[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visceral fat has a crucial role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease, the major cause of death in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), as an index of visceral fat, significantly correlated with mortality in the general population, the impact of SAD on clinical outcomes has never been explored in ESRD patients. Therefore, we sought to elucidate the prognostic value of SAD in incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
We prospectively determined SAD by lateral abdominal X-ray at PD initiation, and evaluated the association of SAD with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in 418 incident PD patients.
The mean SAD was 24.5±4.3 cm, and during a mean follow-up of 39.4 months, 97 patients (23.2%) died, and 49.4% of them died due to cardiovascular disease. SAD was a significant independent predictor of all-cause [3rd versus 1st tertile, HR (hazard ratio): 3.333, 95% CI (confidence interval): 1.514-7.388, P = 0.01; per 1 cm increase, HR: 1.071, 95% CI: 1.005-1.141, P = 0.03] and cardiovascular mortality (3rd versus 1st tertile, HR: 8.021, 95% CI: 1.994-32.273, P = 0.01; per 1 cm increase, HR: 1.106, 95% CI: 1.007-1.214, P = 0.03). Multivariate fractional polynomial analysis also showed that all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk increased steadily with higher SAD values. In addition, SAD provided higher predictive value for all-cause (AUC: 0.691 vs. 0.547, P<0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (AUC: 0.644 vs. 0.483, P<0.001) than body mass index (BMI). Subgroup analysis revealed higher SAD (≥24.2 cm) was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in men, women, younger patients (<65 years), and patients with lower BMI (<22.3 kg/m(2)).
SAD determined by lateral abdominal X-ray at PD initiation was a significant independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in incident PD patients. Estimating visceral fat by SAD could be useful to stratify mortality risk in these patients.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77082. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: The presence and progression of vascular calcification have been demonstrated as important risk factors for mortality in dialysis patients. However, since the majority of subjects included in most previous studies were hemodialysis patients, limited information was available in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of aortic arch calcification (AoAC) and prognostic value of AoAC progression in PD patients. METHODS: We prospectively determined AoAC by chest X-ray at PD start and after 12 months, and evaluated the impact of AoAC progression on mortality in 415 incident PD patients. RESULTS: Of 415 patients, 169 patients (40.7%) had AoAC at baseline with a mean of 18.1±11.2%. The presence of baseline AoAC was an independent predictor of all-cause [Hazard ratio (HR): 2.181, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.336-3.561, P = 0.002] and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 3.582, 95% CI: 1.577-8.132, P = 0.002). Among 363 patients with follow-up chest X-rays at 12 months after PD start, the proportion of patients with AoAC progression was significantly higher in patients with baseline AoAC (64.2 vs. 5.3%, P<0.001). Moreover, all-cause and cardiovascular death rates were significantly higher in the progression groups than in the non-progression group (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that AoAC progression was an independent predictor for all-cause (HR: 2.625, 95% CI: 1.150-5.991, P = 0.022) and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 4.008, 95% CI: 1.079-14.890, P = 0.038) in patients with AoAC at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and progression of AoAC assessed by chest X-ray were independently associated with unfavorable outcomes in incident PD patients. Regular follow-up by chest X-ray could be a simple and useful method to stratify mortality risk in these patients.
PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e48793. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Henöch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) is considered a systemic form of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Although these are different pictures of a single disease, there are no studies directly comparing long-term outcomes of these two clinical entities. To clarify this, we studied 120 patients with biopsy-proven HSPN and 1070 patients with IgAN. The primary outcome was the composite of a doubling of baseline serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease, or death. Secondary outcomes included the individual renal outcomes or the rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate. In the unmatched cohort, patients with HSPN had more vasculitic symptoms, more favorable histologic features, and were more commonly treated with steroids than patients with IgAN. The risk of reaching the primary outcome was significantly lower in HSPN patients than patients with IgAN (hazard ratio, 0.67). The 1:2 propensity score matching gave matched pairs of 89 patients with HSPN and 178 patients with IgAN, resulting in no differences in baseline conditions. In this matched cohort, there were no significant differences in reaching the primary and secondary outcomes between the two groups. Thus, after adjustment by propensity score matching, clinical outcomes did not differ between HSPN and IgAN, suggesting the two forms of the same disease have a similar prognosis.Kidney International advance online publication, 15 August 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.302.
