[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Varenicline, a selective partial agonist/antagonist of the α4β2 nicotinic receptor, has proven effectiveness for smoking cessation by several randomized, controlled trials. Because few studies have evaluated the long-term efficacy of varenicline, we tried to evaluate the smoking status of varenicline users up to 3 years after the initial prescription of the drug.
We interviewed varenicline users who were prescribed the drug from June 2007 to May 2010 by telephone, from June 2010 to May 2011.
One-hundred and thirty-three of 250 varenicline users (53.2%) were available for the survey. Seven-day continuous abstinence from smoking was adhered to by 17 of 39 respondents (43.6%) at 1 year, and 11 of 36 (30.6%) and 19 of 58 (32.8%) at 2 and 3 years since the first use of varenicline, respectively. Compared to current smokers, successful quitters were older (55.0 years vs. 49.9 years, p=0.01), had better compliance to the 12-week course (27.7 vs. 9.3%, p=0.01), and had taken varenicline longer (10.1 vs. 5.9 weeks, p=0.01). Fifty-four of 71 current smokers (76.1%) were willing to stop smoking in the near future. The preferred ways to cease smoking were will-power (48.1%), varenicline (25.9%), nicotine replacement therapy (11.1%), and others (14.9%).
Smokers should be encouraged to stick to the proven way for recommended period of time for successful cessation of smoking.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 04/2015; 78(2):92-98. DOI:10.4046/trd.2015.78.2.92
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of types of message errors on the attitudes of Korean adults toward a person who uses AAC. The attitudes of 72 adults who speak native Korean were examined through attitude questionnaires completed after viewing videotaped conversations between a boy with cerebral palsy and an adult without disabilities. Each interaction video involved a message with one of six error types, including various types of syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic errors. The participants provided information on their attitude towards the person who used AAC, and ranked their preferences among the six messages. The results provide evidence that attitudes towards the individual using AAC were most positive (in comparison with other conditions) when a pragmatic error was observed. Messages containing a syntactic error were ranked most favorably. Spearman's correlation analyses revealed some relationship between attitudes rating and preferences ranking. Our results provide evidence that specific language and cultural contexts may play an important role in shaping attitudes toward those who use AAC.
Augmentative and alternative communication (Baltimore, Md.: 1985) 02/2015; 31(2):1-11. DOI:10.3109/07434618.2015.1008569 · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 56-year-old female was referred to our hospital due to a mass measuring 5 cm in size in the left pelvic cavity, which was found incidentally during a health examination by ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and the mass was located at the left retroperitoneal parametrium without invasion of the uterus and ovary. The pathology report confirmed squamous cell carcinoma. Even after further studies, we did not find any other primary lesion. HPV DNA Chip test (HPV 9G DNA Membrane KIT, Biometrixtechnology INC., Seoul, Korea) showed that the surgical specimen was positive for HPV 18. She received adjuvant chemotherapy and would receive radiation therapy for the possibility of occult gynecologic cancer. Retroperitoneal squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary is extremely rare and little is known about it. It is reported that HPV may be associated with the disease. Hence, the result of HPV test could have an impact on finding a suspicious primary lesion and treatment modality in this case.
Cancer Research and Treatment 02/2015; DOI:10.4143/crt.2014.111 · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus continues to infect animals and humans. We compared the infectivity and pathogenesis of H5N1 virus in domestic cats and dogs to find out which animal is more susceptible to H5N1 influenza virus. When cats and dogs were infected with the H5N1 virus, cats suffered from severe outcomes including death, whereas dogs did not show any mortality. Viruses were shed in the nose and rectum of cats and in the nose of dogs. Viruses were detected in brain, lung, kidney, intestine, liver, and serum in the infected cats, but only in the lung in the infected dogs. Genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, Toll-like receptors, and apoptotic factors were more highly expressed in the lungs of cats than in those of dogs. Our results suggest that the intensive monitoring of dogs is necessary to prevent human infection by H5N1 influenza virus, since infected dogs may not show clear clinical signs, in contrast to infected cats.
