury. In response, neurons express various regeneration-associated genes to overcome this inhibition and increase the intrinsic growth capacity. In the present study, we show that the brain-expressed X-linked (Bex1) protein was over-expressed as a result of peripheral axonal damage. Bex1 antagonized the axon outgrowth inhibitory effect of myelin-associated glycoprotein. The involvement of Bex1 in axon regeneration was further confirmed in vivo. We have demonstrated that Bex1 knock-out mice showed lower capability for regeneration after peripheral nerve injury than wild-type animals. Wild-type mice could recover from sciatic nerve injury much faster than Bex1 knock-out mice. Our findings suggest that Bex1 could be considered as regeneration-associated gene.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 11/2010; 115(4):910-20. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carnosine-like peptides (carnosine-LP) are a family of histidine derivatives that are present in the nervous system of various species and that exhibit antioxidant, anti-matrix-metalloproteinase, anti-excitotoxic, and free-radical scavenging properties. They are also neuroprotective in animal models of cerebral ischemia. Although the function of carnosine-LP is largely unknown, the hypothesis has been advanced that they play a role in the developing nervous system. Since the zebrafish is an excellent vertebrate model for studying development and disease, we have examined the distribution pattern of carnosine-LP in the adult and developing zebrafish. In the adult, immunoreactivity for carnosine-LP is specifically concentrated in sensory neurons and non-sensory cells of the olfactory epithelium, the olfactory nerve, and the olfactory bulb. Robust staining has also been observed in the retinal outer nuclear layer and the corneal epithelium. Developmental studies have revealed immunostaining for carnosine-LP as early as 18 h, 24 h, and 7 days post-fertilization in, respectively, the olfactory, corneal, and retinal primordia. These data suggest that carnosine-LP are involved in olfactory and visual function. We have also investigated the effects of chronic (7 days) exposure to carnosine on embryonic development and show that 0.01 microM to 10 mM concentrations of carnosine do not elicit significant deleterious effects. Conversely, treatment with 100 mM carnosine results in developmental delay and compromised larval survival. These results indicate that, at lower concentrations, exogenously administered carnosine can be used to explore the role of carnosine in development and developmental disorders of the nervous system.
    Cell and Tissue Research 06/2009; 337(1):45-61. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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    Renee E Cockerham, Frank L Margolis, Steven D Munger
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    ABSTRACT: The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) is a complex organ containing several functionally distinct subpopulations of sensory neurons. One such subpopulation is distinguished by its expression of the guanylyl cyclase GC-D. The axons of GC-D-expressing (GC-D+) neurons innervate 9-15 "necklace" glomeruli encircling the caudal main olfactory bulb (MOB). Chemosensory stimuli for GC-D+ neurons include two natriuretic peptides, uroguanylin and guanylin, and CO2. However, the biologically-relevant source of these chemostimuli is unclear: uroguanylin is both excreted in urine, a rich source of olfactory stimuli for rodents, and expressed in human nasal epithelium; CO2 is present in both inspired and expired air. To determine whether the principal source of chemostimuli for GC-D+ neurons is external or internal to the nose, we assessed the consequences of removing external chemostimuli for afferent activity to the necklace glomeruli. To do so, we performed unilateral naris occlusions in Gucy2d-Mapt-lacZ +/- mice [which express a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) reporter specifically in GC-D+ neurons] followed by immunohistochemistry for beta-gal and a glomerular marker of afferent activity, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). We observed a dramatic decrease in TH immunostaining, consistent with reduced or absent afferent activity, in both necklace and non-necklace glomeruli ipsilateral to the occluded naris. Like other MOB glomeruli, necklace glomeruli exhibit a large decrease in afferent activity upon removal of external stimuli. Thus, we conclude that activity in GC-D+ neurons, which specifically innervate necklace glomeruli, is not dependent on internal stimuli. Instead, GC-D+ neurons, like other OSNs in the MOE, primarily sense the external world.
