Eva Wuyts

The Catholic University of America, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (32)112.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present the mass distribution at the core of SDSS J1531+3414, a strong-lensing cluster at z=0.335. We find that the mass distribution is well described by two cluster-scale halos with a contribution from cluster-member galaxies. New HST observations of SDSS J1531+3414 reveal a signature of ongoing star formation associated with the two central galaxies at the core of the cluster, in the form of a chain of star forming regions at the center of the cluster. Using the lens model presented here, we place upper limits on the contribution of a possible lensed image to the flux at the center region, and rule out that this emission is coming from a background source.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: New Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet and optical imaging of the strong-lensing galaxy cluster SDSS J1531+3414 (z=0.335) reveals two centrally dominant elliptical galaxies participating in an ongoing major merger. The interaction is at least somewhat rich in cool gas, as the merger is associated with a complex network of nineteen massive superclusters of young stars (or small tidal dwarf galaxies) separated by ~1 kpc in projection from one another, combining to an estimated total star formation rate of ~5 solar masses per year. The resolved young stellar superclusters are threaded by narrow H-alpha, [O II], and blue excess filaments arranged in a network spanning ~27 kpc across the two merging galaxies. This morphology is strongly reminiscent of the well-known "beads on a string" mode of star formation observed on kpc-scales in the arms of spiral galaxies, resonance rings, and in tidal tails between interacting galaxies. Nevertheless, the arrangement of this star formation relative to the nuclei of the two galaxies is difficult to interpret in a dynamical sense, as no known "beads on a string" systems associated with kpc-scale tidal interactions exhibit such lopsided morphology relative to the merger participants. In this Letter we present the images and follow-up spectroscopy, and discuss possible physical interpretations for the unique arrangement of the young stellar clusters. While we suggest that this morphology is likely to be dynamically short-lived, a more quantitative understanding awaits necessary multiwavelength follow-up, including optical integral field spectroscopy, ALMA sub-mm interferometry, and Chandra X-ray imaging.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 07/2014; 790(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the Mg II 2796, 2803 Å, Lyα, and nebular line emission in five bright star-forming galaxies at 1.66 < z < 1.91 that have been gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxy clusters. All five galaxies show prominent Mg II emission and absorption in a P Cygni profile. We find no correlation between the equivalent widths of Mg II and Lyα emission. The Mg II emission has a broader range of velocities than do the nebular emission line profiles; the Mg II emission is redshifted with respect to systemic by 100-200 km s–1. When present, Lyα is even more redshifted. The reddest components of Mg II and Lyα emission have tails to 500-600 km s–1, implying a strong outflow. The lack of correlation in the Mg II and Lyα equivalent widths, the differing velocity profiles, and the high ratios of Mg II to nebular line fluxes together suggest that the bulk of Mg II emission does not ultimately arise as nebular line emission, but may instead be reprocessed stellar continuum emission.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 790(1):44. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the Mg II 2796, 2803 Angstrom, Lyman alpha, and nebular line emission in five bright star-forming galaxies at 1.66<z<1.91 that have been gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxy clusters. All five galaxies show prominent Mg II emission and absorption in a P Cygni profile. We find no correlation between the equivalent widths of Mg II and Lyman alpha emission. The Mg II emission has a broader range of velocities than do the nebular emission line profiles; the Mg II emission is redshifted with respect to systemic by 100 to 200 km/s. When present, Lyman alpha is even more redshifted. The reddest components of Mg II and Lyman alpha emission have tails to 500-600 km/s, implying a strong outflow. The lack of correlation in the Mg II and Lyman alpha equivalent widths, the differing velocity profiles, and the high ratios of Mg II to nebular line fluxes together suggest that the bulk of Mg II emission does not ultimately arise as nebular line emission, but may instead be reprocessed stellar continuum emission.