Kidney International 08/2012; · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio has been suggested to be an atherosclerotic index for diabetic patients and a useful marker of insulin resistance in patients with and without diabetes. Even though end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are well characterized by abnormal adipocytokine metabolism, the significance of alterations in the L/A ratio is largely unexplored in these patients. In this prospective study, we investigated the associations of leptin, adiponectin, and the L/A ratio with clinical outcomes in nondiabetic PD patients. ♢ METHODS: The study included 131 stable nondiabetic ESRD patients who had been on PD for more than 3 months. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined at baseline. Mortality was evaluated over a 5-year follow-up period. ♢ RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 22 patients died (16.8%), including 10 (45.5%) as a result of cardiovascular disease. The L/A ratio showed a significant positive correlation with body mass index [BMI (r = 0.47, p < 0.001)], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r = 0.32, p < 0.001), and triglycerides (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). In addition, we observed significant inverse correlations between the L/A ratio and percentage lean body mass (r = -0.30, p = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.31, p = 0.001). In contrast to individual leptin and adiponectin levels, the L/A ratio was found to be independently associated with an increased mortality risk (relative risk: 1.15; 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 1.27; p = 0.003) even after adjustments for age and BMI. ♢ CONCLUSIONS: The L/A ratio might be better related to patient outcomes than adipocytokines are individually in nondiabetic patients undergoing PD.
Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 08/2012;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesangial C3 deposition is frequently observed in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, the role of complement in the pathogenesis or progression of IgAN is uncertain. In this observational cohort study, we aimed to identify the clinical implications of circulating C3 levels and mesangial C3 deposition and to investigate their utility as predictors of renal outcomes in patients with IgAN.
A total of 343 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN were enrolled between January 2000 and December 2008. Decreased serum C3 level (hypoC3) was defined as C3 <90 mg/dl. The study endpoint was end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and a doubling of the baseline serum creatinine (D-SCr).
Of the patients, there were 66 patients (19.2%) with hypoC3. During a mean follow-up of 53.7 months, ESRD occurred in 5 patients (7.6%) with hypoC3 compared with 9 patients (3.2%) with normal C3 levels (P = 0.11). However, 12 patients (18.2%) with hypoC3 reached D-SCr compared with 17 patients (6.1%) with normal C3 levels [Hazard ratio (HR), 3.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.33-10.36; P = 0.018]. In a multivariable model in which serum C3 levels were treated as a continuous variable, hypoC3 significantly predicted renal outcome of D-SCr (per 1 mg/dl increase of C3; HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99; P = 0.011). The risk of reaching renal outcome was significantly higher in patients with mesangial C3 deposition 2+ to 3+ than in patients without deposition (HR 9.37; 95% CI, 1.10-80.26; P = 0.04).
This study showed that hypoC3 and mesangial C3 deposition were independent risk factors for progression, suggesting that complement activation may play a pathogenic role in patients with IgAN.
PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e40495. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to elucidate whether stone removal by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is associated with delayed chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of 131 nephrolithiasis patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD. We collected baseline clinical and laboratory data, kidney stone characteristics, and history of receiving ESWL. We classified study patients into two groups according to whether they underwent ESWL or not (Non-ESWL group vs. ESWL group). We initially compared annual estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) changes of Non-ESWL group with those of ESWL group before undergoing ESWL. In the next step, we sought to compare annual eGFR changes in the same patients before and after ESWL. Finally, we compared annual eGFR changes between success and failure groups among patients undergoing ESWL.
The mean age of the patients was 62 years and 72.5% were male. The mean observation period was 3.2 years. Non-ESWL group and ESWL group before undergoing ESWL showed similar annual eGFR changes (-1.75±6.5 vs. -1.63±7.2 mL/min/1.73 m²/year, p=0.425). However, eGFR declined slower after undergoing ESWL than before ESWL (annual eGFR changes, -0.29±6.1 vs. -1.63±7.2 mL/min/1.73 m²/year, p<0.05). In addition, among patients in ESWL group, eGFR declined faster in the failure group than in the success group (annual eGFR change, -1.01±4.7 vs. -0.05±5.2 mL/min/1.73 m²/year, p<0.05).
Our results suggest that stone removal by ESWL is associated with delayed deterioration of renal function in CKD patients with nephrolithiasis.
