F. Otoo

China Institute for Radiation Protection, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (9)5.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of radioactivity levels in human diet is of particular concern for the estimation of possible radiological hazards to human health. However, very few surveys of radioactivity in food have been conducted in Ghana. The natural radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K were measured in the foodstuffs using gamma ray spectrometry. All samples were found to contain high 40K content in the range 87.77–368.50 Bq kg−1. The maximum concentration of 228Th and 40K were found in cassava to be 14.93 ± 3.86 and 368.50 ± 19.20 Bq kg−1, respectively. The total annual committed effective dose was estimated to be 4.64 mSv. The daily intake of radionuclides from food consumption reveals that cassava and plantain are the highest contributors, while millet is the lowest. The daily radionuclide intake from the foodstuffs consumed by the general public was 411.32 Bq and the daily internal dose resulting from ingestion of the radionuclides in the foodstuffs was 0.01 mSv. The radionuclide concentrations were comparable with those reported from other countries.
    Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 01/2012; 291(3). · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Institutions in the education, research and industrial sectors in Ghana are quite few in comparison to the medical sector. Occupational exposure to radiation in the education, research and industrial sectors in Ghana have been analysed for a 10 y period between 2000 and 2009, by extracting dose data from the database of the Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Thirty-four institutions belonging to the three sectors were monitored out of which ∼65% were in the industrial sector. During the 10 y study period, monitored institutions ranged from 18 to 23 while the exposed workers ranged from 246 to 156 between 2000 and 2009. Annual collective doses received by all the exposed workers reduced by a factor of 2 between 2000 and 2009. This is seen as a reduction in annual collective doses in education/research and industrial sectors by ∼39 and ∼62%, respectively, for the 10 y period. Highest and least annual collective doses of 182.0 man mSv and 68.5 man mSv were all recorded in the industrial sector in 2000 and 2009, respectively. Annual average values for dose per institution and dose per exposed worker decreased by 49 and 42.9%, respectively, between 2000 and 2009. Average dose per exposed worker for the 10 y period was least in the industrial sector and highest in the education/research sector with values 0.6 and 3.7 mSv, respectively. The mean of the ratio of annual occupationally exposed worker (OEW) doses for the industrial sector to the annual OEW doses for the education/research sector was 0.67, a suggestion that radiation protection practices are better in the industrial sector than they are in the education/research sector. Range of institutional average effective doses within the education/research and industrial sectors were 0.059-6.029, and 0.110-2.945 mSv, respectively. An average dose per all three sectors of 11.87 mSv and an average dose per exposed worker of 1.12 mSv were realised for the entire study period. The entire study period had 187 instances in which exposed workers received individual annual doses >1 mSv, with exposed workers in the education/research sector primarily receiving most of this individual dose.
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry 10/2011; 150(3):350-8. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Occupational exposure to radiation in medical practice in Ghana has been analysed for a 10-y period between 2000 and 2009. Monitored dose data in the medical institution in Ghana from the Radiation Protection Institute's database were extracted and analysed in terms of three categories: diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. One hundred and eighty medical facilities were monitored for the 10-y period, out of which ~98% were diagnostic radiology facilities. Only one nuclear medicine and two radiotherapy facilities have been operational in the country since 2000. During the 10-y study period, monitored medical facilities increased by 18.8%, while the exposed workers decreased by 23.0%. Average exposed worker per entire medical institution for the 10-y study period was 4.3. Annual collective dose received by all the exposed workers reduced by a factor of 4 between 2000 and 2009. This is seen as reduction in annual collective doses in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine facilities by ~76, ~72 and ~55%, respectively, for the 10-y period. Highest annual collective dose of 601.2 man mSv was recorded in 2002 and the least of 142.6 man mSv was recorded in 2009. Annual average values for dose per institution and dose per exposed worker decreased by 79 and 67.6%, respectively between 2000 and 2009. Average dose per exposed worker for the 10-y period was least in radiotherapy and highest in diagnostic radiology with values 0.14 and 1.05 mSv, respectively. Nuclear medicine however recorded average dose per worker of 0.72 mSv. Correspondingly, range of average effective doses within the diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine facilities were 0.328-2.614, 0.383-0.728 and 0.448-0.695 mSv, respectively. Throughout the study period, an average dose per medical institution of 3 mSv and an average dose per exposed worker of 0.69 mSv were realised. Exposed workers in diagnostic radiology primarily received most of the individual annual doses >1 mSv. The entire study period had 705 instances in which exposed workers received individual annual doses >1 mSv. On thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) return rates, facilities in Volta and Eastern Regions recorded highest return rates of 94.3% each. Ashanti Region recorded the least TLD return rate with 76.7%.
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry 07/2011; 149(4):431-7. · 0.91 Impact Factor
  • Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. 04/2011; 3(2041-0492-3):269-274.
