G. P. Garmire

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Maryland, United States

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Publications (450)1648.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A major impediment to understanding star formation in massive star forming regions (MSFRs) is the absence of a reliable stellar chronometer to unravel their complex star formation histories. We present a new estimation of stellar ages using a new method that employs near-infrared (NIR) and X-ray photometry, AgeJX. Stellar masses are derived from X-ray luminosities using the Lx - Mass relation from the Taurus cloud. J-band luminosities are compared to mass-dependent pre-main-sequence evolutionary models to estimate ages. AgeJX is sensitive to a wide range of evolutionary stages, from disk-bearing stars embedded in a cloud to widely dispersed older pre-main sequence stars. The MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray) project characterizes 20 OB-dominated MSFRs using X-ray, mid-infrared, and NIR catalogs. The AgeJX method has been applied to 5525 out of 31,784 MYStIX Probable Complex Members. We provide a homogeneous set of median ages for over a hundred subclusters in 15 MSFRs; median subcluster ages range between 0.5 Myr and 5 Myr. The important science result is the discovery of age gradients across MYStIX regions. The wide MSFR age distribution appears as spatially segregated structures with different ages. The AgeJX ages are youngest in obscured locations in molecular clouds, intermediate in revealed stellar clusters, and oldest in distributed populations. The NIR color index J-H, a surrogate measure of extinction, can serve as an approximate age predictor for young embedded clusters.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 787(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Massive Star-forming Regions (MSFRs) Omnibus X-ray Catalog (MOXC), a compendium of X-ray point sources from {\em Chandra}/ACIS observations of a selection of MSFRs across the Galaxy, plus 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. MOXC consists of 20,623 X-ray point sources from 12 MSFRs with distances ranging from 1.7 kpc to 50 kpc. Additionally, we show the morphology of the unresolved X-ray emission that remains after the catalogued X-ray point sources are excised from the ACIS data, in the context of \Spitzer\ and {\em WISE} observations that trace the bubbles, ionization fronts, and photon-dominated regions that characterize MSFRs. In previous work, we have found that this unresolved X-ray emission is dominated by hot plasma from massive star wind shocks. This diffuse X-ray emission is found in every MOXC MSFR, clearly demonstrating that massive star feedback (and the several-million-degree plasmas that it generates) is an integral component of MSFR physics.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 03/2014; 213(1). · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    Gordon P. Garmire
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a probable dwarf galaxy colliding with NGC 1232. This collision is visible only in the X-ray spectral band, and it is creating a region of shocked gas with a temperature of 5.8 MK covering an impact area 7.25 kpc in diameter. The X-ray luminosity is 3.7 x1038ergs s-1. The long lifetime of this gas against radiative and adiabatic cooling should permit the use of the luminous afterglow from such collisions to be used as a way of estimating their importance in galaxy evolution.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2013; 770(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray; Feigelson et al. 2013) project provides improved censuses of young stars in 20 nearby OB-dominated star-forming regions that were observed by the Chandra X-ray observatory, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the UKIRT/UKIDSS and 2MASS surveys. The sample of >33,000 members reveals new details about the structure of clusters in these regions. Clusters of young stars are identified using finite mixture models -\ the sums of isothermal ellipsoids used to model individual (sub)clusters. Maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate the model parameters and the Akaike Information Criterion is used to detemine the number of subclusters. In the MYStIX star-forming regions, ˜150 subclusters are found (1 to >10 per region). The distribution of cluster core radii is log-normal, peaked at 0.18 pc (similar to the ONC) with a standard deviation of 0.4 dex. The locations of subclusters are often correlated with molecular-cloud clumps or cores. We also recover several well-known embedded subclusters such as the BN-KL region in Orion and the KW Object cluster in M 17. MYStIX star-forming regions typically have one dominant cluster surrounded by smaller subclusters and filamentary groups of young stars. Some clusters are well fit by the ellipsoid model (e.g. Flame Nebula), but others have lumpy structure and are poorly fit (e.g. M 17). A few clusters have a core-halo structure modeled with two overlapping ellipsoids (e.g. RCW 36). Clumpy and core-halo structures could originate in the merger of subclusters. There is a power-law relation between the fitted cluster central density and core radius (index slightly shallower than -3), which may be an effect of cluster expansion. There is also a statistically significant negative relation between median gas/dust absorption of a subcluster and the subcluster's size that can also be explained by cluster expansion if absorption acts as a proxy for age.
