ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering is a promising area with a broad range of applications in the fields of regenerative medicine and human health. The emergence of periodontal tissue engineering for clinical treatment of periodontal disease has opened a new therapeutic avenue. The choice of scaffold is crucial. This study was conducted to prepare zein scaffold and explore the suitability of zein and Shuanghuangbu for periodontal tissue engineering.
A zein scaffold was made using the solvent casting/particulate leaching method with sodium chloride (NaCl) particles as the porogen. The physical properties of the zein scaffold were evaluated by observing its shape and determining its pore structure and porosity. Cytotoxicity testing of the scaffold was carried out via in vitro cell culture experiments, including a liquid extraction experiment and the direct contact assay. Also, the Chinese medicine Shuanghuangbu, as a growth factor, was diluted by scaffold extract into different concentrations. This Shuanghuangbu-scaffold extract was then added to periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) in order to determine its effect on cell proliferation.
The zein scaffold displayed a sponge-like structure with a high porosity and sufficient thickness. The porosity and pore size of the zein scaffold can be controlled by changing the porogen particles dosage and size. The porosity was up to 64.1%-78.0%. The pores were well-distributed, interconnected, and porous. The toxicity of the zein scaffold was graded as 0-1. Furthermore, PDLCs displayed full stretching and vigorous growth under scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Shuanghuangbu-scaffold extract could reinforce proliferation activity of PDLCs compared to the control group, especially at 100 microg x mL(-1) (P < 0.01).
A zein scaffold with high porosity, open pore wall structure, and good biocompatibility is conducive to the growth of PDLCs. Zein could be used as scaffold to repair periodontal tissue defects. Also, Shuanghuangbu-scaffold extract can enhance the proliferation activity of PDLCs. Altogether, these findings provide the basis for in vivo testing on animals.
International Journal of Oral Science 09/2010; 2(3):142-8. · 1.41 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of the Chinese herbal medicine Xianhuayin on the reversal of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced premalignant mucosal lesions in the oral buccal pouch of golden hamsters.
The animals were randomly divided into a non-diseased control group (n=5) and an experimental group including 50 animals in which the buccal mucosa had been painted with DMBA (0.5% in acetone) to generate an oral mucosa premalignant lesion. Animals in the experimental group were further divided into Xianhuayin-treated group (n=30), untreated premalignant lesion group (n=10) and normal saline (NS)-treated group (n=10). The cheek (buccal) pouch mucosa of the golden hamsters in each group was observed with light and electron microscopy eight weeks after intragastric administration with NS or Xianhuayin.
In the non-diseased control group, the buccal mucosa was keratinized and stratified squamous epithelium under a light microscope. In the untreated premalignant lesion group, variable degrees of epithelial dysplasia was observed. The irregular epithelial mucosa gradually became distinct in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis showed that surface of the cells exhibited honeycomb structures in the hamster of untreated-group. The cells were morphologically irregular, overlapped and loosened in the untreated premalignant lesion group. Most of the cell surface exhibited honeycomb structure in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Transmission electronic microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that buccal mucosal epithelial cells were morphologically regular in the non-diseased control group. Desmosomes and tonofibrils were reduced and the nucleus was morphologically irregular in the untreated premalignant lesion group. In the Xianhuayin-treated group, the widening intercellular gap was gradually reduced, desmosomes and the cells becoming morphologically regular. No significant difference was observed between the hamsters in NS-treated group and those in the untreated premalignant lesion group. Significant therapeutic efficacy was observed in the group receiving Xianhuayin.
Xianhuayin is effective in the reversal of DMBA-induced premalignant lesions in the buccal pouch of golden hamsters.
International Journal of Oral Science 03/2010; 2(1):53-8. · 1.41 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate insulin secretion function and insulin resistance in Chinese newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (obese and non-obese patients) in order to provide evidence for clinical treatment.
