Dominik C Meyer

University of Zurich, Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland

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Publications (64)153.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Chronic rotator cuff tendon tearing is associated with irreversible atrophy, fatty infiltration, and interstitial fibrosis of the corresponding muscle. Anabolic steroids can prevent musculotendinous degeneration during retraction and/or can reverse these changes after operative repair of the retracted musculotendinous unit in sheep. Controlled laboratory study. The infraspinatus tendon was released in 18 alpine sheep. All sheep underwent repair of the retracted musculotendinous unit after 16 weeks and were sacrificed after 22 weeks; 6 sheep served as controls, 6 sheep were treated with weekly intramuscular injection of 150 mg of nandrolone decanoate after infraspinatus (ISP) repair (group N6W), and 6 sheep were treated with 150 mg of nandrolone decanoate immediately after tendon release (group N22W). Muscle biopsy specimens were taken before tendon release and after 16 and 22 weeks. Muscle volume and fatty infiltration (on MRI), myotendinous retraction, and muscle density (on computed tomography) were measured immediately after ISP release, after 6 weeks, and before ISP repair and sacrifice. Muscle volume on MRI decreased to a mean (±SD) of 80% ± 8% of the original volume after 6 weeks, remained stable at 78% ± 11% after 16 weeks, and decreased further to 69% ± 9% after 22 weeks in the control group. These findings were no different from those in group N22W (72% ± 9% at 6 weeks, 73% ± 6% at 16 weeks, and 67% ± 5% at 22 weeks). Conversely, the N6W group did not show a decrease in ISP volume after repair; this finding differed significantly from the response in the control and N22W groups. Fatty infiltration (on MRI) continuously increased in the control group (12% ± 4% at tendon release, 17% ± 4% after 6 weeks, 50% ± 9% after 16 weeks, and 60% ± 8% after 22 weeks) and the N6W group. However, application of anabolic steroids at the time of tendon release (N22W group) significantly reduced fatty infiltration after 16 (16% ± 5%; P < .001) and 22 weeks (22% ± 7%; P < .001). In a sheep model of rotator cuff tendon tear, further muscle atrophy can be prevented with the application of anabolic steroids starting immediately after tendon repair. In addition, fatty muscle infiltration can largely be prevented if the steroids are applied immediately after tendon release. Study findings may lead to the development of treatment strategies to prevent or reduce muscle degeneration caused by rotator cuff tendon tearing. © 2015 The Author(s).
    The American Journal of Sports Medicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1177/0363546515596411 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The quantification of a subscapularis tendon lesion may be difficult on magnetic resonance imaging, as well as during arthroscopic inspection. Consequently, the surgical decision of whether to only debride a degenerated tendon or to lateralize the more intact tendon portion may be arbitrary. This study aims to quantify the length of the subscapularis tendon as a sign of partial tendon tearing. We retrospectively identified 92 magnetic resonance arthrography studies of suspected rotator cuff lesions obtained 3 months before shoulder arthroscopy. The myotendinous junction was identified, and the subscapularis tendon and muscle lengths were measured. Findings on arthroscopy performed later were used as the diagnostic gold standard for tendon integrity and compared with the magnetic resonance data. Arthroscopy showed an intact subscapularis tendon in 43 patients, tendinopathy in 21 patients, and a partial rupture in 28 patientsThe mean subscapularis tendon lengths were 40 mm in cases of intact subscapularis musculotendinous units, 45 mm in cases of tendinopathy, and 53 mm in cases of partial tears, whereas the mean subscapularis muscle lengths were 105 mm, 94 mm, and 95 mm, respectively, in these groups. Partial tears of the subscapularis tendon lead to muscle shortening by approximately 10% and elongation of the tendon by approximately 32%, which may be interpreted as muscle retraction and a tendon rupture in continuity. If the subscapularis tendon has an apparent length of greater than 60 mm, the probability of a tear is 98%. Determination of the tendon length may therefore be a useful additional tool to quantify the integrity of the subscapularis tendon and degree of myotendinous retraction. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2015.06.014 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis in young patients is challenging. Total shoulder arthroplasty reliably addresses pain and dysfunction but compromises glenoid bone stock. Various efforts have been made to avoid a prosthetic glenoid component or to prevent glenoid erosion after hemiarthroplasty. Capsular interposition, meniscal allograft, and more recently, GraftJacket (Wright Medical Technology Inc, Arlington, TN, USA), a human dermal collagen allograft, have been proposed for interposition arthroplasty in young patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis. From 2009 to 2010, GraftJacket was used for glenoid resurfacing combined with humeral resurfacing or a stemmed hemiarthroplasty in 6 patients with a mean age of 47 years (34-57 years). Before GraftJacket was available, 5 patients were treated with a meniscal allograft and 6 with capsular interposition arthroplasty. At a mean of 16 months (9-22 months) after the GraftJacket was implanted, 5 of the 6 patients were revised to a total shoulder arthroplasty or a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. The sixth patient was dissatisfied but declined further surgery. The mean relative, preoperative Constant score decreased from 35% (range, 13%-61%) to 31% (range, 15%-43%) at revision or latest follow-up. Of the 5 patients with meniscal allograft, 3 underwent revision at a mean of 22 months (range, 12-40 months), and 4 of the 6 patients with capsular interposition were revised at a mean of 34 months (range, 23-45 months). The mean relative Constant scores preoperatively and at revision or latest follow-up were 44% (range, 19%-68%) and 58% (range, 9%-96%) for the meniscal allograft patients and 47% (range, 38%-62%) and 63% (range, 32%-92%) for the capsular interposition cases. In our hands, 3 different types of biological resurfacings combined with humeral hemiarthroplasty have an unacceptable early failure rate. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2015.05.037 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In wheelchair-dependent individuals, pain often develops because of rotator cuff tendon failure and/or osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint. The purposes of this study were to investigate (1) specific rotator cuff tear patterns, (2) structural healing, and (3) clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in a cohort of wheelchair-dependent patients. Forty-six shoulders with a mean follow-up of 46 months (range, 24-82 months; SD, 13 months) from a consecutive series of 61 shoulders in 56 patients (46 men and 10 women) undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were available for analysis. Clinical outcome analysis was performed using the Constant-Murley score, the Subjective Shoulder Value, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score. The integrity of the repair was analyzed by ultrasound. Of the shoulders, 87% had supraspinatus involvement, 70% had subscapularis involvement, and 57% had an anterosuperior lesion involving both the supraspinatus and subscapularis. Despite an overall structural failure rate of 33%, the patients showed improvements in the Constant-Murley score from 50 points (range, 22-86 points; SD, 16 points) preoperatively to 80 points (range, 40-98 points; SD, 12 points) postoperatively and in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score from 56 points (range, 20-92 points; SD, 20 points) preoperatively to 92 points (range, 53-100 points; SD, 10 points) postoperatively, with a mean postoperative Subjective Shoulder Value of 84% (range, 25%-100%; SD, 17%). Failure of the rotator cuff in weight-bearing shoulders occurs primarily anterosuperiorly. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair leads to a structural failure rate of 33% but satisfactory functional results with high patient satisfaction at midterm follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2015.05.051 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    Karl Wieser · Paul Borbas · Eugene T Ek · Dominik C Meyer · Christian Gerber
