[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels are important for antibody vaccine responses and IgG subclass deficiencies have been associated with severe 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infections. Studies have demonstrated variations in immune responses to the H1N1 vaccine, but the aetiology of this is unknown. We determined the associations between pre-vaccination overall and influenza-specific IgG subclass levels and 2009 H1N1-specific antibody responses post-vaccination (robust versus poor at day 28) stratified by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. Logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate whether pre-vaccination IgG subclass levels were associated with the antibody response generated post-vaccination. We evaluated 48 participants as part of a clinical study who were stratified by robust versus poor post-vaccination immune responses. Participants had a median age of 35 years; 92% were male and 44% were Caucasian. HIV-infected adults had a median CD4 count of 669 cells/mm(3) , and 79% were receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy. HIV-infected participants were more likely to have IgG2 deficiency (<240 mg/dl) than HIV-uninfected individuals (62% versus 4%, P < 0·001). No association of pre-vaccination IgG subclass levels (total or influenza-specific) and the antibody response generated by HIN1 vaccination in either group was found. In summary, pre-vaccination IgG subclass levels did not correlate with the ability to develop robust antibody responses to the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) monovalent vaccine. IgG2 deficiencies were common among HIV-infected individuals but did not correlate with poor influenza vaccine responses. Further investigations into the aetiology of disparate vaccine responses are needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of gonorrhoea (GC) or chlamydia (CT) coinfection in an HIV-positive US military cohort, focusing on the time after participants' knowledge of HIV diagnosis.
The authors analysed data from 4461 participants enrolled in the U.S. Military Natural History Study cohort for GC or CT infection ≥6 months after their HIV-positive test.
During a mean follow-up of 7.08 years, 482 (11%) participants acquired a GC or CT infection. Of these, 283 (6%) acquired a GC infection, 278 (6%) acquired a CT infection and 123 (3%) had multiple GC or CT infections during follow-up. Risk of GC or CT infection was significantly greater in those younger, male, African-American and with a history of GC or CT infection.
Frequent GC and CT diagnoses observed among members of this HIV-positive cohort indicate substantial ongoing risk behaviours that raise concerns for HIV transmission and underscore the need for continued screening to help identify and treat these sexually transmitted infections in this population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons are at risk for severe influenza infections. Although vaccination against the H1N1 pandemic influenza strain is recommended, currently there are no data on the durability of post-vaccination antibody responses in this population.
HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults (18-50 years old) received a single dose of monovalent 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccine (strain A/California/7/2009H1N1). Antibody levels to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic strain were determined at day 0, day 28, and 6 months by hemagglutination-inhibition assay. A seroprotective response was a post-vaccination titer of ≥1:40 among those with a pre-vaccination level of ≤1:10. Geometric mean titers (GMT) and factors associated with higher levels were also evaluated.
We studied 127 participants with a median age of 35 (interquartile range (IQR) 28, 42) years. Among the HIV-infected arm (n=63), the median CD4 count was 595 (IQR 476, 819)cells/mm(3) and 83% were receiving HAART. Thirty-five percent of all participants had a pre-vaccination level of >1:10. HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected adults were less likely to generate a seroprotective response at day 28 (54% vs. 75%, adjusted OR 0.23, p=0.021) or have a durable response at 6 months post-vaccination (28% vs. 56%, adjusted OR 0.19, p=0.005). Additionally, although pre-vaccination GMT were similar in both arms (median 7 vs. 8, p=0.11), the GMT at 6 months was significantly lower among HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected adults (median 20 vs. 113, p=0.003). Among HIV-infected persons, younger age (p=0.035) and receipt of HAART (p=0.028) were associated with higher GMTs at 6 months.
Despite vaccination, most HIV-infected adults do not generate durable seroprotective antibody responses to the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus, and hence may remain vulnerable to infection. In addition to HAART use, more immunogenic vaccines are likely needed for improving protection against influenza in this population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited data exist on the immunogenicity of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccine among immunocompromised persons, including those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
We compared the immunogenicity and tolerability of a single dose of the monovalent 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccine (strain A/California/7/2009H1N1) between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults 18-50 years of age. The primary end point was an antibody titer of ≥ 1:40 at day 28 after vaccination in those with a prevaccination level of ≤ 1:10, as measured by hemagglutination-inhibition assay. Geometric mean titers, influenza-like illnesses, and tolerability were also evaluated.
One hundred thirty-one participants were evaluated (65 HIV-infected and 66 HIV-uninfected patients), with a median age of 35 years (interquartile range, 27-42 years). HIV-infected persons had a median CD4 cell count of 581 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range, 476-814 cells/mm(3)) , and 82% were receiving antiretroviral medications. At baseline, 35 patients (27%) had antibody titers of >1:10. HIV-infected patients (29 [56%] of 52), compared with HIV-uninfected persons (35 [80%] of 44), were significantly less likely to develop an antibody response (odds ratio, .20; P = .003). Changes in the median geometric mean titer from baseline to day 28 were also significantly lower in HIV-infected patients than in HIV-uninfected persons (75 vs 153; P = .001). Five influenza-like illnesses occurred (2 cases in HIV-infected persons), but none was attributable to the 2009 influenza H1N1 virus. The vaccine was well tolerated in both groups.
Despite high CD4 cell counts and receipt of antiretroviral medications, HIV-infected adults generated significantly poorer antibody responses, compared with HIV-uninfected persons. Future studies evaluating a 2-dose series or more-immunogenic influenza A (H1N1) vaccines among HIV-infected adults are needed (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00996970).