Yonsei medical journal 07/2012; 53(4):708-14. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), circulating adipokine levels are increased due to decreased renal clearance, irrespective of obesity. However, whether adipokines play a role in the development of insulin resistance (IR) in non-obese ESRD patients is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify factors associated with IR in 62 non-obese patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Non-obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m². IR was determined using homeostatic model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR). We also measured serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and IL-6. The average BMI of the study patients was 21.6 kg/m². When patients were divided into two groups according to the median value of HOMA-IR, serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower in patients with HOMA-IR > 1.85 than in those with HOMA-IR ≤1.85, whereas serum concentrations of leptin and resistin did not differ between the two groups. In addition, log-transformed HOMA-IR was negatively correlated with adiponectin (γ = -0.464, P < 0.001) and log-transformed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (γ = -0.250, P = 0.050) and positively correlated with age (γ = 0.334, P = 0.008) and triglyceride (γ = 0.392, P = 0.002). However, resistin, log-transformed leptin and log-transformed hsCRP were not associated with HOMA-IR. In a multiple linear regression model, adiponectin was independently associated with HOMA-IR (β = -0.023, P = 0.015). In conclusion, this study suggests that low circulating adiponectin levels might be involved in IR even in non-obese patients undergoing PD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with diabetic end stage renal disease (ESRD), glycated albumin (GA) reflects recent glycemic control more accurately than glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). We evaluated the relationship between GA and average blood glucose (AG) level and developed an estimating equation for translating GA values into easier-to-understand AG levels.
A total of 185 ESRD patients, including 154 diabetic and 31 non-diabetic participants, were enrolled (108 hemodialysis, 77 peritoneal dialysis). Patients were asked to perform four-point daily self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose (SMBG) at least three consecutive days each week for four weeks. Serum levels of GA, HbA1c and other biochemical parameters were checked at baseline, as well as at 4 and 8 weeks.
Approximately 74.3±7.0 SMBG readings were obtained from each participant and mean AG was 169.1±48.2 mg/dL. The correlation coefficient between serum GA and AG levels (r=0.70, p<0.001) was higher than that of HbA1c and AG (r=0.54, p<0.001). Linear regression analysis yielded the following equation: estimated AG (eAG) (mg/dL)=4.71×GA%+73.35, and with this formula, serum GA levels could be easily translated to eAG levels. Multivariate analysis revealed significant contributions of postprandial hyperglycemia (β=0.25, p=0.03) and serum albumin (β=0.17, p=0.04) in determining serum GA level, independent to other clinical parameters.
Compared to HbA1c, serum GA levels were better correlated with AG levels. Using the estimating equation, an average blood glucose level of 155-160 mg/dL could be matched to a GA value of 18-19% in patients with ESRD.
Yonsei medical journal 05/2012; 53(3):578-86. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrocardiography (ECG) is the most widely used initial screening test for the assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, traditional ECG criteria based only on voltage to detect LVH have limited clinical utility for the detection of LVH because of their poor sensitivity.
This prospective observational study was undertaken to compare the prognostic significance of commonly used ECG criteria for LVH, namely Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SV) or voltage-duration product (SP) and Cornell voltage (CV) or voltage-duration product (CP) criteria, and to investigate the association between echocardiographic LV mass index (LVMI) and ECG-LVH criteria in ESRD patients, who consecutively started maintenance hemodialysis (HD) between January 2006 and December 2008.
A total of 317 patients, who underwent both ECG and echocardiography, were included. Compared to SV and CV criteria, SP and CP criteria, respectively, correlated more closely with LVMI. In addition, CP criteria provided the highest positive predictive value for echocardiographic LVH. The 5-year cardiovascular survival rates were significantly lower in patients with ECG-LVH by each criterion. In multivariate analyses, echocardiographic LVH [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 11.71; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57-87.18; P = 0.016] and ECG-LVH by SP (HR: 3.43; 95% CI: 1.32-8.92; P = 0.011) and CP (HR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.16-8.11; P = 0.024) criteria, but not SV and CV criteria, were significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality.
The product of QRS voltage and duration is helpful in identifying the presence of LVH and predicting cardiovascular mortality in incident HD patients.
PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e35534. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glomerulonephritis occurs as a rare form of renal manifestation in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Herein, we report a case of falciparum malaria-associated IgA nephropathy for the first time. A 49-yr old male who had been to East Africa was diagnosed with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Microhematuria and proteinuria along with acute kidney injury developed during the course of the disease. Kidney biopsy showed mesangial proliferation and IgA deposits with tubulointerstitial inflammation. Laboratory tests after recovery from malaria showed disappearance of urinary abnormalities and normalization of kidney function. Our findings suggest that malaria infection might be associated with IgA nephropathy.
Journal of Korean medical science 04/2012; 27(4):446-9. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of glycemic control after starting peritoneal dialysis (PD) on the survival of diabetic PD patients has largely been unexplored, especially in Asian population.
We conducted a prospective observational study, in which 140 incident PD patients with diabetes were recruited. Patients were divided into tertiles according to the means of quarterly HbA1C levels measured during the first year after starting PD. We examined the association between HbA1C and all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards models.
