Donald M Lloyd-Jones

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

Are you Donald M Lloyd-Jones?

Claim your profile

Publications (324)3658.13 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Examine associations of favorable levels of all cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (RFs) [i.e., low risk (LR)] at younger ages with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) at older ages. Methods: There were 1,324 participants ages 65-84 years with hs-CRP ≤ 10mg/l from the Chicago Healthy Aging Study (2007-2010), CVD RFs assessed at baseline (1967-73) and 39 years later. LR was defined as untreated blood pressure (BP) ≤120/≤80 mmHg, untreated serum total cholesterol <200 mg/dL, body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m(2), not smoking, no diabetes. Hs-CRP was natural log-transformed or dichotomized as elevated (≥3 mg/l or ≥2 mg/l) vs. otherwise. Results: With multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for follow-up hs-CRP ≥3 mg/ in participants with baseline 0RF, 1RF and 2+RFs compared to those with baseline LR were 1.35 (0.89-2.03), 1.61(1.08-2.40) and 1.69(1.04-2.75), respectively. There was also a graded, direct association across four categories of RF groups with follow-up hs-CRP levels (β coefficient/P-trend = 0.18/0.014). Associations were mainly due to baseline smoking and BMI, independent of 39-year change in BMI levels. Similar trends were observed in gender-specific analyses. Conclusions: Favorable levels of all CVD RFs in younger age are associated with lower hs-CRP level in older age.
    12/2015; 2:235-240. DOI:10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.03.012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Many eligible primary cardiovascular disease prevention candidates are not treated with statins. Electronic health record data can identify patients with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Methods and results: We performed a pragmatic randomized controlled trial at community health centers in 2 states. Participants were men aged ≥35 years and women ≥45 years, without cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus, and with a 10-year risk of coronary heart disease of at least 10%. The intervention group received telephone and mailed outreach, individualized based on patients' cardiovascular disease risk and uncontrolled risk factors, provided by lay health workers. Main outcomes included: documented discussion of medication treatment for cholesterol with a primary care clinician, receipt of statin prescription within 6 months, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol repeated and at least 30 mg/dL lower than baseline within 1 year. Six hundred forty-six participants (328 and 318 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) were included. At 6 months, 26.8% of intervention and 11.6% of control patients had discussed cholesterol treatment with a primary care clinician (odds ratio, 2.79; [95% confidence interval, 2.25-3.46]). Statin prescribing occurred for 10.1% in the intervention group and 6.0% in the control group (odds ratio, 1.76; [95% confidence interval, 0.90-3.45]). The cholesterol outcome did not differ, and the majority of patients did not repeat lipid levels during follow-up. Conclusions: Risk communication and lay outreach increased cholesterol treatment discussions with primary care clinicians. However, most discussions did not result in statin prescribing. For outreach to be successful, it should be combined with interventions to encourage clinicians to follow contemporary risk-based cholesterol treatment guidelines. Clinical trial registration: URL: Unique identifier: NCT01610609.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 11/2015; 8(6). DOI:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.115.001723 · 5.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Greater public awareness of venous thromboembolism may be an important next step for optimizing venous thromboembolism prevention and treatment. "Lifetime risk" is an easily interpretable way of presenting risk information. Therefore, we sought to calculate the lifetime risk of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism) using data from two large, prospective cohort studies: the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Methods: We followed participants aged 45-64 years in ARIC (n=14,185) and ≥65 in CHS (n=5,414) at baseline visits (1987-89 in ARIC, 1989-90 and 1992-93 in CHS) for incident venous thromboembolism (n=728 in ARIC through 2011 and n=172 in CHS through 2001). We estimated lifetime risks and 95% confidence intervals of incident venous thromboembolism using a modified Kaplan-Meier method, accounting for the competing risk of death from other causes. Results: At age 45, the remaining lifetime risk of venous thromboembolism in ARIC was 8.1% (95% confidence interval: 7.1-8.7). High-risk groups were African Americans (11.5% lifetime risk), those with obesity (10.9%), heterozygous for the factor V Leiden (17.1%), or with sickle cell trait or disease (18.2%). Lifetime risk estimates differed by cohort; these differences were explained by differences in time period of venous thromboembolism ascertainment. Conclusions: At least 1 in 12 middle-aged adults will develop venous thromboembolism in their remaining lifetime. This estimate of lifetime risk may be useful to promote awareness of venous thromboembolism and guide decisions at both clinical and policy levels.
    The American journal of medicine 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.014 · 5.00 Impact Factor