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    ABSTRACT: The dose management system (DMS) is a computer software developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency for managing data on occupational exposure to radiation sources and intake of radionuclides. It is an integrated system for the user-friendly storage, processing and control of all existing internal and external dosimetry data. The Radiation Protection Board (RPB) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission has installed, customised, tested and using the DMS as a comprehensive DMS to improve personnel and area monitoring in the country. Personnel dose records from the RPBs database from 2000 to 2009 are grouped into medical, industrial and education/research sectors. The medical sector dominated the list of monitored institutions in the country over the 10-y period representing ∼87 %, while the industrial and education/research sectors represent ∼9 and ∼4 %, respectively. The number of monitored personnel in the same period follows a similar trend with medical, industrial and education/research sectors representing ∼74, ∼17 and ∼9 %, respectively. Analysis of dose data for 2009 showed that there was no instance of a dose above the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, however, 2.7 % of the exposed workers received individual annual doses >1 mSv. The highest recorded individual annual dose and total collective dose in all sectors were 4.73 mSv and 159.84 man Sv, respectively. Workers in the medical sector received higher individual doses than in the other two sectors, and average dose per exposed worker in all sectors is 0.25 mSv.
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry 02/2011; 148(1):3-8. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The naturally occurring radioactive materials associate with building materials from twelve (12) towns along coastal part of Central Region of Ghana have been studied. The activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K ranged from 27.90±1.06 to 97.89±6.34 Bq/kg, 15.47±0.97 to 70.97±5.83 Bq/kg and 89.34±5.20 to 943.44±34 Bq/kg, respectively. The 238U recorded the highest value of 97.89±6.34 Bq/kg in granite from Ampenyi whilst pebbles from Winneba recorded the lowest activity concentration. The 232Th activity concentration level ranged from 15.47±0.97 to 70.97±5.83 Bq/kg with clay soil from Kormantse recording the highest whiles pebbles from Apam had the lowest average activity concentration. The average activity concentration of 40K ranged from 89.34±5.20 to 943.44±34 Bq/kg , with the highest activity concentration level occurring in Ampenyi and lowest level of the activity concentration also occurring in beach sand from Apam. The activities are compared with available data from other publications and with the world average value for soils. The radium equivalent activity Raeq, the external hazard index (Hex) (0.17 to 0.48), Internal hazard index (Hin) (0.25 to 0.72), the absorbed dose rate D in air (36.90 to 131.29 nGy/h) and the annual effective dose (ET) (181.02 to 644.00 :Sv/yr) were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of these building materials. The studies indicated that the main contributions to gamma radiation in building materials are 40K, 238U and 232Th. The results obtained were found to be within the allowable limit of 1mSv per year for public exposure control recommended by the International Commission Radiological Protection (ICRP) and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
    Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. 01/2011; 3:261-268.
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    ABSTRACT: Intrinsic and tomographic evaluation tests on the Siemens e.cam® Signature Series Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system were conducted to ensure that it meets the specification required by the user and the capabilities claimed by the manufacturer after installation. The tests were performed according to National Electrical Manufacturers Association protocols and various measuring instrument and point sources containing 99m-Tc were used. Intrinsic tests performed include intrinsic flood uniformity, intrinsic count rate performance in air and intrinsic energy resolution. Whole body scanning, SPECT resolution without scatter, SPECT resolution with inserts, SPECT uniformity and center of rotation were also evaluated. The intrinsic count rate performance measured was 300 kcps as against manufactures’ specification of 310 kcps, intrinsic energy resolution was 9.31% whiles manufacturers’ specification was < 9.9% and center of rotation specification is that Max. X-Min. X< 1 pixel and RMS < 0.5 whiles values measured was 0.254 and 0.10 for LEAP and 0.092 and 0.083 for LEHR collimators. The evaluation confirm that the SPECT system met the requirements for clinical medical imagine and also the values obtained could be used as baseline data for future quality control.
    Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology. 01/2011; 3:1152 - 1158.
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    ABSTRACT: The concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in water from Lake Bosumtwi and boreholes in selected towns around the Bosumtwi basin of the Ashanti region of Ghana have been determined. The concentrations were determined for water samples from 24 boreholes and 12 points across the lake using a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometry. The water samples from the lake were found to contain acceptable levels of radionuclides with mean activity concentrations of 7.9, 89.7 and 0.6 mBq/L for 238U, 40K, and 232Th, respectively. The water samples from the boreholes recorded mean activity concentrations of 7.7, 85.5, and 3.3 mBq/L for 238U, 40K and 232Th, respectively. The annual effective dose calculated for the lake varied from 0.244 to 1.121 µSv with an average of 0.763 µSv and that calculated for the boreholes varied from 0.296 to 2.173 µSv with an average of 1.166 µSv. The radionuclides concentrations in water from the boreholes and that of the lake, which serve as sources of water supply to the surrounding communities are negligible and pose no radiological hazards to the public.
    Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. 01/2011; 3:463-468.
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    ABSTRACT: Preliminary studies on groundwater samples from selected wells in three communities in the Greater Accra region of Ghana have been carried out to determine the concentration of 222Rn. The studies were carried out in the dry season when the weather conditions were fairly stable and the communities depend mostly on groundwater sources for domestic use during this period. Measurements were carried out using gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentration obtained was 8.1 Bq/L with an average annual effective dose of 59.2 μSv. The result is within the range published by other countries and the recommended limit for radon in drinking water set by the World Health Organization.
    Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 01/2010; 283(2):507-512. · 1.47 Impact Factor