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Publications (2)3.73 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with breakthrough disease on immunomodulatory drugs are frequently offered to switch to natalizumab or immunosuppressants. The effect of natalizumab monotherapy in patients with breakthrough disease is unknown. This is an open-label retrospective cohort study of 993 patients seen at least four times at the University of California San Francisco MS Center, 95 had breakthrough disease on first-line therapy (60 patients switched to natalizumab, 22 to immunosuppressants and 13 declined the switch [non-switchers]). We used Poisson regression adjusted for potential confounders to compare the relapse rate within and across groups before and after the switch. In the within-group analyses, the relapse rate decreased by 70% (95% CI 50,82%; p<0.001) in switchers to natalizumab and by 77% (95% CI 59,87%; p<0.001) in switchers to immunosuppressants; relapse rate in non-switchers did not decrease (6%, p =  0.87). Relative to the reduction among non-switchers, the relapse rate was reduced by 68% among natalizumab switchers (95% CI 19,87%; p = 0.017) and by 76% among the immunosuppressant switchers (95% CI 36,91%; p = 0.004). Switching to natalizumab or immunosuppressants in patients with breakthrough disease is effective in reducing clinical activity of relapsing MS. The magnitude of the effect and the risk-benefit ratio should be evaluated in randomized clinical trials and prospective cohort studies.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e16664. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Elizabeth Crabtree-Hartman
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    ABSTRACT: Sex and sex hormones affect the CNS and the immune system differentially, and thus a sexual dimorphism may be anticipated across arenas in multiple sclerosis (MS). Information from the past few decades has elucidated the impact of sex on broad aspects of MS, such as susceptibility, disease course, and radiologic phenotypes. Specific concerns regarding family planning and managing reproductive issues influenced by MS are likely to arise, given the typical age of onset during reproductive years. Thus, information regarding reproductive health in male and female patients with MS can potentiate the role of the neurologist in the management of these important aspects of clinical care.
    CONTINUUM Lifelong Learning in Neurology 10/2010; 16(5 Multiple Sclerosis):193-210.