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M*/Msun) >= 10.9) z~1-3 star-forming galaxies (Forster Schreiber et al.), by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M*/Msun) >= 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS^3D spectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Ha, [NII], and [SII] lines ~ 450-5300 km/s), with large [NII]/Ha ratios, above log(M*/Msun) ~ 10.9, with 66+/-15% of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z~1 and ~2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGN), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the correlations between stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR) and [NII]/Ha flux ratio as indicator of gas-phase metallicity for a sample of 222 galaxies at 0.8 < z < 2.6 and log(M*/Msun)=9.0-11.5 observed with LUCI at the LBT, and SINFONI and KMOS at the VLT. This sample provides a unique analysis of the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) over an extended redshift range using consistent data analysis techniques and strong-line metallicity indicator. Over the redshift range probed, we find a constant slope at the low-mass end of the MZR, which is however significantly steeper than seen in the local Universe. In this range, we can fully describe the redshift evolution of the MZR through the evolution of the characteristic turnover mass where the relation begins to flatten at the asymptotic metallicity. At fixed mass and redshift, our data do not show a correlation between the [NII]/Ha ratio and SFR, which disagrees with the 0.2-0.3dex offset in [NII]/Ha predicted by the "fundamental relation" between stellar mass, SFR and metallicity discussed in recent literature. However, the MZR evolution towards lower [NII]/Ha at earlier times does agree within the uncertainties with these predictions.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) G141 grism spectroscopy for seven star-forming regions of the highly magnified lensed star- burst galaxy RCSGA 032727-132609 at z = 1.704. We measure the spatial variations of the extinction in RCS0327 through the observed H$\gamma$/H$\beta$ emission line ratios, finding a constant average extinction of $E(B-V)_{gas} = 0.40\pm0.07$. We infer that the star formation is enhanced as a result of an ongoing interaction, with measured star formation rates derived from demagnified, extinction-corrected Hbeta line fluxes for the individual star-forming clumps falling >1-2 dex above the star formation sequence. When combining the HST/WFC3 [OIII] $\lambda$5007/H$\beta$ emission line ratio measurements with [NII]/H$\alpha$ line ratios from Wuyts et al. (2014), we find that the majority of the individual star-forming regions fall along the local "normal" abundance sequence. With the first detections of the He I $\lambda$5876 $\AA$ and He II $\lambda$4686 $\AA$ recombination lines in a distant galaxy, we probe the massive-star content of the star-forming regions in RCS0327. The majority of the star-forming regions have a He I $\lambda$5876 to H$\beta$ ratio consistent with the saturated maximum value, which is only possible if they still contain hot O-stars. Two regions have lower ratios, implying that their last burst of new star formation ended $\sim5$ Myr ago. Together, the He I $\lambda$5876 $\AA$ and He II $\lambda$4686 $\AA$ to H$\beta$ line ratios provide indirect evidence for the order in which star formation is stopping in individual star-forming knots of this high redshift merger. We place the spatial variations of the extinction, star formation rate and ionization conditions in the context of the star formation history of RCS0327.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2014; 790(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At low redshift, a handful of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been discovered with peak luminosities ($L_{\rm iso} < 10^{48.5}~\rm{erg\,s}^{-1}$) substantially lower than the average of the more distant ones ($L_{\rm iso} > 10^{49.5}~\rm{erg\,s}^{-1}$). The properties of several low-luminosity (low-$L$) GRBs indicate that they can be due to shock break-out, as opposed to the emission from ultrarelativistic jets. Owing to this, it is highly debated how both populations are connected, and whether there is a continuum between them. The burst at redshift $z=0.283$ from 2012 April 22 is one of the very few examples of intermediate-$L$ GRBs with a $\gamma$-ray luminosity of $L\sim10^{48.9}~\rm{erg\,s}^{-1}$ that have been detected up to now. Together with the robust detection of its accompanying supernova SN 2012bz, it has the potential to answer important questions on the origin of low- and high-$L$ GRBs and the GRB-SN connection. We carried out a spectroscopy campaign using medium- and low-resolution spectrographs at 6--10-m class telescopes, covering the time span of 37.3 days, and a multi-wavelength imaging campaign from radio to X-ray energies over a duration of $\sim270$ days. Furthermore, we used a tuneable filter centred at H$\alpha$ to map star formation in the host galaxy and the surrounding galaxies. We used these data to extract and model the properties of different radiation components and incorporate spectral-energy-distribution fitting techniques to extract the properties of the host galaxy. Modelling the light curve and spectral energy distribution from the radio to the X-rays revealed the blast-wave to expand with an initial Lorentz factor of $\Gamma_0\sim60$, low for a high-$L$ GRB, and that the afterglow had an exceptional low peak luminosity-density of $\lesssim2\times10^{30}~\rm{erg\,s}^{-1}\,\rm{Hz}^{-1}$ in the sub-mm. [Abridged]
