[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A reactive transport model was developed to describe seasonal variations of biogeochemical and physical processes in Lake
Aydat. The model includes physical processes such as vertical mixing, sedimentation and advection related to inflows into
the lake and biogeochemical conversion processes in the water column and in the sediment surface layer. The reactions described
in the model include primary redox reactions such as primary production, aerobic and anaerobic respiration, methanogenesis
and secondary reactions established between oxidants and reducers produced by the primary reactions. After adjusting various
kinetic constants, the model reasonably reproduced the main features of seasonal variations of dissolved oxygen and nitrate
depth profiles and pH. The reactive transport model was also used to quantify the relative importance of different biogeochemical
pathways. For instance, ferrous denitrification seems to play an important role when stratification is increasing.
KeywordsEutrophic lake-Reactive-transport model-Biogeochemistry-Redox
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As for lineages of known methanogens, several lineages of uncultured archaea were recurrently retrieved in freshwater sediments. However, knowledge is missing about how these lineages might be affected and structured according to depth. In the present study, the vertical changes of archaeal communities were characterized in the deep sediment of the freshwater meromictic Lake Pavin. For that purpose, an integrated molecular approach was performed to gain information on the structure, composition, abundance and vertical stratification of archaeal communities thriving in anoxic freshwater sediments along a gradient of sediments encompassing 130 years of sedimentation. Huge changes occurred in the structure and composition of archaeal assemblages along the sediment core. Methanogenic taxa (i.e. Methanosaeta and Methanomicrobiales) were progressively replaced by uncultured archaeal lineages (i.e. Marine Benthic Group-D (MBG-D) and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeal Group (MCG)) which are suspected to be involved in the methane cycle.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43346. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and its concentration in the atmosphere has increased over the past decades. Methane produced by methanogenic Archae can be consumed through aerobic and anaerobic oxidation pathways. In anoxic conditions found in freshwater environments such as meromictic lakes, CH4 oxidation pathways involving different terminal electron acceptors such as , , and oxides of Fe and Mn are thermodynamically possible. In this study, a reactive transport model was developed to assess the relative significance of the different pathways of CH4 consumption in the water column of Lake Pavin. In most cases, the model reproduced experimental data collected from the field from June 2006 to June 2007. Although the model and the field measurements suggest that anaerobic CH4 oxidation may contribute to CH4 consumption in the water column of Lake Pavin, aerobic oxidation remains the major sink of CH4 in this lake.Highlights► Aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidations likely occur in the water column of Lake Pavin. ► Seasonal differences in aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation rates are detected. ► Iron dependent anaerobic methane oxidation may contribute to methane consumption in the water column. ► Aerobic methane oxidation appears as the major sink of methane in the Lake Pavin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The atmospheric concentration of methane (CH(4)), a major greenhouse gas, is mainly controlled by the activities of methane-producing (methanogens) and methane-consuming (methanotrophs) microorganisms. Freshwater lakes are identified as one of the main CH(4) sources, as it was estimated that they contribute to 6-16% of natural CH(4) emissions. It is therefore critical to better understanding the biogeochemical cycling of CH(4) in these ecosystems. In this paper, the effects of environmental factors on methanogenic and methanotrophic rates are reviewed and an inventory of the methanogens and methanotrophs at the genus/species level in freshwater lakes is given. We focus on the anaerobic oxidation of methane, which is a still poorly known process but increasingly reported in freshwater lakes.