    BMC Research Notes 02/2009; 2:31.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The role of olfactory marker protein (OMP), a hallmark of mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), has been poorly understood since its discovery. The electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes of OMP knockout mice indicated that OMP influences olfactory signal transduction. However, the mechanism by which this occurs remained unknown.Principal FindingsWe used intact olfactory epithelium obtained from WT and OMP−/− mice to monitor the Ca2+ dynamics induced by the activation of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, or Ca2+ stores in single dendritic knobs of OSNs. Our data suggested that OMP could act to modulate the Ca2+-homeostasis in these neurons by influencing the activity of the plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX). Immunohistochemistry verifies colocalization of NCX1 and OMP in the cilia and knobs of OSNs. To test the role of NCX activity, we compared the kinetics of Ca2+ elevation by stimulating the reverse mode of NCX in both WT and OMP−/− mice. The resulting Ca2+ responses indicate that OMP facilitates NCX activity and allows rapid Ca2+ extrusion from OSN knobs. To address the mechanism by which OMP influences NCX activity in OSNs we studied protein-peptide interactions in real-time using surface plasmon resonance technology. We demonstrate the direct interaction of the XIP regulatory-peptide of NCX with calmodulin (CaM).Conclusions Since CaM also binds to the Bex protein, an interacting protein partner of OMP, these observations strongly suggest that OMP can influence CaM efficacy and thus alters NCX activity by a series of protein-protein interactions.
    PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(1). · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alternative splicing of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) receptor gene generates two major receptor isoforms, mGluR1a and mGluR1b, differing in intracellular function and distribution. However, little is known on the expression profiles of these variants during development. We examined the mRNA expression profile of mGluR1a/b in microdissected layers and acutely isolated mitral cells in the developing mouse olfactory bulb. This analysis showed that the two mGluR1 variants are differentially regulated within each bulb layer. During the first postnatal week, the mGluR1a isoform replaces GluR1b in the microdissected mitral cell layer (MCL) and in isolated identified mitral cells, coinciding with a developmental epoch of mitral cell dendritic reorganization. Although mGluR1a mRNA is expressed at high levels in both the adult external plexiform layer (EPL) and MCL, Western blotting analysis reveals a marked reduction of the mGluR1a protein in the MCL, where mitral cell bodies are located, and strong labeling in the EPL, which contains mitral cell dendrites. This suggests that there is increased dendritic trafficking efficiency of the receptor in adult. The temporal and spatial shift in mGluR1b/a expression suggests distinct roles of the mGluR1 isoforms, with mGluR1b potentially involved in the early mitral cell maturation and mGluR1a in dendritic and synapse function.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 10/2008; 87(2):369-79. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Altered distribution of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR1 has been linked to stimulation-dependent changes in synaptic efficacy, including long-term potentiation and depression. The main olfactory bulb (OB) remains plastic throughout life; how GluR1 may be involved in this plasticity is unknown. We have previously shown that neonatal naris occlusion reduces numbers of interneuron cell bodies that are immunoreactive for GluR1 in the external plexiform layer (EPL) of the adult mouse OB. Here, we show that immunoreactivity of mouse EPL interneurons for GluR1 is also dramatically reduced following olfactory deafferentation in adulthood. We further show that expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65, 1 of 2 GAD isoforms expressed by adult gamma-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons, is reduced, but to a much smaller extent, and that in double-labeled cells, immunoreactivity for the Ca(2+)-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) is also reduced. In addition, GluR1 expression is reduced in presumptive tufted cells and interneurons that are negative for GAD65 and PV. Consistent with previous reports, sensory deafferentation resulted in little neuronal degeneration in the adult EPL, indicating that these differences were not likely due to death of EPL neurons. Together, these results suggest that olfactory input regulates expression of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit by tufted cells that may in turn regulate GluR1 expression by interneurons within the OB EPL.
    Chemical Senses 03/2008; 33(2):201-10. · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • Ezio Bettini, Frank L Margolis
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    ABSTRACT: Beta-tubulin genes code for very similar proteins, sharing extensive identity in amino acid sequence within and across species, each of which manifests characteristic patterns of cell and tissue expression. While searching for olfactory specific mRNAs in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), we isolated a novel beta-tubulin cDNA. In the putative ORF, 1298 nucleotides were 80-88% identical to cloned cDNAs from zebrafish to human for beta-tubulin isotype IVb. This ORF is interrupted by an insert of 111 nucleotides located between the regions corresponding to exons 2 and 3 in other species. This insert lacks similarity to any sequence in the NCBI databases. We showed that this novel cDNA fragment hybridizes specifically to catfish olfactory epithelium mRNA on Northern analysis. Here we demonstrate by in situ analysis of catfish olfactory epithelium that the expression of this mRNA is spatially restricted to the outer two-thirds of each olfactory lamella where olfactory receptor neurons reside. These results suggest that this nucleotide sequence is the result of incomplete RNA transcript processing. The growing awareness of the regulatory roles played by RNAs transcribed from intronic regions of genes suggests that this observation may have relevance to regulation of gene expression in olfactory tissue during development and axon targeting.