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed analysis of multi-wavelength HST/WFC3 imaging and Keck/OSIRIS near-IR AO-assisted integral field spectroscopy for a highly magnified lensed galaxy at z=1.70. This young starburst is representative of UV-selected star-forming galaxies (SFG) at z~2 and contains multiple individual star-forming regions. Due to the lensing magnification, we can resolve spatial scales down to 100pc in the source plane of the galaxy. The velocity field shows disturbed kinematics suggestive of an ongoing interaction, and there is a clear signature of a tidal tail. We constrain the age, reddening, SFR and stellar mass of the star-forming clumps from SED modelling of the WFC3 photometry and measure their H-alpha luminosity, metallicity and outflow properties from the OSIRIS data. With strong star formation driven outflows in four clumps, RCSGA0327 is the first high redshift SFG at stellar mass <10^10 M_sun with spatially resolved stellar winds. We compare the H-alpha luminosities, sizes and dispersions of the star-forming regions to other high-z clumps as well as local giant HII regions and find no evidence for increased clump star formation surface densities in interacting systems, unlike in the local Universe. Spatially resolved SED modelling unveils an established stellar population at the location of the largest clump and a second mass concentration near the edge of the system which is not detected in H-alpha emission. This suggests a picture of an equal-mass mixed major merger, which has not triggered a new burst of star formation or caused a tidal tail in the gas-poor component.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2013; 781(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of ubiquitous powerful nuclear outflows in massive (> 10^11 Msun) z~2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs), which are plausibly driven by an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). The sample consists of the eight most massive SFGs from our SINS/zC-SINF survey of galaxy kinematics with the imaging spectrometer SINFONI, six of which have sensitive high-resolution adaptive optics (AO) assisted observations. All of the objects are disks hosting a significant stellar bulge. The spectra in their central regions exhibit a broad component in Halpha and forbidden [NII] and [SII] line emission, with typical velocity FWHM ~ 1500 km/s, [NII]/Halpha ratio ~ 0.6, and intrinsic extent of 2 - 3 kpc. These properties are consistent with warm ionized gas outflows associated with Type 2 AGN, the presence of which is confirmed via independent diagnostics in half the galaxies. The data imply a median ionized gas mass outflow rate of ~ 60 Msun/yr and mass loading of ~ 3. At larger radii, a weaker broad component is detected but with lower FWHM ~ 485 km/s and [NII]/Halpha ~ 0.35, characteristic for star formation-driven outflows as found in the lower-mass SINS/zC-SINF galaxies. The high inferred mass outflow rates and frequent occurrence suggest the nuclear outflows efficiently expel gas out of the centers of the galaxies with high duty cycles, and may thus contribute to the process of star formation quenching in massive galaxies. Larger samples at high masses will be crucial to confirm the importance and energetics of the nuclear outflow phenomenon, and its connection to AGN activity and bulge growth.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical and near-IR imaging and spectroscopy of SGAS J105039.6$+$001730, a strongly lensed galaxy at z $=$ 3.6252 magnified by $>$30$\times$, and derive its physical properties. We measure a stellar mass of log(M$_{*}$/M$_{\odot}$) $=$ 9.5 $\pm$ 0.35, star formation rates from [O II]$\lambda$$\lambda$3727 and H-$\beta$ of 55 $\pm$ 20 and 84 $\pm$ 17 M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, respectively, an electron density of n$_{e} \leq$ 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-2}$, an electron temperature of T$_{e} \leq$ 14000 K, and a metallicity of 12+log(O/H) $=$ 8.3 $\pm$ 0.1. The strong C III]$\lambda$$\lambda$1907,1909 emission and abundance ratios of C, N, O and Si are consistent with well-studied starbursts at z $\sim$ 0 with similar metallicities. Strong P Cygni lines and He II$\lambda$1640 emission indicate a significant population of Wolf-Rayet stars, but synthetic spectra of individual populations of young, hot stars do not reproduce the observed integrated P Cygni absorption features. The rest-frame UV spectral features are indicative of a young starburst with high ionization, implying either 1) an ionization parameter significantly higher than suggest by rest-frame optical nebular lines, or 2) differences in one or both of the initial mass function and the properties of ionizing spectra of massive stars. We argue that the observed features are likely the result of a superposition of star forming regions with different physical properties. These results demonstrate the complexity of star formation on scales smaller than individual galaxies, and highlight the importance of systematic effects that result from smearing together the signatures of individual star forming regions within galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 