Research in Microbiology 06/2011; 162(9):832-47. · 2.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lake Pavin is a meromictic crater lake located in the French Massif Central area. In this ecosystem, most methane (CH(4)) produced in high quantity in the anoxic bottom layers, and especially in sediments, is consumed in the water column, with only a small fraction of annual production reaching the atmosphere. This study assessed the diversity of methanogenic and methanotrophic populations along the water column and in sediments using PCR and reverse transcription-PCR-based approaches targeting functional genes, i.e. pmoA (α-subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase) for methanotrophy and mcrA (α-subunit of the methyl-coenzyme M reductase) for methanogenesis as well as the phylogenetic 16S rRNA genes. Although methanogenesis rates were much higher in sediments, our results confirm that CH(4) production also occurs in the water column where methanogens were almost exclusively composed of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, whereas both hydrogenotrophs and acetotrophs were almost equivalent in the sediments. Sequence analysis of markers, pmoA and the 16S rRNA gene, suggested that Methylobacter may be an important group actively involved in CH(4) oxidation in the water column. Two main phylotypes were characterized, one of which could consume CH(4) under conditions where the oxygen amount is undetectable.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Geochemical researches at Lake Pavin, a low-sulfate-containing freshwater lake, suggest that the dominant biogeochemical processes are iron and sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. Although the sulfur cycle is one of the main active element cycles in this lake, little is known about the sulfate-reducer and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the vertical distribution of these microbes and their diversities and to test the hypothesis suggesting that only few SRP populations are involved in dissimilatory sulfate reduction and that Epsilonproteobacteria are the likely key players in the oxidative phase of sulfur cycle by using a PCR aprA gene-based approach in comparison with a 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. The results support this hypothesis. Finally, this preliminary work points strongly the likelihood of novel metabolic processes upon the availability of sulfate and other electron acceptors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sedimentation processes occurring in the most recent maar lake of the French Massif Central (Lake Pavin) are documented for the first time based on high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetric surveys and by piston coring and radiocarbon dating on a sediment depocentre developed on a narrow sub aquatic plateau. This new data set confirms the mid Holocene age of maar lake Pavin formation at 6970±60 yrs cal BP and highlights a wide range of gravity reworking phenomena affecting the basin. In particular, a slump deposit dated between AD 580–640 remoulded both mid-Holocene lacustrine sediments, terrestrial plant debris and some volcanic material from the northern crater inner walls. Between AD 1200 and AD 1300, a large slide scar mapped at 50 m depth also affected the southern edge of the sub aquatic plateau, suggesting that these gas-rich biogenic sediments (laminated diatomite) are poorly stable. Although several triggering mechanisms can be proposed for these prehistoric sub-aquatic mass wasting deposits in Lake Pavin, we argue that such large remobilisation of gas-rich sediments may affect the gas stability in deep waters of meromictic maar lakes. This study highlights the need to further document mass wasting processes in maar lakes and their impacts on the generation of waves, favouring the development of dangerous (and potentially deadly) limnic eruptions.
Natural hazards and earth system sciences 08/2010; · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vertical distribution of reduced sulfur species (RSS including H2S/HS−, S0, electroactive FeS) and dissolved Fe(II) was studied in the anoxic water column of meromictic Lake Pavin. Sulfide concentrations were determined by two different analytical techniques, i.e. spectophotometry (methylene blue technique) and voltammetry (HMDE electrode). Total sulfide concentrations determined with methylene blue method (∑H2SMBRS) were in the range from 0.6 µM to 16.7 µM and were substantially higher than total reduced sulfur species (RSSV) concentrations determined by voltammetry, which ranged from 0.1 to 5.6 μM. The observed difference in the sulfide concentrations between the two methods can be assigned to the presence of FeS colloidal species.Dissolved Fe was high (> 1000 µM), whereas dissolved Mn was only 25 µM, in the anoxic water column. This indicates that Fe is the dominant metal involved in sulfur redox cycling and precipitation. Consequently, in the anoxic deep layer of Lake Pavin, “free” sulfide, H2S/HS−, was low; and about 80% of total sulfide detected was in the electroactive FeS colloidal form. IAP calculations showed that the Lake Pavin water column is saturated with respect to FeSam phase. The upper part of monimolimnion layer is characterized by higher concentrations of S(0) (up to 3.4 µM) in comparison to the bottom of the lake. This behavior is probably influenced by sulfide oxidation with Fe(III) oxyhydroxide species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Consequences and timing of ocean oxygenation are still debated. It is generally considered that early ocean was anoxic and passed through a stratified state (oxic at the surface and anoxic in the deeper part) before being completely oxidized. Stratified ocean may have persisted more than 1Ga, thus representing an important period of the Earth history. The Fe isotope record in Precambrian sediments may provide constraints on the ocean evolution but a major question is what do the rocks tell us about the water column? This is an indirect way to get information and the geochemical signal may be modified later by diagenesis and metamorphism. The study of present stratified water body associated with sediments may help to decipher the isotopic signal from old sediments. Unlike marine complex environments, smaller and well-defined ecosystems such as lake can be useful to understand element transfer and processes. Lake Pavin is characterized by the presence of two stratified layers. The upper layer (mixolimnion) extends from the surface to 60m depth, and is oxidized. The deeper layer (monimolimnion), which extends from 70 to 92m depth, is permanently anoxic and separated from the mixolimnion by the mesolimnion where a drastic dissolved Fe gradient exists. In lake Pavin, Fe is oxidized and precipitated as Fe(III) in the mixolimnion. It is then dissolved in the deep layers (60 to 92m) and within the sediments and accumulates as aqueous Fe(II). Fe(II) either diffuses towards the mixolimnion or reacts with sulfides or phosphates to form FeS colloids and secondary minerals such as pyrite, vivianite or siderite. In order to characterize Fe isotope fractionations in this system, we measured Fe content and isotopic composition of aqueous Fe(II) along a vertical profile at different depths from the oxic-anoxic interface to the bottom of the lake. Fe content increases with depth, from less than 2 mumol/L above 60m depth to more than 1200 mumol/L at the bottom of the lake. delta56Fe values also increases with depth, from -1.33 to +0.310/00. The large concentration gradient associated with negative Fe isotope composition observed below the oxic-anoxic interface is interpreted as the signature of intense bacterial dissimilatory Fe reduction, which seems to be the main process controlling the variation of Fe isotope composition in the water column. In a further study, we plan to analyze sediments and associated pore water to get a full picture of the system.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical survey of the Lac du Bouchet crater lake and analyses of close springs and rainfall allowed to understand hydrological
functioning. Without river input or output, lake is mainly fed by rainfall. Although underlacustrine spring water feeding
remains possible, its contribution needs not be taken into account. Annual evapotranspiration at the lake surface has been
found equal to 0.7 time rain inputs. Furthermore, substantial seepage (48% of total inputs) occurs through sediments leading
to a chemical leak. Therefore, limited nutrients injection in the water column defines the oligotrophic status of the lake.