    Journal of Molecular Histology 01/2008; 38(6):571-9. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    Johannes Reisert, King-Wai Yau, Frank L Margolis
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    ABSTRACT: Olfactory marker protein (OMP), a phylogenetically conserved protein, is highly, and almost exclusively, expressed in vertebrate olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Although OMP is widely used as a marker for ORNs, its function has remained largely elusive. Here we used suction-pipette recordings from isolated ORNs of OMP(-/-) mice to investigate its role in olfactory transduction. Vertebrate olfactory transduction is initiated when odourants bind to receptor proteins to activate an adenylyl cyclase via a G protein-coupled signalling pathway. This leads to an increase in cAMP and the opening of a cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG), non-selective cation channel which depolarizes the cells. Ca(2+) influx through the CNG channel in turn activates a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, causing a Cl(-) efflux and further depolarization. In the absence of OMP, the time-to-transient-peak of the response, the latency to first spike, and the response termination were slowed 2- to 8-fold, indicating its role in regulating olfactory response kinetics and termination. This phenotype persisted in OMP(-/-) ORNs even in low external Ca(2+) solution chosen to prevent Cl(-) channel activation, suggesting OMP acts upstream of Cl(-) channel activation. Furthermore, the response kinetics in cilia are virtually indistinguishable between OMP(-/-) and wild-type ORNs when intracellular cAMP level was elevated by the phospho-diesterase inhibitor, IBMX, suggesting OMP acts upstream of cAMP production. Together, our results suggest a role for OMP in regulating the kinetics and termination of olfactory responses, implicating a novel mechanism for fast and robust response termination to ensure the temporal resolution of the odour stimulus. These observations also help explain the deficits in odour detection threshold and odour quality discrimination seen in the OMP(-/-) mice.
    The Journal of Physiology 01/2008; 585(Pt 3):731-40. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca(2+)/CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2007; 363(2):405-10. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sodium/calcium (Na(+)/Ca(2+)) exchangers are membrane transport systems that regulate Ca(2+)-homeostasis in many eukaryotic cells. In olfactory and vomeronasal sensory neurons ligand-induced olfactory signal transduction is associated with influx and elevation of intracellular Ca(2+), [Ca(2+)](i). While much effort has been devoted to the characterization of Ca(2+)-related excitation and adaptation events of olfactory chemosensory neurons (OSNs), much less is known about mechanisms that return [Ca(2+)](i) to the resting state. To identify proteins participating in the poststimulus Ca(2+)-clearance of mouse OSNs, we analyzed the expression of three potassium (K(+))-independent (NCX1, 2, 3) and three K(+)-dependent (NCKX1, 2, 3) Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers. In situ hybridization showed that mRNAs of all six Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers coexist in neurons of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems, and that some are already detectable in the embryo. Of these, NCX1 and NCKX1 represent the most and least abundant mRNAs, respectively. Moreover, immunohistochemistry revealed that the NCX1, 2, and 3 proteins are expressed in nearly all neurons of the olfactory epithelium, the vomeronasal organ, the septal organ of Masera, and the Grueneberg ganglion. These three exchanger proteins display different expression profiles in dendrites, knobs, and plasma membranes of OSNs and in sustentacular cells. Furthermore, we show that NCX1 mRNA in rat olfactory mucosa is expressed as 8 alternative splice variants. This is the first comprehensive analysis of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger expression in the mammalian olfactory system. Our results suggest that Ca(2+)-extrusion by OSNs utilizes multiple different Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers and that different subtypes are targeted to different subcellular compartments.