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events, including coronary heart disease and stroke, are the most frequent cause of death and major disability in the world. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association primary prevention guidelines are mainly on the basis of randomized controlled trials of statin-based low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering therapy for primary prevention of ASCVD events. Despite the clear demonstration of statin-based LDL-C lowering, substantial 10-year and lifetime risks of incident ASCVD continue. Although the 10-year risk is low in young and middle-aged adults who would not be treated according to current guidelines, they ultimately account for most incident ASCVD. If statin-based LDL-C lowering were initiated in them at an age before complex coronary plaques are common in the population, a substantial reduction in lifetime risk of incident coronary heart disease might be achieved. We examine this hypothesis and introduce the design of a currently recruiting trial to address it. (Eliminate Coronary Artery Disease [ECAD]; NCT02245087)
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2015; 66(16):1828-1836. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.08.857 · 16.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Norrina B Allen · Sylvia Badon · Kurt J Greenlund · Mark Huffman · Yuling Hong · Donald M Lloyd-Jones ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: This study was conducted to examine the association between ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) and health-related quality of life and health status indicators. Methods: This cross-sectional study included adult NHANES participants from 2001 to 2010 without CVD (N = 7115). CVH was defined according to AHA definitions with poor, intermediate and ideal levels of the seven factors (diet, BMI, physical activity, smoking, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol) assigned scores of 0, 1, and 2, respectively. A CVH score (CVHS) was calculated as the sum of the scores from each individual health factor (range 0-14; higher score indicating greater CVH). CVHS was categorized as poor (0-7), intermediate (8-10), and ideal (11-14). Linear regression models examined the association between CVHS category with health status and number of unhealthy days per month, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics and disability. Results: Among US adults 20-79 years, 14, 46 and 40 % had ideal, intermediate and poor CVHS, respectively. Compared to those with poor CVH, individuals in intermediate and ideal CVH were 44 and 71 % less likely to report being in fair/poor health. Participants with ideal CVH scores reported a mean of 2.4 fewer unhealthy days over the past month, including one less day in which their physical health was not good and two fewer days in which their mental health was not good. Conclusions: Ideal CVH is associated with greater overall health status and fewer physically and mentally unhealthy days.
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 09/2015; 13(1):152. DOI:10.1186/s12955-015-0352-z · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the association between cardiovascular health (CVH) in young adulthood and left ventricular (LV) structure and function later in life. Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, which recruited black and white participants aged 18 to 30 years at baseline, were included; echocardiography was performed at year 25. CVH at year 0 was defined on the basis of blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, body mass index, smoking status, diet, and physical activity. Two, 1, or 0 points were assigned to each component for ideal, intermediate, and poor levels of each component. Participants were stratified into CVH groups on the basis of point score: ≤8 (poor), 9 to 11 (intermediate), and 12 to 14 (ideal). The distribution of CVH at year 0 was as follows: poor, n = 264 (9%); intermediate, n = 1,315 (47%); and ideal, n = 1,224 (44%). Individuals with ideal and intermediate CVH at year 0 had significantly lower LV end-diastolic volume and lower LV mass index at year 25. In participants with ideal and intermediate CVH, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for diastolic dysfunction at year 25 was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.37-0.73) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.46-0.83), respectively, compared with participants with poor CVH. Participants with ideal and intermediate CVH had significantly lower odds for LV hypertrophy; the LV mass index was 5.3 to 8.7 g/m(2.7) lower (P < .001 for both) than in participants with poor CVH. Greater levels of CVH in young adulthood are associated with lower LV mass and lower risk for diastolic dysfunction 25 years later. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.echo.2015.07.026 · 4.06 Impact Factor