    07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray; Feigelson et al. 2013) project seeks to characterize 20 OB-dominated young star forming regions (SFRs) at distances <4 kpc using photometric catalogs from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and UKIRT and 2MASS NIR telescopes. A major impediment to understand star formation in the massive SFRs is the absence of a reliable stellar chronometer to unravel their complex star formation histories. We present estimation of stellar ages using a new method that employs NIR and X-ray photometry, t(JX). Stellar masses are directly derived from absorption-corrected X-ray luminosities using the Lx-Mass relation from the Taurus cloud. J-band magnitudes corrected for absorption and distance are compared to the mass-dependent pre-main-sequence evolutionary models of Siess et al. (2000) to estimate ages. Unlike some other age estimators, t(JX) is sensitive to all stages of evolution, from deeply embedded disky objects to widely dispersed older pre-main sequence stars. The method has been applied to >5500 out of >30000 MYStIX stars in 20 SFRs. As individual t(JX) values can be highly uncertain, we report median ages of samples within (sub)clusters defined by the companion study of Kuhn et al. (2013). Here a maximum likelihood model of the spatial distribution produces an objective assignment of each star to an isothermal ellipsoid or a distributed population. The MYStIX (sub)clusters show 0.5 < t(JX) < 5 Myr. The important science result of our study is the discovery of previously unknown age gradients across many different MYStIX regions and clusters. The t(JX) ages are often correlated with (sub)cluster extinction and location with respect to molecular cores and ionized pillars on the peripheries of HII regions. The NIR color J-H, a surrogate measure of extinction, can serve as an approximate age predictor for young embedded clusters.
    07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We present a systematic study of the X-ray and multiwavelength properties of a sample of 17 highly radio-loud quasars (HRLQs) at z > 4 with sensitive X-ray coverage from new Chandra and archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift observations. Eight of the new and archival observations are reported in this work for the first time. New Chandra observations of two moderately radio-loud and highly optically luminous quasars at z > 4 are also reported. Our HRLQ sample represents the top ~5% of radio-loud quasars in terms of radio loudness. We found that our HRLQs have an X-ray emission enhancement over HRLQs at lower redshifts (by a typical factor of ~3), and this effect, after controlling for several factors which may introduce biases, has been solidly estimated to be significant at the 3-4 sigma level. HRLQs at z=3-4 are also found to have a similar X-ray emission enhancement over z < 3 HRLQs, which supports further the robustness of our results. We discuss models for the X-ray enhancement's origin including a fractional contribution from inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons. No strong correlations are found between the relative X-ray brightness and optical/UV emission-line rest-frame equivalent widths (REWs) for radio-loud quasars. However, the line REWs are positively correlated with radio loudness, which suggests that relativistic jets make a negligible contribution to the optical/UV continua of these HRLQs (contrary to the case where the emission lines are diluted by the relativistically boosted continuum). Our HRLQs are generally consistent with the known anti-correlation between radio loudness and X-ray power-law photon index. We also found that the two moderately radio-loud quasars appear to have the hardest X-ray spectra among our objects, suggesting that intrinsic X-ray absorption (N_H~10^23 cm^-2) may be present.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; 763(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Isolated compact groups of galaxies (CGs) present a range of dynamical states, group velocity dispersions, and galaxy morphologies with which to study galaxy evolution, particularly the properties of gas both within the galaxies and in the intragroup medium. As part of a large, multiwavelength examination of CGs, we present an archival study of diffuse X-ray emission in a subset of nine Hickson compact groups observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We find that seven of the groups in our sample exhibit detectable diffuse emission. However, unlike large-scale emission in galaxy clusters, the diffuse features in the majority of the detected groups are linked to the individual galaxies, in the form of both plumes and halos likely as a result of star formation or AGN activity, as well as in emission from tidal features. Unlike previous studies from earlier X-ray missions, HCGs 31, 42, 59, and 92 are found to be consistent with the Lx-T relationship from clusters within the errors, while HCGs 16 and 31 are consistent with the cluster Lx-sigma relation, though this is likely coincidental given that the hot gas in these two systems is largely due to star formation. We find that Lx increases with decreasing group HI to dynamical-mass ratio with tentative evidence for a dependance in X-ray luminosity on HI morphology whereby systems with intragroup HI indicative of strong interactions are considerably more X-ray luminous than passively evolving groups. We also find a gap in the Lx of groups as a function of the total group specific star formation rate. Our findings suggest that the hot gas in these groups is not in hydrostatic equilibrium and these systems are not low-mass analogs of rich groups or clusters, with the possible exception of HCG 62.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; 763(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: XPHOT is an IDL implementation of a non-parametric method for estimating the apparent and intrinsic broad-band fluxes and absorbing X-ray column densities of weak X-ray sources. XPHOT is intended for faint sources with greater than ˜5-7 counts but fewer than 100-300 counts where parametric spectral fitting methods will be superior. This method is similar to the long-standing use of color-magnitude diagrams in optical and infrared astronomy, with X-ray median energy replacing color index and X-ray source counts replacing magnitude. Though XPHOT was calibrated for thermal spectra characteristic of stars in young stellar clusters, recalibration should be possible for some other classes of faint X-ray sources such as extragalactic active galactic nuclei.
