Ding Wenlong

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (3)2.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: ndly new energy with low carbon emission, shale gas has attracted very much attention around the world. Based on such characteristics as the geologic histories, the sedimentary and structural settings, and the shale gas accumulation mechanism and distribution patterns, the areas with shale gas accumulation in China can be divided into four regions which correspond to the tectonic plates by and large. Shale is very developed in each geologic period, and the shale formations include Sinian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic. They are widely distributed in the hydrocarbon basins formed in different eras, the areas where deposits are remained after complex tectonic movements, or the outcrop areas. In terms of basin types, craton, foreland and rift (faulted) basins all contain shale; in terms of sedimentary facies, there are diverse facies of shale deposits, including both the marine shale with good-very good TOC in South China and the organic-rich lacustrine and marine-continent al transitional shale in North China. Compared with North America where shale gas resources were generated, accumulated, and have been developed commercially, China also has suitable geologic structural and depositional conditions favoring the generation, accumulation and distribution of shale gas. It is preliminarily estimated that there are abundant shale gas resources in China. The total shale gas resources are about 15-30xl0 12m\ and the mid-value of the shale gas resources is 23.5xl0 12m3, close to the mid-value of 28.3x10 12m3 in the U.S. In a word, shale gas is widely distributed in China with good exploration and development potential. Nonetheless, shale gas exploration theory and target assessment approaches should be established in line with China's complicated geological and structural conditions, and also the properties of shale gas reservoirs in different regions. Drilling and production technologies applicable to the geologic characteristics of China's shale formations should be researched and developed to facilitate efficient shale gas production in China.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Through analysis of geological setting, shale characteristics and basic reservoir characteristics, it is concluded that there is a great distribution of marine shale and this area has the basic geographical conditions for large-scale gathering shale gas, and thus offering huge shale gas resources and broad prospects for exploration The shale gas is the natural gas gathered in the hydrocarbon source rocks, and exists freely in the natural fissures and intergranular pore spaces or is absorbed onto the surface of the kerogen or clay particles(1). The distinctive difference between shale gas and other types of gas is the typical characteristics of "self-generation and self-storage". The extraordinary development of national economy and the increasing demands for the energy resources of the society have greatly promoted various kinds of exploration and utilization of gas and oil. The strategic significance of the shale gas arises from its important role in supplementing modem reservoir types and thus the importance of its exploration. The research work of shale gas has just started in our country; and the explorational research work of shale gas is still at quite preliminary stages. Marine shale is widely developed in the Upper Yangtze area, however, the exploration is inadequately conducted with a few number of shallow and unevenly spread drillings. The shale rock is only considered as the hydrocarbon source rocks and cap rocks of the normal reservoir. But in fact, shale rock is the main source of the shale gas because of the hydrogen absorption mechanism -the very basic feature of shale gas.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Brief electrical stimulation has been shown to be effective in promoting neuronal regeneration following peripheral nerve injury. These effects are thought to be mediated largely by the upregulation of the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in spinal cord neurons. However, the molecular mechanisms by which electrical stimulation can promote BDNF expression are not known. The mechanism involved in BDNF expression after electrical stimulation was explored in this study. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to test BDNF expression. Confocal microscopy was utilized to study intracellular Ca(2+) volume. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting confirmed that brief electrical stimulation increased BDNF expression in spinal cord neurons both in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of cultured neurons with nifedipine, an inhibitor of voltage-gated calcium channels, significantly reduced the BDNF increase produced by electrical stimulation, and an inhibitor of Erk completely abolished the effect of electrical stimulation. Levels of BDNF expression in the presence of the Erk inhibitor were lower that in unstimulated and untreated controls, indicating that Erk activation is required to maintain baseline levels of BDNF. Confocal microscopy using a Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorochrome revealed that electrical stimulation is accompanied by an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels; the increase was partly blocked by nifedipine. These findings argue that electrical stimulation increases BDNF expression in spinal cord neurons by activating a Ca(2+)- and Erk-dependent signaling pathways.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 01/2011; 31(3):459-67. · 2.29 Impact Factor