Archives of Virology 11/2014; 160(1). DOI:10.1007/s00705-014-2284-z · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Outbreaks of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus in poultry and humans are ongoing. Vaccination is an efficient method for prevention of H5N1 infection. Using chickens and ducks, we assessed the efficacy of a vaccine comprising H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) protein produced in a baculovirus expression system. The immunized chickens and ducks were protected against lethal infection by H5N1 in an antigen dose-dependent manner. Complete protection against homologous challenge and partial protection against heterologous challenge were achieved in chickens immunized with 5 μg HA protein and in ducks immunized with 10 μg HA protein. The IgG antibody subtype was mainly detected in the sera and tissues, including the lungs. The neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay was negative in immunized chickens and ducks. Our results indicated that the expressed HA protein by baculovirus was immunogenic to both chickens and ducks, and the immunized chickens and ducks were protected from the lethal infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, though ducks required more HA protein than chickens to be protected. Also, baculovirus HA-vaccinated poultry can be differentiated from infected poultry by NA inhibition assay.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the pathogenesis and transmissibility of a novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza virus in pigs. When pigs were infected with H7N9 influenza virus, they did not show any clear clinical signs (such as sneezing, fever and loss of body weight), and they shed viruses through their noses for 2 days after infection. No transmission occurred between infected and naïve pigs. Pigs suffered from mild pneumonia, which was accompanied by the induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as IL-8 and CCL1. Taken together, our results suggest that pigs may not play an active role in transmitting H7N9 influenza virus to mammals.
Archives of Virology 06/2014; 159(10). DOI:10.1007/s00705-014-2143-y · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the H7N9 avian influenza virus cannot be transmitted efficiently between ferrets via respiratory droplets. Here, we studied the infectivity of the H7N9 avian influenza virus in chickens and its transmissibility from infected to naïve chickens and ferrets. The H7N9 virus (A/Anhui/1/2013) replicated poorly in chickens and could not be transmitted efficiently from infected chickens to naïve chickens and ferrets. H7N9 virus was shed from chicken tracheae for only 2 days after infection and from chicken cloacae for only 1 day after infection, while the H9N2 avian influenza virus, which is endemic in chickens in many Asian countries, was shed from tracheae and cloacae for 8 days after infection. Taken together, our results suggest that chickens may be a poor agent of transmission for the H7N9 virus to other chickens and to mammals, including humans.
Virology 02/2014; s 450–451:316–323. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2013.12.022 · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study on pathogenesis of influenza B virus during pregnancy is limited. Here, we showed using a mouse model that influenza B virus could cause severe disease including death during pregnancy. Infected pregnant mice resulted in 40% mortality, but infected age-matched non-pregnant mice did not show any death. Infected pregnant mice contained high viral loads in lungs with the elevated inductions of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines than infected non-pregnant mice. Infected pregnant mice delivered lower number of neonates than uninfected pregnant mice, suggesting adverse effects of influenza B virus on fetuses. Progesterone which is important for maintaining pregnancy was reduced in uteruses of infected pregnant mice than in those of uninfected pregnant mice. Taken together, our results suggest that influenza B virus can cause severe disease during pregnancy, and that preventive measures including vaccination may be important for protecting women during pregnancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 influenza virus is endemic in many countries and has a great potential for a pandemic in humans. The immune-enhancing prowess of ginseng has been known for millennia. We aimed to study whether mice and ferrets fed with Red Ginseng could be better protected from the lethal infections of HP H5N1 influenza virus than the infected unfed mice and ferrets. We fed mice and ferrets with Red Ginseng prior to when they were infected with HP H5N1 influenza virus. The mice and ferrets fed with a 60-day diet containing Red Ginseng could be protected from lethal infections by HP H5N1 influenza virus (survival rate of up to 45% and 40%, respectively). Interferon-α and -γ antiviral cytokines were significantly induced in the lungs of mice fed Red Ginseng, compared to mice fed an unsupplemented diet. These data suggest that the diet with the immune-enhancing Red Ginseng could help humans to overcome the infections by HP H5N1 influenza virus.