Hypolimnion organic matter biodegradation takes place from May to November essentially by mean of dissolved O2 while epilimnion is always very close to equilibrium with atmospheric O2 and CO2. Associated with temporary anoxic conditions taking place in November just over the bottom, Co, As, Mo, V, Ce, Pb, and Al
are closely related to Fe diffusing from interstitial water.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lac Pavin (French Massif Central) is a permanently stratified lake: the upper water layers (mixolimnion, from 0 to 60 m depth) are affected by seasonal overturns, whereas the bottom water layers (monimolimnion, from 60 to 90 m depth) remain isolated and are never mixed. Hence, they are capable of storing important quantities of dissolved gases, mainly CO2. With the aim of better constraining the water balance and of gaining new insights into the carbon cycle of Lac Pavin, an isotopic approach is used. The δ18OH2O profiles lead the authors to give a new evaluation of the evaporation flow rate (8 L s−1), and to propose and characterize two sub-surface springs. The sub-surface spring located at the bottom of the lake can be deduced from the 1% isotopic difference between the upper water layers (mean δ18OH2O value: −7.3‰) and the bottom water layers (δ18OH2O=-8.4‰). It is argued that this sub-surface spring has isotopic and chemical characteristics similar to those of the magmatic CO2-rich spring (i.e. Fontaine Goyon, δ18OH2O=-9.4‰), and we calculate its flow rate of 1.6 L s−1. The second sub-surface spring is located around 45 m depth, with a composition close to those of the water surface streams (δ18OH2O<-7.6‰).Methane (4 mM) and dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations (≈14 mM) allow the re-estimation of the relative DIC contributions in the bottom of the lake (90 m depth): 1/3 deriving from methanogenesis (δ13CDIC ≈ +7‰) and 2/3 from the magmatic CO2-rich spring (δ13CDIC ≈ −5‰). Above 80 m depth, the variations in DIC concentrations (ranging from 0.5 to 10 mM) and δ13CDIC values (ranging from −6.5‰ to 4.4‰) are partly explained by the usual methanotrophy, organic matter oxidation, photosynthesis and CO2 equilibrium with atmosphere. The unusually high δ13CDIC values in the upper water layers (ranging from −6‰ to 0‰) compared to the expected δ13CDIC values assuming only organic matter oxidation, demonstrate the leakage of 13C-enriched DIC from the bottom water layers of Lac Pavin (δ13CDIC values ranging from −5‰ to 3‰).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A study was conducted in Arcachon Bay, France, to determine the effect of seasonal dynamics in a Zostera noltii meadow on P and Fe cycles in the superficial sediments of a tidal mud- flat. The redox-sensitive Fe particulate pool and associated P in the root zone showed a seasonal vari- ation following the growth and decay of Z. noltii biomass, with a maximum content during the growth period. In comparison, the bare sediments did not show significant seasonal changes. A dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) uptake was measured from the water column to the sediment in vege- tated sediments, whereas a net DIP efflux was observed in the unvegetated sediments. During the growth period, the formation of an iron oxihydroxide-rich zone occurred and acted as a trap for dis- solved phosphorus, constituting a reserve of available P for eelgrass growth. At the periphery of the rhizosphere, a strong reduction of the sediment occurred during the growth phase, probably due to increasing organic matter inputs via the roots. The iron oxihydroxide dissolution releases Fe(II) and the recently bound phosphorus to the pore water, making it available for assimilation by the eelgrass roots for growth metabolism. Fe(II) is re-oxidized to solid Fe(III) forms depleted in P into the root zone, or re-precipitated below as sulphur forms. The highest P uptake occurs by this process, and the sea- sonal variations in redox-sensitive P stock are sufficient to support the annual Z. noltii P requirement. During the decline period, as the P plant demand and the oxic layer thickness drop, the unused released DIP pool supplies large amounts of DIP to the pore water and water column.