[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the cognitive phenotype of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutation carriers with early-onset Parkinson disease (PD).
We administered a neuropsychological battery and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) to participants in the CORE-PD study who were tested for mutations in PARKIN, LRRK2, and GBA. Participants included 33 GBA mutation carriers and 60 noncarriers of any genetic mutation. Primary analyses were performed on 26 GBA heterozygous mutation carriers without additional mutations and 39 age- and PD duration-matched noncarriers. Five cognitive domains, psychomotor speed, attention, memory, visuospatial function, and executive function, were created from transformed z scores of individual neuropsychological tests. Clinical diagnoses (normal, mild cognitive impairment [MCI], dementia) were assigned blind to genotype based on neuropsychological performance and functional impairment as assessed by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score. The association between GBA mutation status and neuropsychological performance, CDR, and clinical diagnoses was assessed.
Demographics, UPSIT, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III performance did not differ between GBA carriers and noncarriers. GBA mutation carriers performed more poorly than noncarriers on the Mini-Mental State Examination (p = 0.035), and on the memory (p = 0.017) and visuospatial (p = 0.028) domains. The most prominent differences were observed in nonverbal memory performance (p < 0.001). Carriers were more likely to receive scores of 0.5 or higher on the CDR (p < 0.001), and a clinical diagnosis of either MCI or dementia (p = 0.004).
GBA mutation status may be an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment in patients with PD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in parkin are a known genetic risk factor for early onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) but their role in non-motor manifestations is not well established. Genetic factors for depression are similarly not well characterized. We investigate the role of parkin mutations in depression among those with EOPD and their relatives.
We collected psychiatric information using the Patient Health Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory II on 328 genotyped individuals including 88 probands with early onset PD (41 with parkin mutations, 47 without) and 240 first and second-degree relatives without PD.
Genotype was not associated with depression risk among probands. Among unaffected relatives of EOPD cases, only compound heterozygotes (n = 4), and not heterozygotes, had significantly increased risk of depressed mood (OR = 14.1; 95% CI 1.2-163.4), moderate to severe depression (OR = 17.8; 95% CI 1.0-332.0), depression (score ≥ 15) on the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) (OR = 51.9; 95% CI 4.1-657.4), and BDI-II total depression score (β = 8.4; 95% CI 2.4-11.3) compared to those without parkin mutations.
Relatives of EOPD cases with compound heterozygous mutations and without diagnosed PD may have a higher risk of depression compared to relatives without parkin mutations. These findings support evidence of a genetic contribution to depression and may extend the phenotypic spectrum of parkin mutations to include non-motor manifestations that precede the development of PD.
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 08/2011; 17(10):740-4. · 3.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While Parkinson disease (PD) is consistently associated with impaired olfaction, one study reported better olfaction among Parkin mutation carriers than noncarriers. Whether olfaction differs between Parkin mutation heterozygotes and carriers of 2 Parkin mutations (compound heterozygotes) is unknown.
To assess the relationship between Parkin genotype and olfaction in PD probands and their unaffected relatives.
We administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) to 44 probands in the Consortium on Risk for Early-Onset Parkinson Disease study with PD onset ≤50 years (10 Parkin mutation heterozygotes, 9 compound heterozygotes, 25 noncarriers) and 80 of their family members (18 heterozygotes, 2 compound heterozygotes, 60 noncarriers). In the probands, linear regression was used to assess the association between UPSIT score (outcome) and Parkin genotype (predictor), adjusting for covariates. Among family members without PD, we compared UPSIT performance in heterozygotes vs noncarriers using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for family membership, age, gender, and smoking.
Among probands with PD, compound heterozygotes had higher UPSIT scores (31.9) than heterozygotes (20.1) or noncarriers (19.9) (p < 0.001). These differences persisted after adjustment for age, gender, disease duration, and smoking. Among relatives without PD, UPSIT performance was similar in heterozygotes (32.5) vs noncarriers (32.4), and better than in heterozygotes with PD (p = 0.001).
Olfaction is significantly reduced among Parkin mutation heterozygotes with PD but not among their heterozygous relatives without PD. Compound heterozygotes with PD have olfaction within the normal range. Further research is required to assess whether these findings reflect different neuropathology in Parkin mutation heterozygotes and compound heterozygotes.