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology 05/2007; 501(6):944-58. · 3.66 Impact Factor
  • Hyun H Kim, Adam C Puche, Frank L Margolis
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    ABSTRACT: The olfactory system is an outstanding model for understanding activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in mammals. Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the periphery project onto mitral/tufted cells in the olfactory bulb (OB) and these mitral/tufted cells in turn project to piriform cortex (PC). Numerous studies have examined changes in OB after a permanent OSN ablation, but little is known about "trans-transsynaptic" changes taking place in the PC. Permanent zinc sulfate lesion of the olfactory epithelium resulted in a selective loss of the NMDA receptor NR2B protein and mRNA expression in pyramidal cells in layer IIb of PC after 2-7 d. Regulatory elements affected by NR2B signaling, namely the phosphorylation of CREB, were also downregulated only in layer IIb neurons. These changes could be caused by OSN axon loss in the zinc sulfate lesion, or to a reduced activity. To test this hypothesis, we performed both permanent and reversible naris occlusion, which blocks odorant access to the nasal cavities and OSN activity. The expression of NR2B and phospho-CREB were downregulated 5 d after occlusion and this reduction was fully restored 10 d after reopening of the naris. Subsequently, we identified the subset of pyramidal cells in layer IIb that are especially sensitive to the loss of odor-evoked activity using double retrograde tracers. In summary, the present study provides an initial characterization of the molecular mechanisms associated with odor stimulation on second order neuronal plasticity and phenotype in the olfactory system.
    Journal of Neuroscience 10/2006; 26(37):9548-59. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few proteins are known to be selectively expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons directly affected by optic nerve stroke and glaucoma. In addition, subsets of RGCs are reported to project to various CNS areas via the retinohypothalamic pathway in rodents and primates. Many of these areas exhibit immunoreactivity for the brain-expressed X-linked (Bex) proteins Bex1 and Bex2. This prompted us to evaluate expression of these proteins in retina. We utilized rats and transgenic mice, coupled with a new rodent model of isolated optic nerve stroke (rodent anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, rAION). An anti-Bex1 antibody was reacted to retinal tissue extracts. To evaluate short term effects of rAION on RGC Bex expression, a double transgenic mouse strain was employed expressing cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) under control of the Thy-1 protein promotor, and beta-galactosidase (lacZ) under control of the immediate early stress c-fos gene promotor. Positive identification of rat RGCs was performed by retrograde fluorogold labeling via stereotactic CNS injection. Retinas were analyzed using both diaminobenzidine (DAB)-linked immunochemistry and confocal microscopy. Bex immunoreactivity is present at high levels in the retina. Bex1 and Bex2 are selectively expressed in RGCs and differentially expressed in a subset of large RGC neurons. Bex signal levels are lower in small RGC neurons, which preferentially express high levels of the transcription factor Brn3b. Post-stroke, Bex accumulates in the RGC cytoplasm, consistent with the optic nerve edema produced by clinical AION. Bex immunoreactivity can be used to evaluate, ex vivo, the distribution of RGC cell bodies and their axons in the retina and rAION effects on RGC axonal loss. Thus, Bex can be utilized to evaluate both long- and short-term effects of optic nerve stroke and may play a significant role in regulating RGC functions in both the axonal and cell body components of RGC neurons.
    Molecular vision 02/2006; 12:147-55. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interest in manipulating gene expression in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) has led to the use of adenoviruses (AdV) as gene delivery vectors. OSNs are the first order neurons in the olfactory system and the initial site of odor detection. They are highly susceptible to adenovirus infection although the mechanism is poorly understood. The Coxsackie-Adenovirus receptor (CAR) and members of the integrin family have been implicated in the process of AdV infection in various systems. Multiple serotypes of AdV efficiently bind to the CAR, leading to entry and infection of the host cell by a mechanism that can also involve integrins. Cell lines that do not express CAR are relatively resistant, but not completely immune to AdV infection, suggesting that other mechanisms participate in mediating AdV attachment and entry. Using in situ hybridization and western blot analyses, we show that OSNs and olfactory bulbs (OB) of mice express abundant CAR mRNA at embryonic and neonatal stages, with progressive diminution during postnatal development. By contrast to the olfactory epithelium (OE), CAR mRNA is still present in the adult mouse OB. Furthermore, despite a similar postnatal decline, CAR protein expression in the OE and OB of mice continues into adulthood. Our results suggest that the robust AdV infection observed in the postnatal olfactory system is mediated by CAR and that expression of even small amounts of CAR protein as seen in the adult rodent, permits efficient AdV infection and entry. CAR is an immunoglobulin domain-containing protein that bears homology to cell-adhesion molecules suggesting the possibility that it may participate in organization of the developing olfactory system.