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DGT (Diffusive Gradient in Thin-films) and DET (Diffusive Equilibration in Thin-films) combined probes were used in Thau lagoon sediments to describe variations of dissolved concentrations of metals such as cadmium, manganese and iron, through the sediment–water interface. Two contrasted stations regarding organic carbon fluxes were studied from December 2001 to May 2003 during four field campaigns: station C4 in the middle of the lagoon, and station C5 in a shellfish-farming zone. Laboratory experiments and field deployments in such environment showed that DGT sampled pore water labile cadmium whereas iron and manganese concentrations were underestimated. These results suggest that no steady state in the flux of metals onto the gel was established for Fe and Mn. Kinetics of metal sulfide dissolution–precipitation may control metal fluxes onto the gel probe in marine sedimentary environments. Analysis of sediment and water column samples showed cadmium concentrations above natural background (3.3 and 7.6 nmol kg−1 for station C4 and station C5 sediments, respectively; between 40 and 800 pmol L−1 for the water column), suggesting contamination. Spatial and temporal patterns of cadmium behavior were observed. The sediment at station C4 was generally a source of cadmium whereas at station C5 it was a sink. The vertical extension of the diagenetic series was more important at station C4 with deeper oxygen penetration and lack of dissolved sulfide whereas station C5 showed steep ∑H2S gradients at the same depths. The data suggested that cadmium source was more likely organic matter. Cadmium mobility was probably controlled by aerobic mineralization at station C4 and by dissolution–precipitation of sulfides at station C5. Seasonal variations were observed in the depth of oxygen penetration and sulfide diffusion generating important remobilization of cadmium during December 2001. Conversely in May 2003 at station C5, bottom water suboxic conditions (i.e. %O2 = 60) enhanced reductive conditions in the sediment favoring uptake of cadmium by the sediment from the water column.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vertical distributions of dissolved species across the sediment–water interface (SWI), including major cations (sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium), minor cations (lithium, strontium, barium), redox sensitive species (dissolved manganese, iron, sulfate, sulfide, ammonium) and other chemical parameters (pH, alkalinity, soluble reactive phosphorous, dissolved silica) were studied in a Mediterranean lagoon used for intensive shellfish farming. In order to quantify the impact of this activity on diagenetic processes and the influence of seasonal changes, two stations contrasted with respect to organic carbon fluxes were sampled in Thau lagoon from March 2001 to August 2002 during four field campaigns in winter, spring, summer and fall. Well-defined layers enriched with redox sensitive species were observed following the conventional sequence of early diagenetic reactions. However, differences were observed between both stations in depths and thickness layers. Concentration gradients extended down to more than 92 cm depth at the central position of the lagoon (station C4 – 8 m depth) and down to 40 cm depth inside shellfish farming zones (station C5 – 9 m depth). Station C4 showed an unusual diagenetic signature: sharp dissolved oxygen, iron, nitrate and manganese gradients existed at the SWI but gradients of dissolved sulfide and alkalinity as well as other parameters (dissolved silica, Ba, etc.) were recorded only from 25 to 30 cm depth downward. Seasonal changes were observed in pore water composition as deep as 30–50 cm in station C4 (only 15 cm in station C5). The center of the lagoon is not directly subjected to biodeposits deriving from shellfish activity. Isotopic and bioturbation data allowed to rule out a reworking of the sediment deeper than a few centimeters. In addition to organic content of the sediment, physical parameters were likely to induce the 10–20 cm gap between dissolved iron and sulfide profile as well as the higher vertical extent of diagenetic sequence observed at station C4. Conversely to station C5, station C4 underwent stronger currents and wave effect probably generating advective transport of water through the sediment, but no permeability data were available to confirm this hypothesis. During summer, climatic conditions generated vertical stratification of the water column and transient suboxic conditions at the bottom. Such conditions drove the upward shift of redox fronts, compacting the diagenetic sequence. These effects were reinforced at station C5 by shellfish and its farm structures (mainly attenuation of current and increased heat absorption).
