[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The putative excitatory and inhibitory cell classes within the mouse primary visual cortex V1 have different functional properties as studied using recording microelectrode. Excitatory neurons show high selectivity for the orientation angle of moving gratings while the putative inhibitory neurons show poor selectivity. However, the study of selectivity of the genetically identified interneurons and their subtypes remain controversial. Here we use novel Cre-driver and reporter mice to identify genetic subpopulations in vivo for two-photon calcium dye imaging: Wfs1(+)/Gad1(-) mice that labels layer 2/3 excitatory cell population and Pvalb(+)/Gad1(+) mice that labels a genetic subpopulation of inhibitory neurons. The cells in both mice were identically labeled with a tdTomato protein, visible in vivo, using a Cre-reporter line. We found that the Wfs1(+) cells exhibited visual tuning properties comparable to the excitatory population, i.e., high selectivity and tuning to the angle, direction, and spatial frequency of oriented moving gratings. The functional tuning of Pvalb(+) neurons was consistent with previously reported narrow-spiking interneurons in microelectrode studies, exhibiting poorer selectivity than the excitatory neurons. This study demonstrates the utility of Cre-transgenic mouse technology in selective targeting of subpopulations of neurons and makes them amenable to structural, functional, and connectivity studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to a suite of cognitive and behavioral impairments, and yet the molecular consequences of SD in the brain are poorly understood. Using a systematic immediate-early gene (IEG) mapping to detect neuronal activation, the consequences of SD were mapped primarily to forebrain regions. SD was found to both induce and suppress IEG expression (and thus neuronal activity) in subregions of neocortex, striatum, and other brain regions. Laser microdissection and cDNA microarrays were used to identify the molecular consequences of SD in seven brain regions. In situ hybridization (ISH) for 222 genes selected from the microarray data and other sources confirmed that robust molecular changes were largely restricted to the forebrain. Analysis of the ISH data for 222 genes (publicly accessible at http://sleep.alleninstitute.org) provided a molecular and anatomic signature of the effects of SD on the brain. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the neocortex exhibited differential regulation of the same genes, such that in the SCN genes exhibited time-of-day effects while in the neocortex, genes exhibited only SD and waking (W) effects. In the neocortex, SD activated gene expression in areal-, layer-, and cell type-specific manner. In the forebrain, SD preferentially activated excitatory neurons, as demonstrated by double-labeling, except for striatum which consists primarily of inhibitory neurons. These data provide a characterization of the anatomical and cell type-specific signatures of SD on neuronal activity and gene expression that may account for the associated cognitive and behavioral effects.