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    ABSTRACT: If revision of a failed anatomic hemiarthroplasty or total shoulder arthroplasty is uncertain to preserve or restore satisfactory rotator cuff function, conversion to a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has become the preferred treatment, at least for elderly patients. However, revision of a well-fixed humeral stem has the potential risk of loss of humeral bone stock, nerve injury, periprosthetic fracture, and malunion or nonunion of a humeral osteotomy with later humeral component loosening.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 10/2014; 473(2). DOI:10.1007/s11999-014-3985-z · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Niklas Renner · Karl Wieser · Georg Lajtai · Mark E. Morrey · Dominik C. Meyer
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothesis No. 5 FiberWire (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) cerclage (FWC) and 1.25-mm stainless steel wire cerclage (SSWC) are biomechanically similar in resistance to prosthetic subsidence in shoulder arthroplasty. Methods In this laboratory bench study, 3 different surgical knot configurations (4-throw knot, cow hitch, and simple hitch) using a No. 5 FWC were evaluated and compared with a 1.25-mm SSWC. First, distraction tests were performed using bovine femoral cortical half shells mounted on a testing jig. Cerclage tightening, load to a 3-mm gap opening, and load to total failure were measured. Second, uncemented humeral prosthetic stems were inserted into an experimentally split humeral medullary canal, secured by the cerclage. After 100 N of preloading, the prosthesis was advanced into the humerus at a speed of 0.2 mm/s, and resistance during subsidence up to a penetration depth of 10 mm, as well as gap opening, was measured. Results Tightening force showed higher values for SSWC (618 N) than FWC (131-137 N) (P < .001). Load to total failure was comparable among the 3 different FWC knots (2,642-2,804 N), which were significantly stronger than SSWC (1,775 N, P < .001). At 3 mm of distraction, SSWC (1,820 N), cow hitch (1,803 N), and single-throw hitch (1,709 N) performed significantly better than a 4-throw knot (1,289 N) (P < .01). Subsidence testing showed no difference in force restraint or gap opening between the best FWC and SSWC. Conclusions FWCs appear, in vitro, equally suitable to steel wires to stabilize nondisplaced periprosthetic humeral fractures. To actively reduce a displaced fracture, steel wires may still be the first choice.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It was the purpose of this paper to analyze structural, functional, and electrophysiologic variables that may determine preserved overhead function for patients with massive rotator cuff tears. METHODS: Nineteen patients (20 shoulders) were prospectively included in either the pseudoparalytic (n = 9) or the non-pseudoparalytic group (n = 11). Fatty infiltration was graded according to Goutallier, and anterior (subscapularis) and posterior (infraspinatus and teres minor) tear extension was graded 0 (no involvement) to 4 (full tear) on magnetic resonance imaging. Glenohumeral and scapulothoracic rhythm was assessed by fluoroscopic motion analysis, and electromyographic evaluation of the deltoid muscle was performed. RESULTS: We found no significant difference of fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus (3.9 vs 3.6), infraspinatus (3.9 vs 3.8), and teres minor (1.7 vs 0.6) or of the posterior tear extension (2.6 vs 2.0) between pseudoparalytic and non-pseudoparalytic shoulders. Global tear extension in the parasagittal plane (205° vs 163°) and subscapularis involvement (2.6 vs 1.2), however, showed significant differences between the two groups, and no patient with a full-thickness supraspinatus and infraspinatus tear with extension into the inferior half of the subscapularis was able to lift the arm to 90°. Fluoroscopic assessment revealed almost total loss of active glenohumeral abduction in the pseudoparalytic group. CONCLUSION: Despite global tear extension, the single most important predictor for preserved shoulder function is the integrity of the inferior subscapularis insertion. Furthermore, electromyographic evaluation identifies a well-differentiated deltoid innervation as beneficial for a well-preserved shoulder function, but it does not protect from pseudoparalysis.
    Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 08/2014; 24(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2014.05.026 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Early clinical and radiographic diagnosis of failed or loosened anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions can be challenging. The aim of the present study is to retrospectively evaluate the use of radiologically visible markers in the ACL graft, serving as a potential diagnostic tool in ACL graft rupture and insufficiency. Methods Twenty patients were included in the study. ACL reconstruction was performed with use of a hamstring autograft in hybrid fixation technique. The graft was marked with two radiodense suture knots, one at tibial and femoral tunnel opening. X-rays were performed postoperatively, after 6 weeks and 12 months. Four distances between markers and landmarks were measured in anteroposterior and three in lateral x-ray views and the positional change between the timepoints of measurement was calculated. Results Measurements of the marker distances on x-rays showed an excellent interobserver reliability (κ = 0.97). In two measured distal anteroposterior distances statistically significant changes could be detected between 6 weeks and 12 months postoperatively in one patient with MRI-documented ACL rerupture and in five patients with ACL elongation defined as anteroposterior-translation with side-to-side difference of ≥ 3 mm measured with a Rolimeter device. In lateral x-rays, marker distances were highly variable and did not correlate with clinical ACL elongation. Conclusion The application of radiodense ACL graft markers is a straight-forward, non-expensive and potentially useful diagnostic tool to identify the position of the transplant and for diagnosis of graft elongation or failure. However, the method is sensitive to the radiological projection, which should be further studied and optimized.
    The Knee 07/2014; 21(6). DOI:10.1016/j.knee.2014.07.003 · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Niklas Renner · Karl Wieser · Georg Lajtai · Mark E Morrey · Dominik C Meyer
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    ABSTRACT: No. 5 FiberWire (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) cerclage (FWC) and 1.25-mm stainless steel wire cerclage (SSWC) are biomechanically similar in resistance to prosthetic subsidence in shoulder arthroplasty. In this laboratory bench study, 3 different surgical knot configurations (4-throw knot, cow hitch, and simple hitch) using a No. 5 FWC were evaluated and compared with a 1.25-mm SSWC. First, distraction tests were performed using bovine femoral cortical half shells mounted on a testing jig. Cerclage tightening, load to a 3-mm gap opening, and load to total failure were measured. Second, uncemented humeral prosthetic stems were inserted into an experimentally split humeral medullary canal, secured by the cerclage. After 100 N of preloading, the prosthesis was advanced into the humerus at a speed of 0.2 mm/s, and resistance during subsidence up to a penetration depth of 10 mm, as well as gap opening, was measured. Tightening force showed higher values for SSWC (618 N) than FWC (131-137 N) (P < .001). Load to total failure was comparable among the 3 different FWC knots (2,642-2,804 N), which were significantly stronger than SSWC (1,775 N, P < .001). At 3 mm of distraction, SSWC (1,820 N), cow hitch (1,803 N), and single-throw hitch (1,709 N) performed significantly better than a 4-throw knot (1,289 N) (P < .01). Subsidence testing showed no difference in force restraint or gap opening between the best FWC and SSWC. FWCs appear, in vitro, equally suitable to steel wires to stabilize nondisplaced periprosthetic humeral fractures. To actively reduce a displaced fracture, steel wires may still be the first choice.
    Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 05/2014; 23(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2014.02.012 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic tearing of tendons is associated with molecular and structural alterations causing biomechanical changes, which compromise musculotendinous function and become limiting factors for tendon repair. This study investigated the histological response of chronically retracted sheep rotator cuff tendons to mechanical and pharmacological stimulation in view of tendon repair. Sixteen weeks after experimental release of the infraspinatus tendon in 20 sheep, the retracted musculotendinous unit was subjected to continuous traction either with [anabolic steroids (nandrolone) group/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) group] or