408 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 40 normal controls were recruited. Height, weight were measured, insulin and glucose of 0 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min during oral glucose tolerance test were examined. The patients with fasting glucose level greater than 8.3mmol/L were treatment with Gliclazide for 1 - 3 months. After normalization of the plasma glucose levels for more than 2 weeks, and withdraw this medication for 48 hours, then OGTT were repeated to assess IR and IS.
The patients were divided into four groups based on fasting plasma glucose (DM1: FPG < 6.9mmol/L; DM2: 6.9 mmol/L < or = FPG < 8.3 mmol/L; DM3: 8.3 mmol/L < or = FPG < 9.7 mmol/L; DM4: FPG > or = 9.7 mmol/L). Every groups were further stratified to subgroups by cut point of BMI = 24 kg/m(2). Their insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion function compared between subgroups. (1) True insulin level in BMI > or = 24 (FPG < 6.9 mmol/L) subgroups were higher than control's (3.5 +/- 0.5 vs 3.2 +/- 0.6 natural logarithm) (P < 0.05). (2) In BMI > or = 24 subgroups, their insulin sensitivity were even worse than BMI < 24 groups', but their insulin secretion function were better at the same FPG level. (3) After intervention, the change of insulin sensitivity in BMI < 24 group was better than BMI > or = 24 group's (-4.7 +/- 0.9 vs -5.5 +/- 1.4 natural logarithm) (P < 0.05); but the change of insulin secretion function in BMI < 24 group was worse.
(1) In newly diagnostic type 2 diabetes, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion function were decreased with the increase of FPG, but they were different between obese and non-obese group. (2) Insulin secretion function was recovered better in obese group when eliminated glucose toxicity.
Zhonghua yi xue za zhi 04/2009; 89(16):1117-21.
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of sibutramine on body weight, body fat mass, metabolism of plasma glucose and serum lipids, and insulin resistance (IR) in primary obesity patients.
A double-blind, double-placebo, randomized controlled, multi-center clinical trial was conducted. 359 voluntary obese subjects, whose body mass index (BMI) > or = 27 kg/m(2), without hypertension and diabetes, were enrolled. They were randomly divided into group A, B and C respectively. Sibutramine tablets or capsules were administered 10-20 mg/day for 24 weeks to the test groups and placebo to a control group. CT scan was used to measure the intra or subcutaneous-abdominal fat areas (IAFA, SAFA) at L(4)-L(5) level. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to measure total body fat mass (TBFM).
315 subjects continued to be followed for 24 weeks. After opening the blind, it was shown that group A received sibutramine tablet (n = 107), group B placebo (n = 104) and group C was capsule (n = 104). In group A and C body weight loss was 4.86 kg (6.42%) and 4.68 kg (6.38%), TBFM reduction was 4.07 kg (13.94%) and 4.09 kg (15.02%), SAFA decreased 7.30% and 7.45%, IAFA decreased 19.21% and 16. 98% respectively. Fasting plasma glucose decreased from 5.69 to 4.83 mmol/L and from 5.38 to 4.69 mmol/L in group A and C respectively. Fasting serum insulin decreased from 20.98 to 14.75 mU/L and from 21.11 to 14.68 mU/L, 2 h insulin decreased from 70.91 to 44.11 mU/L and from 73.13 to 41.93 mU/L in group A and C respectively. Serum triglyceride decreased from 1.98 to 1.73 mmol/L and 1.84 to 1.67 mmol/L, total cholesterol decreased from 5.08 to 4.75 mmol/L and from 5.06 to 4.46 mmol/L, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased from 1.13 to 1.28 mmol/L and 1.10 to 1.31 mmol/L in group A and C respectively, HOMA-IR index decreased from 5.32 to 3.32, and from 5.09 to 3.12 respectively in group A and C. Adverse drug reaction was 32.41%, 13.47% and 31.20% in group A, B and C.
Sibutramine tablet or capsule decreases comparably body weight and TBFM, especially IAFA regulates plasma glucose and serum lipid metabolism and also decreases IR. Sibutramine is well tolerated in most of the subjects.
Zhonghua nei ke za zhi [Chinese journal of internal medicine] 09/2005; 44(9):659-63.