790(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As part of the SINS/zC-SINF surveys of high-z galaxy kinematics, we derive the radial distributions of H-alpha surface brightness, stellar mass surface density, and dynamical mass at ~2 kpc resolution in 19 z~2 star-forming disks with deep SINFONI AO spectroscopy at the ESO VLT. From these data we infer the radial distribution of the Toomre Q-parameter for these main-sequence star forming galaxies (SFGs), covering almost two decades of stellar mass (10^9.6 to 10^11.5 solar masses). In more than half of our SFGs, the H-alpha distributions cannot be fit by a centrally peaked distribution, such as an exponential, but are better described by a ring, or the combination of a ring and an exponential. At the same time the kinematic data indicate the presence of a mass distribution more centrally concentrated than a single exponential distribution for 5 of the 19 galaxies. The resulting Q-distributions are centrally peaked for all, and significantly exceed unity there for three quarters of the SFGs. The occurrence of H-alpha rings and of large nuclear Q-values is strongly correlated, and is more common for the more massive SFGs. While our sample is small and there remain substantial uncertainties and caveats, our observations are consistent with a scenario in which cloud fragmentation and global star formation are secularly suppressed in gas rich high-z disks from the inside out, as the central stellar mass density of the disks grows.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 785(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We combine IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements to study the dust and gas contents of high-redshift star forming galaxies. We present new observations for a sample of 17 lensed galaxies at z=1.4-3.1, which allow us to directly probe the cold ISM of normal star-forming galaxies with stellar masses of ~10^10Msun, a regime otherwise not (yet) accessible by individual detections in Herschel and molecular gas studies. The lensed galaxies are combined with reference samples of sub-millimeter and normal z~1-2 star-forming galaxies with similar far-infrared photometry to study the gas and dust properties of galaxies in the SFR-M*-redshift parameter space. The mean gas depletion timescale of main sequence galaxies at z>2 is measured to be only ~450Myr, a factor of ~1.5 (~5) shorter than at z=1 (z=0), in agreement with a (1+z)^-1 scaling. The mean gas mass fraction at z=2.8 is 40+/-15% (44% after incompleteness correction), suggesting a flattening or even a reversal of the trend of increasing gas fractions with redshift recently observed up to z~2. The depletion timescale and gas fractions of the z>2 normal star-forming galaxies can be explained under the "equilibrium model" for galaxy evolution, in which the gas reservoir of galaxies is the primary driver of the redshift evolution of specific star formation rates. Due to their high star formation efficiencies and low metallicities, the z>2 lensed galaxies have warm dust despite being located on the star formation main sequence. At fixed metallicity, they also have a gas-to-dust ratio 1.7 times larger than observed locally when using the same standard techniques, suggesting that applying the local calibration of the relation between gas-to-dust ratio and metallicity to infer the molecular gas mass of high redshift galaxies may lead to systematic differences with CO-based estimates.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 778(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new high-quality, medium resolution rest-ultraviolet spectra of RCSGA 032727-132609, a bright lensed galaxy at z=1.70. These spectra represent 12 hr of integration on two discrete star-forming knots at spatial resolution of R=2050 to 4100, taken with the Magellan 6.5m telescope and the MagE spectrograph. These spectra reveal a wealth of emission lines, including P Cygni line profiles (blueshifted emission and redshifted absorption) of the resonant Mg II 2796,2803 Angstrom doublet, as well as strong emission in the Fe II* 2612 and 2626 Angstrom lines. Recent work by other authors has revealed such features to be common in 1<z<2 star-forming galaxies, though rare at z=0. The lensing magnification of RCS0327 enables these emission features to be probed at high signal-to-noise ratio and in a spatially resolved way, to elucidate the conditions within the star formation regions and the outflowing wind.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We propose IRAC imaging of 22 strong lensing fields to a depth complementary to upcoming HST Cycle 20 imaging. All but four of these fields have extant but shallow IRAC imaging; here we seek here the depth necessary to fully exploit the investment in HST imaging, and extensive ground-based spectroscopy. With this ensemble of data we will characterise the nature of star formation in galaxies at 1<z<3, with a spatial resolution and S/N not acheived even in deep fields, and over a broader mass range. The proposed IRAC data provide a critically important handle on stellar mass; as such, IRAC reveals the canvas of established older stars, on which HST will paint the detailed picture of current star formation.