  • International Journal of Epidemiology 08/2015; DOI:10.1093/ije/dyv150 · 9.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) have widely varying prognoses and treatment options. Validated models for risk stratification of patients with CHD are needed. We sought to evaluate traditional and novel risk factors as predictors of secondary cardiovascular (CV) events, and to develop a prediction model that could be used to risk stratify patients with stable CHD. We used independent derivation (912 participants in the Heart and Soul Study) and validation (2876 participants in the PEACE trial) cohorts of patients with stable CHD to develop a risk prediction model using Cox proportional hazards models. The outcome was CV events, defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, or CV death. The annual rate of CV events was 3.4% in the derivation cohort and 2.2% in the validation cohort. With the exception of smoking, traditional risk factors (including age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes) did not emerge as the top predictors of secondary CV events. The top 4 predictors of secondary events were the following: N-terminal pro-type brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, and current smoking. The 5-year C-index for this 4-predictor model was 0.73 in the derivation cohort and 0.65 in the validation cohort. As compared with variables in the Framingham secondary events model, the Heart and Soul risk model resulted in net reclassification improvement of 0.47 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.73) in the derivation cohort and 0.18 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.40) in the validation cohort. Novel risk factors are superior to traditional risk factors for predicting 5-year risk of secondary events in patients with stable CHD. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
    Journal of the American Heart Association 07/2015; 4(7). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.001646 · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atrial disease or myopathy forms the substrate for atrial fibrillation (AF) and underlies the potential for atrial thrombus formation and subsequent stroke. Current diagnostic approaches in patients with AF focus on identifying clinical predictors with the evaluation of left atrial size by echocardiography serving as the sole measure specifically evaluating the atrium. Although the atrial substrate underlying AF is likely developing for years before the onset of AF, there is no current evaluation to identify the preclinical atrial myopathy. Atrial fibrosis is 1 component of the atrial substrate that has garnered recent attention based on newer MRI techniques that have been applied to visualize atrial fibrosis in humans with prognostic implications regarding the success of treatment. Advanced ECG signal processing, echocardiographic techniques, and MRI imaging of fibrosis and flow provide up-to-date approaches to evaluate the atrial myopathy underlying AF. Although thromboembolic risk is currently defined by clinical scores, their predictive value is mediocre. Evaluation of stasis via imaging and biomarkers associated with thrombogenesis may provide enhanced approaches to assess risk for stroke in patients with AF. Better delineation of the atrial myopathy that serves as the substrate for AF and thromboembolic complications might improve treatment outcomes. Furthermore, better delineation of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the development of the atrial substrate for AF, particularly in its earlier stages, could help identify blood and imaging biomarkers that could be useful to assess risk for developing new-onset AF and suggest specific pathways that could be targeted for prevention. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Circulation 07/2015; 132(4):278-91. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.016795 · 14.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We determined whether poorer 6-minute walk performance and lower physical activity levels are associated with higher rates of ischemic heart disease (IHD) events in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Five hundred ten PAD participants were identified from Chicago-area medical centers and followed prospectively for 19.0±9.5 months. At baseline, participants completed the 6-minute walk and reported number of blocks walked during the past week (physical activity). IHD events were systematically adjudicated and consisted of new myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and cardiac death. For 6-minute walk, IHD event rates were 25/170 (14.7%) for the third (poorest) tertile, 10/171 (5.8%%) for the second tertile, and 6/169 (3.5%) for the first (best) tertile (P=0.003). For physical activity, IHD event rates were 21/154 (13.6%) for the third (poorest) tertile, 15/174 (8.6%) for the second tertile, and 5/182 (2.7%) for the first (best) tertile (P=0.001). Adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, body mass index, comorbidities, and physical activity, participants in the poorest 6-minute walk tertile had a 3.28-fold (95% CI 1.17 to 9.17, P=0.024) higher hazard for IHD events, compared with those in the best tertile. Adjusting for confounders including 6-minute walk, participants in the poorest physical activity tertile had a 3.72-fold (95% CI 1.24 to 11.19, P=0.019) higher hazard for IHD events, compared with the highest tertile. Six-minute walk and physical activity predict IHD event rates in PAD. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions that improve 6-minute walk, physical activity, or both can reduce IHD events in PAD. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
    Journal of the American Heart Association 07/2015; 4(7). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.115.001846 · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined the cross-sectional association between optimism and cardiovascular health (CVH). We used data collected from adults aged 52-84 who participated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (n=5,134) during the first follow-up visit (2002-2004). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associations of optimism with ideal and intermediate CVH (with reference being poor CVH), after adjusting for socio-demographic factors and psychological ill-being. Participants in the highest quartile of optimism were more likely to have intermediate [OR=1.51:95%CI=1.25,1.82] and ideal [OR=1.92:95%CI=1.30,2.85] CVH when compared to the least optimistic group. Individual CVH metrics of diet, physical activity, BMI, smoking, blood sugar and total cholesterol contributed to the overall association. We offer evidence for a cross-sectional association between optimism and CVH.
    07/2015; 2(1). DOI:10.14485/HBPR.2.1.6
  • Yuichiro Yano · Stanley S Franklin · Philip Greenland · Donald Lloyd-Jones ·