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 01/2007; 72(3):406-419.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A device composed of a polyacrylamide gel thin-film (18 cm high, 5 cm wide and 0.4 mm thick) and a PVC (polyvinyl chloride) film was used as a sediment probe to obtain iron and S(-II) sulfur dissolved species' distributions in sediment pore waters. A porous protective membrane was set on top of hydrogel layer. Probes were deployed in May 2003 for 24-48 h in the superficial sediment of Thau lagoon (France), in a shellfish farming area. The polyacrylamide gel layer was used as a DET (Diffusive Equilibration in Thin-films) device for 2D Fe(II) concentration determination, and as the diffusive layer of a DGT-like (Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films) device for sulfur species study. The accumulation layer of the DGT device consisted in a PVC film layer underneath the polyacrylamide layer. Iron determinations were performed by colorimetric methods with Ferrozine and imaging technique. Image acquisitions were performed with a flatbed scanner. Fe(II) concentrations were deducted from densitometry analysis of the magenta zones (ImageJ software). The calibration curve was obtained by densitometry analysis of polyacrylamide gel pieces which were equilibrated in known iron (II) concentration solutions. [Sigma]Fe distribution was performed but not quantified. Analysis of gray zones on the PVC layer provided a qualitative distribution of unidentified S(-II) dissolved compounds, related to H2S zone for which information is obtained by classical methods (peeper and colorimetric measurements). EDX (X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry) and GIXR (Grazing-Incidence X-ray Diffraction) analyses of gray zone of this PVC layer provide evidence for FeS2 catalyzed precipitation onto this film. Dissolved Fe(II) was mainly located near the sediment-water interface (SWI), showing a nonhomogeneous layer about 10 mm thick. Small Fe rich domains appeared deeper in the sediment and likely confirm newest paradigms in the field of sediment biogeochemistry. S(-II) species are detected from 3 to 4 cm below the SWI, with a heterogeneous spatial distribution showing a burrow-like structure.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 01/2007; 72(3):420-431.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solid sediment, pore and epibenthic waters were collected from the Thau lagoon (France) in order to study the post-depositional partition and mobility of mercury in organic rich sediment. Total Hg (HgT) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) profiles were produced in both dissolved and solid phases. The distribution of HgT in the solid phase appeared to be related to the historical changes in the Hg inputs into the lagoon. HgT was in equilibrium between solid and solution phases in the sulfidic part of the cores, with a mean log Kd of 4.9 ± 0.2. The solid phase appeared to be a source of HgT for pore water in the upper oxic to suboxic parts of the cores. The MMHg represented a small fraction of HgT: 3–15% and 0.02–0.80% in the dissolved and solid phases, respectively. Its distribution was characterized by a main peak in the superficial sediments, and another deeper in the core within the sulfide-accumulating zone. In addition, high dissolved MMHg concentrations and methylated percentage were found in the epibenthic water. Ascorbate (pH 8) dissolution of the sediments and analyses of the soluble fraction suggest that the amorphous oxyhydroxides played a major role in controlling total and methylmercury mobility throughout the sediment–water interface. These features are discussed in terms of sources, transfer and transformations. Diffusive fluxes of HgT and MMHg from sediment to the water column for the warm period were estimated to be 40 ± 15 and 4 ± 2 pmol m−2 d−1, respectively.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a part of the MICROBENT programme, an investigation of the sedimentation framework was carried out at the water-sediment interface in the Thau Lagoon (French Mediterranean coast). Two main sites, C4 in the middle of the lagoon and C5 near oyster farms, were visited six times between December 2001 and May 2003. Interface sediments were studied using classical sedimentology parameters (radiography RX, grain size distribution) and analysis of selected radionuclides (234Th, 7Be, 210Pb, 226Ra). On a century time scale, excess 210Pb (210Pbxs) presents classical profiles with an upper mixed layer, followed by an exponential decrease of activities to undetectable levels below 20 – 30 cm. At the central site, C4, cores seem to register episodic changes in mean grain size, presenting recurrently peaks. The upper 10 cm of 210Pbxs profiles at site C5 exhibit a mixed layer associated with coarser sediments: this could be related to biological activity. Sedimentation rates derived from 210Pbxs varied from 0.15 cm y−1 at the edge of the basin, to 0.25 cm y−1 at the central site. On a seasonal time scale, 234Th and 7Be both show significant variations in activities and in penetration within the sediment. Bioturbation rates derived from both radionuclides agree well and range between 1–10 cm2 y−1 at site C4 and 1–31 cm2 y−1 at site C5. 234Th and 7Be fluxes at the water-sediment interface show too seasonal variations, more pronounced for site C5. This latter site presents especially a higher variability that is well marked with season, probably in relation with its position near oyster farms.