    Journal of Neurocytology 10/2005; 34(3-5):295-305. · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Biomolecular NMR 10/2005; 33(1):63-8. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The early response and survival of oligodendrocytes after axonal stroke and their potential contribution to neuronal survival in vivo have not been adequately addressed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes occurring in the retina and optic nerve (ON) in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), using a c-fos transgenic mouse model. A new mouse model of AION (rodent AION) was developed to evaluate the in vivo stress response of oligodendrocytes and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a transgenic mouse strain, using the immediate early stress-response gene c-fos, RT-QPCR technology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Confocal microscopy was used with cell-specific antibodies to characterize the timing of cells responding to rAION. The TUNEL assay detected cells undergoing apoptosis. Ultrastructural changes were analyzed by electron microscopy. In rAION, oligodendrocytes rapidly respond in vivo to ischemic ON damage, with c-fos activation as an early detectable event. Early evidence of progressive oligodendrocyte stress, is followed by demyelination, wallerian degeneration of the ON, and oligodendrocyte and RGC death far from the primary lesion. After rAION induction oligodendrocytes, as well as RGCs, undergo progressive stress, with dysfunction and apoptosis. The findings lead to a proposal that progressive retrograde oligodendrocyte stress, away from the primary lesion, is an important factor after ischemic optic neuropathy. Postinduction demyelination must be addressed for effective neuroprotection of ischemic and hypoxic white matter.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 09/2005; 46(8):2716-25. · 3.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (15)N relaxation measurements of the olfactory marker protein (OMP) including longitudinal relaxation (T(1)), transverse relaxation (T(2)), and (15)N-{(1)H} NOE data were collected at low protein concentrations (<or=100 microM) and at two field strengths (14.4 and 18.8 T) for 135 of 162 backbone amide groups. Rotational diffusion of the OMP was found to be axially symmetric with D( parallel)/D( perpendicular) = 1.20 +/- 0.02 with an overall global correlation time of 8.93 +/- 0.03 ns. Model-free internal dynamic analyses of these data provided a description of the protein's dynamics on multiple time scales. The results of these studies indicate that there is a large degree of conformational flexibility for alpha-helix 1 (alpha1), loop 1, and the conserved Omega-loop (loop 3). The functional significance that these dynamic regions of OMP have in modulating olfactory signal transduction is discussed.
    Biochemistry 08/2005; 44(28):9673-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Jae Hyung Koo, Manda Saraswati, Frank L Margolis
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    ABSTRACT: Bex proteins are expressed from a family of "brain expressed X-linked genes" that are closely linked on the X-chromosome. Bex1 and 2 have been characterized as interacting partners of the olfactory marker protein (OMP). Here we report the distribution of Bex1 and Bex2 mRNAs in several brain regions and the development and characterization of an antibody to mouse Bex1 protein that cross-reacts with Bex2 (but not Bex3), and its use to determine the cellular distribution of Bex proteins in the murine brain. The specificity of the antiserum was characterized by immunoprecipitation and Western blots of tissue and transfected cell extracts and by immunocytochemical analyses of cells transfected with either Bex1 or Bex2. Antibodies preabsorbed with Bex2 still recognize Bex1, while blocking with Bex1 eliminates all immunoreactivity to both Bex1 and Bex2. Bex immunoreactivity (ir) was primarily localized to neuronal cells within several regions of the brain, including the olfactory epithelium, bulb, peri/paraventricular nuclei, suprachiasmatic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, median eminence, lateral hypothalamic area, thalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of Bex mRNA in several of these regions. Double-label immunocytochemistry indicates that Bex-ir is colocalized with OMP in mature olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and in the OMP-positive subpopulation of neurons in hypothalamus. This is the first anatomical mapping of Bex proteins in the mouse brain and their colocalization with OMP in ORNs and hypothalamus.