without (control group) additional pharmacological treatment during 6 weeks. A new degeneration score for tendinous tissues (DSTT), based on established knowledge on histological changes associated with tendon degeneration, was used for histological analysis at the time of tendon release, at the beginning of continuous re-lengthening and at repair in all animals. The DSTT score (inter-observer correlation: r = 0.83), quantifiably representing tendon degeneration, improved from 15.5 (SD 1.3) points before to 9.8 (SD 3.8) points after re-lengthening. It improved in a qualitatively and quantitatively similar fashion if pharmacological stimulation was added. The nandrolone group improved from 13.7 (SD 1.6) to 9.8 (SD 1.9) and the IGF group from 13.3 (SD 3.6) to 8.8 (SD 1.8) points. Mechanical stimulation significantly reduced tissue degeneration. However, the addition of a pharmacological stimulation with anabolic steroids or IGF had neither a measurable positive nor negative effect on the degenerative process. Therefore, this investigation does neither support the additional pharmacological use of the anabolic steroid nandrolone or of IGF decanoate for restoration of tendon degeneration, nor otherwise provide evidence for additional tendon damage, if those substances are used to alter the muscular metabolism.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 05/2014; 23(2). DOI:10.1007/s00167-014-3037-y · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    Dominik C Meyer · Stefan Rahm · Mazda Farshad · Georg Lajtai · Karl Wieser
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    ABSTRACT: It seems appropriate to assume, that for a full and strong global shoulder function a normally innervated and active deltoid muscle is indispensable. We set out to analyse the size and shape of the deltoid muscle on MR-arthrographies, and analyse its influence on shoulder function and its adaption (i.e. atrophy) for reduced shoulder function. The fatty infiltration (Goutallier stages), atrophy (tangent sign) and selective myotendinous retraction of the rotator cuff, as well as the thickness and the area of seven anatomically defined segments of the deltoid muscle were measured on MR-arthrographies and correlated with shoulder function (i.e. active abduction). Included were 116 patients, suffering of a rotator cuff tear with shoulder mobility ranging from pseudoparalysis to free mobility. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine the distribution of the data before either Spearman or Pearson correlation and a multiple regression was applied to reveal the correlations. Our developed method for measuring deltoid area and thickness showed to be reproducible with excellent interobserver correlations (r = 0.814--0.982).The analysis of influencing factors on active abduction revealed a weak influence of the amount of SSP tendon (r = -0.25; p < 0.01) and muscle retraction (r = -0.27; p < 0.01) as well as the stage of fatty muscle infiltration (GFDI: r = -0.36; p < 0.01). Unexpectedly however, we were unable to detect a relation of the deltoid muscle shape with the degree of active glenohumeral abduction. Furthermore, long-standing rotator cuff tears did not appear to influence the deltoid shape, i.e. did not lead to muscle atrophy. Our data support that in chronic rotator cuff tears, there seems to be no disadvantage to exhausting conservative treatment and to delay implantation of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, as the shape of deltoid muscle seems only to be influenced by natural aging, but to be independent of reduced shoulder motion.
    BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 08/2013; 14(1):247. DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-14-247 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: High-strength sutures allow tightening of a suture knot beyond the strength of the surgeon, possibly inflicting skin damage through the gloves. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether such effort is useful and how much tensioning on a surgical knot is necessary. METHODS: Three different suture materials were tested: No. 2 Vicryl™, FibreWire™, and PDS™. First, the force spontaneously applied on sutures during experimental knot tightening ("tying load") was measured in fifteen experienced surgeons. Second, with each suture material, surgical square knots were tied with increasing, standardized loads (range 0.5-50 N) using a custom-made apparatus. Thereby, knot seating after tying was evaluated, and by loading the knots to failure, evaluation for failure mode and failure load was performed. RESULTS: FibreWire™ 5-throw square knots always failed by complete slipping of all knots (resolving), independent on the tying load. A nonlinear decrease of knot slippage and increased failure load were seen with increasing tying loads for all sutures. Major differences were seen between 0.5 and 10 N for FibreWire™ (slippage: 25 mm) and PDS™ (99.6 mm), whereas Vicryl™ showed major differences (22.7 mm) between 0.5 and 2 N. Increasing the tying load from 10 to 50 N decreased the mean knot slippage from 12 (FibreWire™, ±2.6 SD), 9 (PDS™, ±1.8 SD) and 8 (Vicryl™, ±1.3 SD) mm to 6 (±2.9 SD), 3 (±1.5 SD) and 4 mm (±0.9 SD), respectively. CONCLUSION: Slippage and self-seating of the knots under load is unavoidable even with highest tying loads. Relatively minor but possibly important differences can be seen for tying loads exceeding 2 N (Vicryl™) and 10 N (PDS™ and FibreWire™) for failure load and knot slippage. But also with a tying load of 50 N, a minimal slippage of approximately 3 mm seems unavoidable for all suture types. However, it is important to state that intense tightening does not prevent knot resolution and is only necessary in clinical situations that demand very tight sutures. Numbers and proper appliance of throws are more relevant than tying strength to reach the maximum failure load.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 03/2013; 22(11). DOI:10.1007/s00167-013-2452-9 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: On standard axillary radiographs of normal shoulders, the clavicle may appear subluxated posteriorly. This subluxation might be viewed as an indication for surgical stabilization in acromioclavicular (AC) injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of identification of anteroposterior displacements of the AC joint on standard axillary radiographs of the human shoulder. METHODS: We performed 170 radiographs of the AC joint in 10 cadaveric shoulders using various projection angles. The distance from the anterior margin of the acromion to the distal clavicle was measured to identify an "optimal" view to image the true anteroposterior alignment of normal AC joints. RESULTS: On the standard axillary view of intact shoulders, we found an average posterior translation of 1.7 mm (range, -3 to 7; SD, 2.8) and of 0.9 mm (range, -5 to 5; SD, 2.8) in an "optimal view," tilted 15 degees dorsal and 15 degees lateral. CONCLUSIONS: The standard axillary radiograph has a very high sensitivity but poor accuracy in identifying a posterior clavicular translation in the AC joint. We could not identify a reliable modification of the axillary radiographic projection to improve the accuracy. Therefore, an apparent posterior subluxation of the clavicle identified on an axillary radiograph is more likely a false positive finding than an identification of a true pathology.
    Journal of orthopaedic trauma 03/2013; 27(11). DOI:10.1097/BOT.0b013e31828f912c · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    Dominik C Meyer · Beat K Moor · Christian Gerber · Eugene TH Ek
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Latarjet procedure has widely become the preferred treatment option for recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability in the presence of glenoid bone loss. The success of this procedure is largely dependent on accurate placement of the coracoid bone graft relative to the glenoid margin. With malpositioning of the coracoid graft, complications can arise, such as recurrent instability if placed too medially or impingement and subsequent early degenerative changes if positioned too laterally. To increase the accuracy and reproducibility of coracoid graft placement, we developed a simple and efficient drill guide that assists in accurate and safe positioning of the graft against the anterior glenoid to provide a congruent articular surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A new drill guide was used in 12 consecutive open Latarjet procedures. Accuracy of placement of the graft with respect to the anterior glenoid rim was assessed using postoperative computed tomography imaging. RESULTS: Accurate graft placement with a distance between the glenoid and the graft surface of less than 1 mm was obtained in all 12 interventions. The mean angulation of the screws relative to the glenoid face was 4.3° (range, 1°-7°). All screw heads were positioned medial to the articular edge of the graft, and the distance was always greater than 3 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a simple drill guide allows safe and accurate graft placement during an open Latarjet procedure.
    Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 12/2012; 2013(22):701-708. DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2012.06.012 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Long-standing rotator cuff tendon tearing is associated with retraction, loss of work capacity, irreversible fatty infiltration, and atrophy of the rotator cuff muscles. Although continuous musculotendinous relengthening can experimentally restore muscular architecture, restoration of atrophy and fatty infiltration is hitherto impossible. HYPOTHESIS:Continuous relengthening with pharmacological stimulation of muscle growth using an anabolic steroid or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) can reverse atrophy and fatty infiltration as well as improve the work capacity of chronically retracted rotator cuff muscles in sheep. STUDY DESIGN:Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:Sixteen weeks after tenotomy of the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon, atrophy and fatty infiltration had developed in the retracted ISP muscle. The musculotendinous unit was continuously relengthened in 14 sheep during 6 weeks: Four sheep were treated without pharmacological stimulation, 4 with intramuscular administration of an anabolic steroid, and 6 with IGF before final repair and rehabilitation (12 weeks). Changes were documented by intraoperative measurements of muscle work capacity, histology, and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS:Musculotendinous relengthening by continuous traction resulted in gains of length ranging from 0.7 cm in the IGF group to 1.3 cm in the control group. Fatty infiltration progressed in all groups, and the muscle's cross-sectional area ranged from 71% to 74% of the contralateral side at sacrifice and did not show any differences between groups in weight, volume, histological composition, or work capability of the muscle. The contralateral muscles in the anabolic steroid group, however, showed significantly higher (mean ± standard deviation) muscle work capacity of 10 ± 0.9 N·m than the contralateral muscles of the control group (6.8 ± 2.4 N·m) (P < .05). This was accompanied by an increased mean muscle fiber area as well as by an unusual gain in the animals' weight after injection of the anabolic steroid. CONCLUSION:Subcutaneous continuous relengthening of a chronically retracted musculotendinous unit is feasible and advances the retracted musculotendinous junction toward its original position. This does not change the muscle work capacity. Whereas anabolic steroids have been shown to be effective in preventing classic degenerative muscle changes after tendon tears, neither an anabolic steroid nor IGF contributes to regeneration of the muscle once degenerative changes are established. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:The findings demonstrate that muscle cells lose reactiveness to an anabolic steroid and IGF once retraction has led to fatty infiltration and atrophy of the muscle. Retraction of the muscle after tendon tears must be avoided by early repair, particularly in an athlete, as no regeneration can be achieved by mechanical or pharmacological means at this time.
    The American Journal of Sports Medicine 09/2012; 40(11). DOI:10.1177/0363546512460646 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To quantify the strength of suture fixation of knotless suture anchors in relation to the anchors' pullout strength and to compare these results with the static friction between different sutures and anchor materials. METHODS: Suture slippage within the anchor and pullout strength of 4 different knotless suture anchor models were assessed in a bovine bone model. Furthermore, the peak force before onset of slippage of different sutures trapped between increasingly loaded 4-mm rods made of commonly used anchor material (polyetheretherketone, poly-L-lactide acid, metal) was assessed. RESULTS: In all but 1 of the tested anchors, there was a relevantly lower load needed for slippage of the sutures than to pull out the anchor from bone. The mean load to anchor pullout ranged between 156 and 269 N. The load to suture slippage ranged between 66 and 109 N. All sutures were better held between the metal rods (mean, 21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 19.2 to 23.3) than with polyetheretherketone rods (mean, 17; 95% CI, 15.7 to 18.1) or poly-L-lactide acid rods (mean, 18; 95% CI, 17.6 to 18.4). CONCLUSIONS: In the case of suture anchors that hold the sutures by clamping, the hold of the suture in the anchor may be far lower than the pullout strength of the anchor from bone, because the sutures just slip out from the anchor through the clamping mechanism. This is well explained by the low static friction achieved between the tested sutures and the test rods made of anchor materials. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of knotless suture anchors appears quick and easy to perform; however, most of the anchor systems could not even reach half of the anchor pullout strength from bone before suture slippage occurred.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 09/2012; 28(11). DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2012.04.150 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    Dominik C Meyer · Georg Lajtai · Christian Gerber · Eugene T H Ek
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient and successful arthroscopic surgery relies on methodical and well-organized suture management. However, it is relatively common, especially in complex arthroscopic procedures, that sutures invariability become entangled or twisted as a result of repeated suture shuttling from portal to portal and between individual suture limbs. When this occurs, this can make antegrade suture passage or arthroscopic knot tying challenging. We describe a simple and efficient technique that allows simultaneous retrieval of 2 suture limbs while ensuring that the sutures are disentangled.