The mean age was 58.7 years, 59.3% were male, and the mean follow-up duration was 3.5 years (range 0.4-9.5 years). The mean HbA1C levels were 6.3%, 7.1%, and 8.5% in the 1(st), 2(nd), and 3(rd) tertiles, respectively. Compared to the 1(st) tertile, the all-cause mortality rates were higher in the 2(nd) [hazard ratio (HR), 4.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91-18.94; p = 0.065] and significantly higher in the 3(rd) (HR, 13.16; 95% CI, 2.67-64.92; p = 0.002) tertiles (p for trend = 0.005), after adjusting for confounding factors. Cardiovascular mortality, however, did not differ significantly among the tertiles (p for trend = 0.682). In contrast, non-cardiovascular deaths, most of which were caused by infection, were more frequent in the 2(nd) (HR, 7.67; 95% CI, 0.68-86.37; p = 0.099) and the 3(rd) (HR, 51.24; 95% CI, 3.85-681.35; p = 0.003) tertiles than the 1(st) tertile (p for trend = 0.007).
Poor glycemic control is associated with high mortality rates in diabetic PD patients, suggesting that better glycemic control may improve the outcomes of these patients.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30072. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left atrial (LA) volume index (LAVI) has been considered a stable indicator of diastolic dysfunction and an independent predictor of mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. To date, however, little is known about the relationship between LA enlargement and the changes in residual renal function (RRF).
This study was undertaken to investigate the association between LA enlargement and the decline in RRF in 121 incident peritoneal dialysis patients. Within 2 months after the initiation of peritoneal dialysis, LA enlargement was determined by echocardiography and RRF by 24-hour urine collection. Subsequently, RRF was measured every 6 months.
The rates of decline in RRF were significantly greater in patients with LA enlargement (LAVI > 32 mL/m(2)) compared with those without LA enlargement (-0.17 ± 0.18 vs -0.07 ± 0.16 mL/min/month/1.73 m(2), P = .002). In a linear mixed model, there was a significant difference in the rates of RRF decline over time between patients with and without LA enlargement (P < .001). Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that there were significant inverse correlations between the rates of the decline in RRF and LAVI (r = -0.22, P = .018). In multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for other risk factors, LAVI was found to be an independent determinant of the rates of decline in RRF (β = -0.026, P = .018).
This study shows that a higher LAVI is independently associated with a more rapid decline in RRF in patients with end-stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 01/2012; 25(4):421-7. · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is known to regulate bone mineral metabolism and to be also associated with inflammation, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis (MIA) syndrome is commonly found and closely linked to mortality in dialysis patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between OPG and MIA syndrome in prevalent peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
Prevalent PD patients for more than 6 months were prospectively followed up from March 2005 to May 2010. At baseline, OPG, hs-CRP, albumin, and %lean body mass (LBM) by creatinine kinetics were checked, and subjective global assessment (SGA) was performed. New-onset cardiovascular events were evaluated during the study period. Based on the median level of OPG, patients were classified as lower OPG (LO) group (n = 88) and higher OPG (HO) group (n = 88).
A total of 176 patients (age 52.0 ± 11.8 years, male 50.6%, duration of PD 105.3 ± 67.2 months) were recruited and followed. In HO group, age, hs-CRP level and Charlson's comorbidity indices were higher, whereas serum albumin level, %LBM and SGA score were significantly lower than LO group. OPG levels were positively correlated with inflammatory markers, whereas negatively correlated with nutritional status. Cardiovascular events occurred in 51 patients during the study period. Newly developed cardiovascular events were significantly common in HO group (n = 36, 40.9%) than LO group (n = 15, 17%, p = 0.002). Cox regression analysis revealed that higher OPG level (per 1-SD increase in OPG, HR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.03-2.00; p = 0.034) was a significant risk factor for cardiovascular events even after adjustments for demographic and biochemical parameters.