    Astrophysics Source Code Library. 12/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Giant HII regions represent the dominant model of star formation (SF) in the Galaxy, and the Cepheus Loop is an excellent nearby prototype for giant, asymmetric HII bubbles. We propose a Spitzer/IRAC mosaic of the rich and compact principal ionizing cluster Be59 and its parental cloud. These Spitzer data in conjunction with our X-ray, archival IR, and follow-up optical data will allow us: 1) to search for and characterize a suspected older generation of stars that could have both carved the Cepheus Loop and induced the formation of Be59, and 2) to quantify recent and current SF in Be59 and numerous cloudlets and pillars. This study will test an important model for the morphology and evolution of asymmetric bubbles and advance our understanding of the effect of SF that is layered in time and space on the SF rate in giant Galactic bubbles.
    Spitzer Proposal. 12/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the long-term (rest-frame 3-30 yr) X-Ray variability of eleven broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, mainly to constrain the variation properties of the X-Ray absorbing shielding gas that is thought to play a critical role in BAL wind launching. Our BAL quasar sample has coverage with multiple X-ray observatories including Chandra, XMM-Newton, BeppoSAX, ASCA, ROSAT, and Einstein; 3-11 observations are available for each source. For seven of the eleven sources we have obtained and analyzed new Chandra observations suitable for searching for any strong X-ray variability. We find highly significant X-Ray variability in three sources (PG 1001+054, PG 1004+130, and PG 2112+059). The maximum observed amplitude of the 2-8 keV variability is a factor of $3.8\pm 1.3$, $1.5\pm 0.2$, and $9.9\pm 2.3$ for PG 1001+054, PG 1004+130, and PG 2112+059, respectively, and these sources show detectable variability on rest-frame timescales down to 5.8, 1.4, and 0.5 yr. For PG 1004+130 and PG 2112+059 we also find significant X-Ray spectral variability associated with the flux variability. Considering our sample as a whole, we do not find that BAL quasars exhibit exceptional long-term X-Ray variability when compared to the quasar population in general. We do not find evidence for common strong changes in the shielding gas owing to physical rearrangement or accretion-disk rotation, although some changes are found; this has implications for modeling observed ultraviolet BAL variability. Finally, we report for the first time an X-Ray detection of the highly polarized and well-studied BAL quasar IRAS 14026+4341 in its new Chandra observation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2012; 759(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the cores of some clusters of galaxies the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster's lifetime, leading to continuous 'cooling flows' of gas sinking towards the cluster centre, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star-formation rates and cool gas masses for these 'cool-core' clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 (ref. 11) at redshift z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (8.2 × 10(45) erg s(-1)) galaxy cluster that hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (around 3,820 solar masses a year). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (formation of around 740 solar masses a year), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool-core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star-formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form through accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than (as is currently thought) assembling entirely via mergers.
    Nature 08/2012; 488(7411):349-52. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the cores of some galaxy clusters the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster's lifetime, leading to continuous "cooling flows" of gas sinking towards the cluster center, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star formation rates and cool gas masses for these "cool core" clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by astrophysical feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical, and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 at z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (L_2-10 keV = 8.2 x 10^45 erg/s) galaxy cluster which hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (dM/dt = 3820 +/- 530 Msun/yr). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (740 +/- 160 Msun/yr), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form via accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than the current picture of central galaxies assembling entirely via mergers.