    Spitzer Proposal. 12/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a unique gravitational lens system, SDSSJ2222+2745, producing five spectroscopically confirmed images of a z_s=2.82 quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy cluster at z_l=0.49. We also present photometric and spectroscopic evidence for a sixth lensed image of the same quasar. The maximum separation between the quasar images is 15.1". Both the large image separations and the high image multiplicity of the lensed quasar are in themselves exceptionally rare, and observing the combination of these two factors is an exceptionally unlikely occurrence in present datasets. This is only the third known case of a quasar lensed by a cluster, and the only one with six images. The lens system was discovered in the course of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey, in which we identify candidate lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and target these for follow up and verification with the 2.56m Nordic Optical Telescope. Multi-band photometry obtained over multiple epochs from September 2011 to September 2012 reveal significant variability at the ~10-30% level in some of the quasar images, indicating that measurements of the relative time delay between quasar images will be feasible. In this lens system we also identify a bright (g = 21.5) giant arc corresponding to a strongly lensed background galaxy at z_s=2.30. We fit parametric models of the lens system, constrained by the redshift and positions of the quasar images and the redshift and position of the giant arc. The predicted time delays between different pairs of quasar images range from ~100 days to ~6 years.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 773(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present multi-wavelength imaging and near-IR spectroscopy for ten gravitationally lensed galaxies at 0.9<z<2.5 selected from a new, large sample of strong lens systems in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. We derive stellar masses from the rest-frame UV to near-IR spectral energy distributions, star formation rates (SFR) from the dust-corrected Ha flux, and metallicities from the [N II]/Ha flux ratio. We combine the lensed galaxies with a sample of sixty star-forming galaxies from the literature in the same redshift range for which measurements of [N II]/Ha have been published. Due to the lensing magnification, the lensed galaxies probe intrinsic stellar masses that are on average a factor of 11 lower than have been studied so far at these redshifts. They have specific star formation rates that are an order of magnitude higher than seen for main-sequence star-forming galaxies at z~2. We measure an evolution of 0.16+/-0.06 dex in the mass-metallicity relation between z~1.4 and z~2.2. In contrast to previous claims, the redshift evolution is smaller at low stellar masses. We do not see a correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass. The combined sample is in general agreement with the local fundamental relation between metallicity, stellar mass and SFR from Mannucci et al. (2010, 2011). Using the Kennicutt-Schmidt law to infer gas fractions, we investigate the importance of gas inflows and outflows on the shape of the mass-metallicity relation using simple analytical models. This suggests that the Maiolino et al.(2008) calibration of the [N II]/Ha flux ratio is biased high. We conclude that both an absolute metallicity calibration and direct measurements of the gas mass are needed to use the observed mass-metallicity relation to gain insight into the impact of gas flows on the chemical evolution of galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2012; 755(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery and a detailed multi-wavelength study of a strongly-lensed luminous infrared galaxy at z=0.816. Unlike most known lensed galaxies discovered at optical or near-infrared wavelengths this lensed source is red, r-Ks = 3.9 [AB], which the data presented here demonstrate is due to ongoing dusty star formation. The overall lensing magnification (a factor of 17) facilitates observations from the blue optical through to 500micron, fully capturing both the stellar photospheric emission as well as the re-processed thermal dust emission. We also present optical and near-IR spectroscopy. These extensive data show that this lensed galaxy is in many ways typical of IR-detected sources at z~1, with both a total luminosity and size in accordance with other (albeit much less detailed) measurements in samples of galaxies observed in deep fields with the Spitzer telescope. Its far-infrared spectral energy distribution is well-fit by local templates that are an order of magnitude less luminous than the lensed galaxy; local templates of comparable luminosity are too hot to fit. Its size (D~7kpc) is much larger than local luminous infrared galaxies, but in line with sizes observed for such galaxies at z~1. The star formation appears uniform across this spatial scale. In this source, the luminosity of which is typical of sources that dominate the cosmic infrared background, we find that star formation is spatially extended and well organised, quite unlike the compact merger-driven starbursts which are typical for sources of this luminosity at z~0.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2012; 764(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new HST/WFC3 imaging data of RCSGA 032727-132609, a bright lensed galaxy at z=1.7 that is magnified and stretched by the lensing cluster RCS2 032727-132623. Using this new high-resolution imaging, we modify our previous lens model (which was based on ground-based data) to fully understand the lensing geometry, and use it to reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc represents a unique opportunity to peer into 100-pc scale structures in a high-redshift galaxy. This new source reconstruction will be crucial for a future analysis of the spatially-resolved rest-UV and rest-optical spectra of the brightest parts of the arc.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2012; 746(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • GRB Coordinates Network. 01/2012;

Publication Stats

33 Citations
112.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • The Catholic University of America
      • Department of Physics
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2010–2014
    • University of Chicago
      • • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
      • • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      Boulder, Colorado, United States