OPG was significantly correlated with markers of systemic inflammation and malnutrition and was a significant predictor of CVD in PD patients. These findings suggest OPG might be a prognostic indicator of MIA syndrome in prevalent PD patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visceral fat has been known to associate with atherosclerosis, inflammation, and insulin resistance. However, the influence of visceral fat on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients has never been elucidated. We investigated whether visceral fat thickness (VFT) has a predictive role in carotid atherosclerosis determined by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in PD patients. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 88 prevalent PD patients. BMI and waist circumference (WC) were measured as anthropometric indexes of obesity. VFT and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) were determined by sonographic measurement of abdominal fat. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as increased cIMT (>1.0 mm) or presence of plaque. Thirty-two (36.3%) patients had carotid atherosclerosis. Patients with carotid atherosclerosis showed significantly higher VFT, BMI, and WC. In univariate logistic analysis, BMI, WC, and VFT except SFT were significant risk factors of carotid atherosclerosis. However, multivariate analysis revealed VFT was an independent factor associated with carotid atherosclerosis after adjusting for demographic, biochemical parameters, and anthropometric indexes (per 1 mm increase, odds ratio (OR) = 2.294, 95% confidence interval: 1.048-5.021, P = 0.038). When the patients were divided into three groups according to VFT, log high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) were both higher in the third tertile compared to other tertiles. In conclusion, VFT, not SFT, is independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis in PD patients. Therefore sonographic measurement of VFT could be useful to stratify the risk of cardiovascular disease in PD patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A potential independent association was recently demonstrated between high red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and the risk of all-cause mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease, although the mechanism remains unclear. However, there have been no reports on the relationship between RDW and mortality in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). In this study, we assessed whether RDW was associated with mortality in AKI patients on CRRT treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU).
We enrolled 470 patients with AKI who were treated with CRRT at the Yonsei University Medical Center ICU from August 2007 to September 2009 in this study. We performed a retrospective analysis of demographic, biochemical parameters and patient outcomes. Following CRRT treatment, 28-day all-cause mortality was evaluated.
At the initiation of CRRT treatment, RDW level was significantly correlated with white blood cell count, hemoglobin (Hb) and total cholesterol. Patients with high RDW levels exhibited significantly higher 28-day mortality rates than patients with low RDW levels (P < 0.01). Baseline RDW level, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, low mean arterial pressure (MAP) and low cholesterol levels were independent risk factors for mortality. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses, RDW at CRRT initiation was an independent predictor for 28-day all-cause mortality after adjusting for age, gender, MAP, Hb, albumin, total cholesterol, C-reactive protein and SOFA score.
Our study demonstrates that RDW could be an additive predictor for all-cause mortality in AKI patients on CRRT treatment in the ICU.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Echocardiography is an established technique to estimate the risk for cardiovascular complications in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). An enlarged left atrium (LA) has recently emerged as a marker of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in various pathologic conditions. However, there have been few studies to evaluate its prognostic value in patients with ESRD, particularly those receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).
We conducted an observational cohort study to investigate whether enlarged LA can predict patient outcome in 216 patients with CAPD. Study outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
Increased left atrium volume index (LAVI > 32 mL/m(2)) was observed in 99 (45.8%) of the CAPD patients. During the follow-up (26.3 ± 18.6 months), 20 patients (9.3%) died. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in patients with LAVI > 32 mL/m(2) than those with LAVI ≤ 32 mL/m(2) (69 versus 82%, P = 0.024). In multivariate analyses adjusted for echocardiographic parameters and clinical and laboratory data, increased LAVI was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.10, P = 0.03] and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14, P = 0.006). Furthermore, increased LAVI provided the highest predictive value for all-cause mortality [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.766, P < 0.001] and cardiovascular mortality (AUC = 0.836, P < 0.001) among the measured echocardiographic parameters.
We showed that increased LAVI predicted adverse outcomes better than other echocardiographic parameters in patients with CAPD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought not only to determine the independent predictors of non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) but also to investigate the impact of NDRD on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent renal biopsy and were followed-up longitudinally.
The present study was conducted by reviewing the medical records of 119 type 2 diabetic patients who underwent renal biopsy at Yonsei University Health System from January 1988 to December 2008.
Renal biopsy findings declared that 43 patients (36.1%) had diabetic nephropathy alone, 12 (10.1%) had NDRD superimposed on diabetic nephropathy, and 64 (53.8%) had only NDRD. On multivariate analysis, the absence of diabetic retinopathy, higher hemoglobin levels, and shorter duration of diabetes were independent predictors of NDRD in these patients. During the follow-up period, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) developed in 33 patients (27.7%). On multivariate Cox regression, higher serum creatinine levels, higher systolic blood pressure, longer duration of diabetes, and the presence of diabetic nephropathy were identified as significant independent predictors of ESRD. When the presence of diabetic retinopathy was included in the multivariate model, higher serum creatinine levels, higher systolic blood pressure, and the presence of retinopathy were shown to be independent predictors of ESRD.
Since diabetic patients with NDRD have significantly better renal outcomes compared to patients with biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy, it is important to suspect, identify, and manage NDRD as early as possible, especially in type 2 diabetic patients with short duration of diabetes and those without diabetic retinopathy or anemia.
Diabetes research and clinical practice 02/2011; 92(2):198-204. · 2.74 Impact Factor