Journal of ginseng research 01/2014; 38(1):40-6. DOI:10.1016/j.jgr.2013.11.012 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dogs are companion animals that live in close proximity with humans. Canine H3N2 influenza virus has been isolated from pet dogs that showed severe respiratory signs and other clinical symptoms such as fever, reduced body weight, and interstitial pneumonia. The canine H3N2 influenza virus can be highly transmissible among dogs via aerosols. When we analyzed global gene expression in the lungs of infected dogs, the genes associated with the immune response and cell death were greatly elevated. Taken together, our results suggest that canine H3N2 influenza virus can be easily transmitted among dogs, and that severe pneumonia in the infected dogs may be partially due to the elevated expression of genes related to inflammation and apoptosis.
Veterinary Research 10/2013; 44(1):92. DOI:10.1186/1297-9716-44-92 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vivo role of alveolar macrophages in the infections with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus is not as yet known. Ferret study shows that alveolar macrophages are critical for lowering the risk of severe outcomes in 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infections. Up to 40% of the infected ferrets depleted of alveolar macrophages died, with elevated body temperature and major loss of body weight in contrast to infected ferrets not depleted of alveolar macrophages. The higher viral titers in the lungs were detected in infected ferrets depleted of alveolar macrophages than infected ferrets not depleted of alveolar macrophages 5 days after infection. The inflammatory chemokines were induced at greater levels in the lungs of infected ferrets depleted of alveolar macrophages than in those of infected ferrets not depleted of alveolar macrophages. Our study implies that alveolar macrophages are important for controlling the infections of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma is a rare disorder. It is a benign entity and usually resolves spontaneously. Most patients present in infancy and early childhood. Because of its natural course and symptom onset, most cases are discovered during childhood. We experienced a rare case of infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma in an adult.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1) is a secreted protein involved in vascular remodeling, bone formation, and developmental morphogenesis. CTHRC1 has recently been shown to be expressed in human cancers such as breast cancer and melanoma. Here, we show that CTHRC1 is highly expressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues and plays a role in the progression and metastasis of the disease. CTHRC1 promoted primary tumor growth and metastatic spread of cancer cells to distant organs in orthotopic xenograft tumor mouse models. Overexpression of CTHRC1 in cancer cells resulted in increased motility and adhesiveness, whereas these cellular activities were diminished by down-regulation of the protein. CTHRC1 activated several key signaling molecules, including Src, FAK, paxillin, MEK, ERK, and Rac1. Treatment with chemical inhibitors of Src, MEK or Rac1, and expression of dominant-negative Rac1 attenuated CTHRC1-induced cell migration and adhesion. Collectively, our results suggest that CTHRC1 has a role in pancreatic cancer progression and metastasis by regulating migration and adhesion activities of cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous reporting systems have several weak points, such as low reporting rates and insufficient clinical information. Active surveillance programs, such as ward rounds and a clinical data repository (CDR), may supplement the weak points of such systems. We developed active surveillance programs and compared them with existing spontaneous reporting.
We collected adverse drug event (ADE) cases, which comprised 1,055 cases of spontaneous reporting, 309 reported by ward rounds, and 229 found using a CDR. The clinical features and causative drugs were evaluated.
Active surveillance programs detected additional serious ADEs compared to those of spontaneous reporting programs. The ADEs identified by CDR (22.9%) were more likely to be classified as "serious" than those reported spontaneously (5.2%) or identified during ward rounds (10.3%). Causative drugs also differed. Opioids, antibiotics, and contrast media were the most common drugs causing ADEs in the spontaneous reporting system, whereas the active surveillance programs identified antibiotics as the most common causative drug. Clinical features also differed. ADEs with gastrointestinal manifestations were reported most frequently by spontaneous reporting programs. ADEs reported from active surveillance more reliably identified events associated with changes in laboratory values, such as hepatobiliary toxicity, hematologic manifestations, and nephrologic manifestations, compared with spontaneous reporting programs.