    08/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Rich young stellar clusters produce HII regions whose expansion into the nearby molecular cloud is thought to trigger the formation of new stars. However, the importance of this mode of star formation is uncertain. This investigation seeks to quantify triggered star formation (TSF) in IC 1396A (a.k.a., the Elephant Trunk Nebula), a bright rimmed cloud (BRC) on the periphery of the nearby giant HII region IC 1396 produced by the Trumpler 37 cluster. X-ray selection of young stars from Chandra X-ray Observatory data is combined with existing optical and infrared surveys to give a more complete census of the TSF population. Over 250 young stars in and around IC 1396A are identified; this doubles the previously known population. A spatio-temporal gradient of stars from the IC 1396A cloud toward the primary ionizing star HD 206267 is found. We argue that the TSF mechanism in IC 1396A is the radiation-driven implosion process persisting over several million years. Analysis of the X-ray luminosity and initial mass functions indicates that >140 stars down to 0.1 Msun were formed by TSF. Considering other BRCs in the IC 1396 HII region, we estimate the TSF contribution for the entire HII region exceeds 14-25% today, and may be higher over the lifetime of the HII region. Such triggering on the periphery of HII regions may be a significant mode of star formation in the Galaxy.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2012; 426(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present 35 ks Chandra ACIS observations of the 42 Myr old radio pulsar PSR B1451-68. A point source is detected 0.32" +/- 0.73" from the expected radio pulsar position. It has ~200 counts in the 0.3-8 keV energy range. We identify this point source as the X-ray counterpart of the radio pulsar. PSR B1451-68 is located close to a 2MASS point source, for which we derive 7% as the upper limit on the flux contribution to the measured pulsar X-ray flux. The pulsar spectrum can be described by either a power-law model with photon index Gamma=2.4 (+0.4/-0.3) and a unrealistically high absorbing column density N(H)= (2.5 (+1.2/-1.3)) * 10^(21) cm^-2, or by a combination of a kT=0.35 (+0.12/-0.07) keV blackbody and a Gamma = 1.4 +/- 0.5 power-law component for N(H)[DM]= 2.6 * 10^(20) cm^-2, estimated from the pulsar dispersion measure. At the parallactic, Lutz-Kelker bias corrected distance of 480 pc, the non-thermal X-ray luminosities in the 0.3-8 keV energy band are either Lx(nonth)= (11.3 +/- 1.7) * 10^(29) erg/s or Lx(nonth)= (5.9 (+4.9/-5.0)) * 10^(29) erg/s, respectively. This corresponds to non-thermal X-ray efficiencies of either eta(nonth)= Lx(nonth) / (dE/dt) ~ 0.005 or 0.003, respectively.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2012; 749(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Taking advantage of the high sensitivity of the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, we have conducted a snap-shot survey of pulsars previously undetected in X-rays. We detected 12 pulsars and established deep flux limits for 11 pulsars. Using these new results, we revisit the relationship between the X-ray luminosity, L_psr_x, and spin-down power, Edot. We find that the obtained limits further increase the extremely large spread in the non-thermal X-ray efficiencies, eta_psr_x=L_psr_x/Edot, with some of them being now below 1e-5. Such a spread cannot be explained by poorly known distances or by beaming of pulsar radiation. We also find evidence of a break in the dependence of L_psr_x on Edot, such that pulsars become more X-ray efficient at Edot<~ 1e34-1e35 erg/s. We examine the relationship between the gamma-ray luminosity, L_psr_g, and Edot, which exhibits a smaller scatter compared to that in X-rays. This confirms that the very large spread in the X-ray efficiencies cannot be explained just by beaming because the gamma-ray emission is generally expected to be beamed stronger than the X-ray emission. Intriguingly, there is also an indication of a break in the L_psr_g(Edot) dependence at Edot~1e35 erg/s, with lower-Edot pulsars becoming less gamma-ray efficient. We also examine the distance-independent L_psr_f/L_psr_x ratio as a function of Edot for a sample of gamma-ray pulsars observed by Chandra and find that it peaks at Edot~1e35 erg/s, showing that the breaks cannot originate from poorly measured distances. We discuss the implications of our findings for existing models of magnetospheric emission and venues for further exploration.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 02/2012; 201(2). · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of 12 new fossil groups of galaxies, systems dominated by a single giant elliptical galaxy and cluster-scale gravitational potential, but lacking the population of bright galaxies typically seen in galaxy clusters. These fossil groups (FGs), selected from the maxBCG optical cluster catalog, were detected in snapshot observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We detail the highly successful selection method, with an 80% success rate in identifying 12 FGs from our target sample of 15 candidates. For 11 of the systems, we determine the X-ray luminosity, temperature, and hydrostatic mass, which do not deviate significantly from expectations for normal systems, spanning a range typical of rich groups and poor clusters of galaxies. A small number of detected FGs are morphologically irregular, possibly due to past mergers, interaction of the intra-group medium (IGM) with a central AGN, or superposition of multiple massive halos. Two-thirds of the X-ray-detected FGs exhibit X-ray emission associated with the central BCG, although we are unable to distinguish between AGN and extended thermal galaxy emission using the current data. This sample, a large increase in the number of known FGs, will be invaluable for future planned observations to determine FG temperature, gas density, metal abundance, and mass distributions, and to compare to normal (non-fossil) systems. Finally, the presence of a population of galaxy-poor systems may bias mass function determinations that measure richness from galaxy counts. When used to constrain power spectrum normalization and Ω m , these biased mass functions may in turn bias these results.