    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2015; 66(3):330-331. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.05.019 · 16.50 Impact Factor
  • Source

  • David C Goff · Ralph B D'Agostino · Michael Pencina · Donald M Lloyd-Jones ·

    Annals of internal medicine 07/2015; 163(1):68. DOI:10.7326/L15-5105 · 17.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the primary health concern for most countries around the world. Currently, more than 36 million people worldwide die from NCDs each year, accounting for 63% of annual global deaths; most are preventable. The global financial burden of NCDs is staggering, with an estimated 2010 global cost of $6.3 trillion (US dollars) that is projected to increase to $13 trillion by 2030. A number of NCDs share one or more common predisposing risk factors, all related to lifestyle to some degree: (1) cigarette smoking, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycemia, (4) dyslipidemia, (5) obesity, (6) physical inactivity, and (7) poor nutrition. In large part, prevention, control, or even reversal of the aforementioned modifiable risk factors are realized through leading a healthy lifestyle (HL). The challenge is how to initiate the global change, not toward increasing documentation of the scope of the problem but toward true action-creating, implementing, and sustaining HL initiatives that will result in positive, measurable changes in the previously defined poor health metrics. To achieve this task, a paradigm shift in how we approach NCD prevention and treatment is required. The goal of this American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation/American College of Preventive Medicine policy statement is to define key stakeholders and highlight their connectivity with respect to HL initiatives. This policy encourages integrated action by all stakeholders to create the needed paradigm shift and achieve broad adoption of HL behaviors on a global scale. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    European Heart Journal 07/2015; 36(31). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehv207 · 15.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We assessed high cholesterol (HC) awareness, treatment, and control rates among US Hispanic/Latino adults and describe factors associated with HC awareness and management. Baseline data (collected 2008-2011) from a multisite probability sample of Hispanic/Latino adults in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (18 to 74 years old; N=16 207) were analyzed. HC was defined as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL and/or total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or use of cholesterol-lowering medication. Among Hispanic/Latino adults with HC, almost half (49.3%) were not aware of their condition and only 29.5% were receiving treatment. Men had a higher HC prevalence than women (44.0% versus 40.5%) but a lower rate of treatment (28.1% versus 30.6%). Younger adults were significantly less likely to be HC aware compared to those who were older. Those with hypertension, diabetes, and high socioeconomic position were more likely to be HC aware. US-born Hispanic/Latino were more likely to be HC unaware than foreign-born Hispanics/Latinos, but longer US residency was significantly associated with being HC aware, treated, and controlled. Cholesterol control was achieved among 64.3% of those who were HC treated. However, younger adults, women, those with lower income, those uninsured, and more recent immigrants were less likely to be HC controlled. Individuals of Puerto Rican or Dominican background were most likely to be HC aware and treated, whereas those of Mexican or Central American background were least likely to be HC treated. Individuals of Cuban and South American background had the lowest rates of HC control, whereas Puerto Ricans had the highest. Understanding gaps in HC awareness, treatment, and control among US Hispanic/Latino adults can help inform physicians and policymakers to improve disease management and patient education programs. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
    Journal of the American Heart Association 07/2015; 4(7). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.115.001867 · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    K Lin · D M Lloyd-Jones · D Li · Y Liu · J Yang · M Markl · J C Carr ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the long-term survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death. Recently, multimodality cardiovascular imaging methods have been adopted for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk, which has shown to be associated with both traditional cardiovascular risk factors and SLE-specific conditions. Quantitative imaging biomarkers, which can describe both morphological and functional abnormalities in the heart, are expected to provide new insights to stratify cardiovascular risks and to guide SLE management by assessing individual responses to therapies either protecting the cardiovascular system or suppressing the autoimmune reactions. In this review, we will discuss cutting-edge cardiovascular imaging techniques and potential clinical applications and limitations of those techniques for the evaluation of major SLE-related heart disorders. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:
    Lupus 06/2015; 24(11). DOI:10.1177/0961203315588577 · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Lisa B VanWagner · Brittany Lapin · Anton I Skaro · Donald M Lloyd-Jones · Mary E Rinella ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity after liver transplantation, but its impact on CVD mortality is unknown. We sought to assess the impact of NASH on CVD mortality after liver transplantation and to predict which NASH recipients are at highest risk of a CVD-related death following a liver transplant. Using the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database we examined associations between NASH and post liver transplant CVD mortality, defined as primary cause of death from thromboembolism, arrhythmia, heart failure, myocardial infarction, or stroke. A physician panel reviewed cause of death. Of 48,360 liver transplants (2/2002-12/2011), 5,057 (10.5%) were performed for NASH cirrhosis. NASH recipients were more likely to be older, female, obese, diabetic, and have history of renal failure or prior CVD versus non-NASH (p<0.001 for all). Although there was no difference in overall all-cause mortality (log-rank p=0.96), both early (30-day) and long-term CVD-specific mortality was increased among NASH recipients (Odds ratio=1.30, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.66; Hazard ratio=1.42, 95% CI: 1.07-1.41, respectively). These associations were no longer significant after adjustment for pre-transplant diabetes, renal impairment or CVD. A risk score comprising age ≥ 55, male sex, diabetes and renal impairment was developed for prediction of post liver transplant CVD mortality (c-statistic 0.60). NASH recipients have an increased risk of CVD mortality after liver transplantation explained by a high prevalence of co-morbid cardiometabolic risk factors that in aggregate identify those at highest risk of post-transplant CVD mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/liv.12872 · 4.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The association between sleep apnea and atrial fibrillation (AF) has not been examined in a multiethnic adult population in prospective community-based studies. We prospectively (2000-2011) investigated the associations of physician-diagnosed sleep apnea (PDSA), which is considered more severe sleep apnea, and self-reported habitual snoring without PDSA (HS), a surrogate for mild sleep apnea, with incident AF in white, black, and Hispanic participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000-2002). Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the associations, with adjustment for socioeconomic status, traditional vascular disease risk factors, race/ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, alcohol intake, and lipid-lowering therapy. Out of 4,395 respondents to a sleep questionnaire administered in MESA, 181 reported PDSA, 1,086 reported HS, and 3,128 reported neither HS nor PDSA (unaffected). Over an average 8.5-year follow-up period, 212 AF events were identified. As compared with unaffected participants, PDSA was associated with incident AF in the multivariable analysis, but HS was not (PDSA: hazard ratio = 1.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 3.02; HS: hazard ratio = 1.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.72, 1.44). PDSA, a marker of more severe sleep apnea, was associated with higher risk of incident AF in this analysis of MESA data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
    American journal of epidemiology 05/2015; 182(1). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwv004 · 5.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

35k Citations
3,658.13 Total Impact Points


  • 2005-2015
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2004-2014
    • Northwestern University
      • • Department of Preventive Medicine
      • • Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2012
    • Northwestern Memorial Hospital
      • Department of Surgery
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2011
    • American College of Cardiology
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • Wake Forest University
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2008-2011
    • American Heart Association
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 2009
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1999-2007
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Division of Cardiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 2002
    • The Vascular Group
      Albany, New York, United States
  • 1999-2001
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      • Division of Cardiovascular Sciences (DCVS)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 1998-1999
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Boston Biomedical Research Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States