    09/2012; 1(1):e87-9. DOI:10.1016/j.eats.2012.04.002
  • Dominik C Meyer · Karl Wieser · Mazda Farshad · Christian Gerber
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    ABSTRACT: The structural failure rate of rotator cuff repair can exceed 50%. Important predictors for repair failure are preoperative fatty muscle infiltration and myotendinous retraction. To quantitatively assess the prognostic value of preoperative retraction of both the supraspinatus muscle and tendon for the outcome of supraspinatus repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. In 33 shoulders with complete supraspinatus tendon ruptures subjected to arthroscopic repair, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans taken preoperatively and after a mean follow-up of 24 months were studied. The exact position of the lateral extension of the supraspinatus muscle and of the tendon end was evaluated and correlated with the preoperative stage of fatty infiltration (Goutallier) and the failure rate of tendon repair. The mean lengthening of the muscle and tendon end was -3 mm and 4 mm in the failed repairs (n = 19) and 14 mm and 8 mm in the successful repairs (n = 14). If the supraspinatus had preoperative Goutallier stages 2 to 3 and a tendon length of less than 15 mm, the failure rate was 92%, but if the tendon length was greater than 15 mm, the failure rate was only 33%. With Goutallier stages 0 to 1, the corresponding failure rates were 57% and 25%, respectively. Rotator cuff repair lengthens the tendon, even if the repair fails. The possibility to lengthen the myotendinous unit is related to the preoperative length of the tendon. The combination of Goutallier grading and preoperative tendon length appears to be a more powerful predictor for the reparability of a tendon tear than Goutallier grading alone.
    The American Journal of Sports Medicine 08/2012; 40(10):2242-7. DOI:10.1177/0363546512457587 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This study was designed to compare the pull-out strength of simple suture stitches in human supraspinatus tendons with respect to the position of the rotator cable. METHODS: Fifty-four tests were performed on 6 intact, human supraspinatus tendons, to assess the cutout strength of a simple suture configuration in different positions; medial to, lateral to, or within the rotator cable. Tendon thickness was measured and correlated for each positioned suture. RESULTS: Suture positioning lateral to or in the rotator cable showed significantly lower suture retention properties compared with positioning the suture medial to the cable (p = 0.002). In all tested specimens, the central stitch in the row medial to the rotator cable provided the optimum retention properties (mean: 191 N; SD: ± 44; p < 0.01), even after correcting for tendon thickness. CONCLUSION: This study shows that it is desirable to identify the rotator cable and to pass sutures just medial to it, close to the middle of the tendon, which provided highest possible suture retention properties.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 06/2012; 21(7). DOI:10.1007/s00167-012-2103-6 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were (1) to establish a reproducible, standardized testing protocol to evaluate the performance of different shaver systems and blades in a controlled, laboratory setting, and (2) to determine the optimal use of different blades with respect to the influence of contact pressure and speed of blade rotation. A holding device was developed for reproducible testing of soft-tissue (tendon and meniscal) resection performance in a submerged environment, after loading of the shaver with interchangeable weights. The Karl Storz Powershaver S2 (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany), the Stryker Power Shaver System (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI), and the Dyonics Power Shaver System (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA) were tested, with different 5.5-mm shaver blades and varied contact pressure and rotation speed. For quality testing, serrated shaver blades were evaluated at 40× image magnification. Overall, more than 150 test cycles were performed. No significant differences could be detected between comparable blade types from different manufacturers. Shavers with a serrated inner blade and smooth outer blade performed significantly better than the standard smooth resectors (P < .001). Teeth on the outer layer of the blade did not lead to any further improvement of resection (P = .482). Optimal contact pressure ranged between 6 and 8 N, and optimal speed was found to be 2,000 to 2,500 rpm. Minimal blunting of the shaver blades occurred after soft-tissue resection; however, with bone resection, progressive blunting of the shaver blades was observed. Arthroscopic shavers can be tested in a controlled setting. The performance of the tested shaver types appears to be fairly independent of the manufacturer. For tendon resection, a smooth outer blade and serrated inner blade were optimal. This is one of the first established independent and quantitative assessments of arthroscopic shaver systems and blades. We believe that this study will assist the surgeon in choosing the optimal tool for the desired effect.
    Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 06/2012; 28(10):1497-503. DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2012.03.006 · 3.19 Impact Factor