Our findings suggest that active surveillance programs can supplement spontaneous reporting systems in hospitals. ADEs related to laboratory abnormalities were monitored more closely by active surveillance programs and may be useful for identification of serious ADEs.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 12/2012; 27(4):443-50. DOI:10.3904/kjim.2012.27.4.443
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is considered as a dysregulated immune mediated disease. Pericarditis in IBD is a very rare disease both as an extra-intestinal manifestation of IBD and an adverse reaction of therapeutic drug for IBD such as mesalazine or sulfasalazine. A 26-year-old IBD male patient who had been taking mesalazine regularly for about 1 month was referred to our hospital because of fever, chest discomfort, and abnormal electrocardiographic findings. The patients was diagnosed as acute myopericarditis, and recovered after cessation of mesalazine using steroid and aspirin. When mesalazine was re-medicated some days after discharge, he suffered from myopericarditis again. Subsequently, myopericarditis was resolved just after cessation of mesalazine again. These findings suggest that the development of myopericarditis is caused by mesalazine.
Journal of cardiovascular ultrasound 09/2012; 20(3):154-6. DOI:10.4250/jcu.2012.20.3.154
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical Kaposi's sarcoma is an unusual multifocal neoplasm of vascular endothelial cell origin, and considered a less malignant, slowly-progressing tumor. Although visceral involvement is occasionally seen in HIV/AIDS patients with KS, tumor dissemination to visceral lymph nodes in classical KS is very rare. A 72-year-old woman without any other relevant past medical history presented with anorexia, weight loss, night sweats, and skin eruptions. As the rapid progression of cytopenias and lymphadenopathy were observed, bone marrow biopsy and imaging were performed. Positron emission tomography showed disseminated lymphadenopathy in the cervical, axillary, mediastinal, inguinal, and abdomino-pelvic nodal areas. Inguinal lymph node biopsy was compatible with KS, positive for CD31, CD34, and human herpesvirus-8 by immunohistochemical stain. We report a case of aggressive classical KS mimicking aggressive malignant lymphoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kikuchi's disease is a benign disease characterized mainly by fever and cervical lymphadenitis. We report a case of Kikuchi's disease that manifested as intra-abdominal lymphadenitis. A 39 year old woman presented with fever that had persisted for one week. Her history and physical examination were unremarkable. The laboratory findings revealed mild leukopenia and increased C-reactive protein. Abdominal CT revealed multiple lymph node enlargements in the mesenteric root and around the ileocecal valve. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed increased 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose(FDG) uptake in the lymph nodes observed by abdominal CT. A laparoscopic excisional biopsy of the lymph node was performed for a confirmatory diagnosis and the pathology findings were compatible with Kikuchi's disease. Although intra-abdominal Kikuchi's disease is a rare disease, it should be considered in a differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy with increased FDG uptake on PET-CT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in South Korea. To decrease its mortality rate, its early detection is very important. Screening for HCC detection has been accepted as the management modality for patients with chronic liver disease. Reported herein is a case involving the marked rapid growth of HCC detected at an advanced stage in a screening test with a 3 months interval. A 49-year-old male patient with chronic hepatitis B was admitted to the hospital due to a liver mass detected on CT scan. The patient underwent a first CT scan 3 months earlier, and no tumor was detected. Follow-up CT scan was performed and showed a 9.1 cm HCC with portal vein thrombosis. Percutaneous liver biopsy was performed, and the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was confirmed. In the pertinent guidelines, the recommended screening interval for HCC is 6-12 months, but the screening interval and additional diagnostic methods should be considered due to the variation in the HCC growth rate according to the patient's clinical characteristics.