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2012; 747(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We summarize the results of the late‐time Chandra observations of the X‐ray afterglow of the Swift‐discovered GRB 060729. These Chandra observations have been the latest X‐ray detections of an afterglow even, up to 21 month after the trigger. The last two Chandra observations in December 2007 and May 2008 suggest a break at about a year after the burst, implying a jet half‐opening angle of about 14 degrees, if interpreted as a jet break. As an alternative this break may have a spectral origin. In that case no jet break was observed and the half‐opening angle is larger than 15 degrees for a wind medium. Comparing the X‐ray afterglow of GRB 060729 with other bright X‐ray afterglows we discuss why the afterglow of GRB 060729 was such an exceptionally long‐lasting event. The detection by Chandra in May 2008 was the latest detection of an X‐ray afterglow at cosmological distance ever.
    AIP Conference Proceedings. 08/2011; 1358(1):125-129.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a 1.42deg2^ mosaic of diffuse X-ray emission in the Great Nebula in Carina from the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer camera. After removing >14000 X-ray point sources from the field, we smooth the remaining unresolved emission, tessellate it into segments of similar apparent surface brightness, and perform X-ray spectral fitting on those tessellates to infer the intrinsic properties of the X-ray-emitting plasma. By modeling faint resolved point sources, we estimate the contribution to the extended X-ray emission from unresolved point sources and show that the vast majority of Carina's unresolved X-ray emission is truly diffuse. Line-like correlated residuals in the X-ray spectral fits suggest that substantial X-ray emission is generated by charge exchange at the interfaces between Carina's hot, rarefied plasma and its many cold neutral pillars, ridges, and clumps. (2 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 05/2011;
  • Bettina Posselt, G. G. Pavlov, G. P. Garmire
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    ABSTRACT: Very few old radio pulsars are detected in X-rays. These objects are in general very faint due to their cold surfaces and relatively low spin-down powers. Yet, old radio pulsars appear to convert their spin-down energy more efficiently into X-ray emission than their younger relatives. It is unclear how much of this X-ray emission can be attributed to thermally emitting, hot polar caps or to magnetospheric emission. The evolution of NS magnetospheres with age and the polar cap heating mechanism are both interesting for the entire NS population, but can be particularly well studied in the case of old X-ray detected radio pulsars. Here, we present recent Chandra observations of the 4.25e7 yrs old radio pulsar PSR B1451-68. The spectrum of the found X-ray source can be described by a power law with photon index ˜ 2.7. Its isotropic luminosity is L_X ˜ 1.7e30 d^2_450pc erg/s (0.3 keV to 8keV), which corresponds to a high X-ray efficiency of 8e-3. We discuss the influence of a nearby star on the detected X-ray emission.
    05/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Broos et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJS/194/2) and citations therein describe the X-ray, visual, NIR, and MIR measurements available for CCCP sources. (1 data file).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 05/2011;

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,648.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2014
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2011
    • The University of Arizona
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2003–2011
    • William Penn University
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Astronomy
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
    • Australian Defence Force Academy
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 2010
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Astronomy
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 2000–2009
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2004–2006
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
    • University of Naples Federico II
      • Department of Physical Sciences
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory
      Los Alamos, California, United States
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      • Departamento de Economía
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2005
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001–2003
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 1974–2003
    • California Institute of Technology
      Pasadena, California, United States