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology 07/2005; 487(1):1-14. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A coordinated series of immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses have been conducted in the hamster to examine the dependence of substance P and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression by second-order olfactory neurons, and the level of dopamine in the main olfactory bulb (MOB), on the integrity of carnosine- and olfactory marker protein (OMP)-containing primary afferent neurons. Substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) is localized in external tufted cells and centrifugal afferents of the MOB; TH immunoreactivity has a wider distribution, in external tufted, middle tufted, periglomerular, and deep short-axon cells as well as in centrifugal afferents. To characterize the SPLI, this material was isolated by guanidine-HCl extraction and passage over a C18 SEP-PAK. The SPLI coelutes on HPLC with authentic substance P and, following oxidation, coelutes with substance P sulfoxide. It is sensitive to α-chymotrypsin and is resistant to trypsin. Thus, the SPLI in the MOB behaves as authentic substance P. Intranasal irrigation with 0.17 M ZnSO4 results in peripheral deafferentation of the MOB for up to 8 months as evidenced by a persistent loss of OMP immunoreactivity and shrinkage of the olfactory nerve layer and glomeruli. By these criteria, the vomeronasal inputs to the accessory olfactory bulb are not destroyed and the spared vomeronasal receptor neurons do not innervate the vacated peripheral projection field in the MOB. The loss of peripheral inputs to the MOB is accompanied by marked and parallel reductions in the incidences of SPLI- and TH-positive second-order neurons despite an increase in the density of neuronal somata in the glomerular layer. Biochemical quantifications following peripheral deafferentation also demonstrate significant decreases of both substance P and dopamine, together with the expected decrease of carnosine. In contrast, the SPLI and the TH and serotoninlike immunoreactivities in centrifugal afferents as well as the TH immunoreactivity in deep interneurons do not appear to be reduced, and the MOB content of norepinephrine in centrifugal afferents is unaffected. These results collectively indicate that the loss of inputs from the primary olfactory receptor neurons can reduce the levels of at least two different, putatively neuroactive compounds (substance P and dopamine) in at least three classes of second-order neurons (external tufted, middle tufted, and periglomerular cells). The control of central neuron phenotype by the peripheral olfactory neurons thus appears to be a phenomenon of broad influence. It may play a role in processing chemosensory information as well as offering a system in which to study neuronal plasticity.
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology 10/2004; 222(1):140 - 154. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Olfactory marker protein (OMP) participates in the olfactory signal transduction pathway. This is evident from the behavioral and electrophysiological deficits of OMP-null mice, which can be reversed by intranasal infection of olfactory sensory neurons with an OMP-expressing adenovirus. Bex, brain expressed X-linked protein, has been identified as a protein that interacts with OMP. We have now further characterized the interaction of OMP and Bex1/2 by in vitro binding assays and by immuno-coprecipitation experiments. OMP is a 19 kDa protein but these immunoprecipitation studies have revealed the unexpected presence of a 38 kDa band in addition to the expected 19 kDa band. Furthermore, the 38 kDa form was preferentially co-immunoprecipitated with Bex from cell extracts. In-gel tryptic digestion, mass spectrometry, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicate that the 38 kDa protein behaves as a covalently cross-linked OMP-homodimer. The 38 kDa band was also identified in western blots of olfactory epithelium demonstrating its presence in vivo. The stabilities and subcellular localizations of the OMP-monomer and -dimer were studied in transfected cells. These results demonstrated that the OMP-dimer is much less stable than the monomer, and that while the monomer is present both in the nuclear and cytosolic compartments, the dimer is preferentially located in a Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeletal fraction. These novel observations led us to hypothesize that regulation of the level of the rapidly turning-over OMP-dimer and its interaction with Bex1/2 is critical for OMP function in sensory transduction.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 08/2004; 90(1):102-16. · 3.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
539.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2014
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Neuroscience
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2004
    • State University of New York Upstate Medical University
      • Department of Neuroscience and Physiology
      Syracuse, NY, United States
  • 1990–2004
    • Università degli Studi di Torino
      • Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Division of Pharmacology and Pathofysiology
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1976–2004
    • Roche Institute of Molecular Biology
      Nutley, New Jersey, United States
  • 2003
    • American University Washington D.C.
      • Department of Psychology
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 1999–2002
    • Burke Medical Research Institute New York
      New York City, New York, United States
    • German Institute of Human Nutrition
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2000
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      New York City, NY, United States
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Biomolecular Chemistry
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 1996–1998
    • Howard University
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Washington, West Virginia, United States
  • 1995–1998
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Neurobiology
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 1988–1989
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Neurology and Neuroscience
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 1980
    • Northwestern Memorial Hospital
      • Northwestern Medicine
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1975
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Luis, Missouri, United States