ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by increased total kidney volume (TKV) and renal failure. This study aimed to determine if height-adjusted TKV (htTKV) predicts the onset of renal insufficiency.
This prospective, observational, longitudinal, multicenter study included 241 adults with ADPKD and preserved renal function. Magnetic resonance imaging and iothalamate clearance were used to measure htTKV and GFR, respectively. The association between baseline htTKV and the attainment of stage 3 CKD (GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) during follow-up was determined.
After a mean follow-up of 7.9 years, stage 3 CKD was attained in 30.7% of the enrollees. Using baseline htTKV, negative correlations with GFR increased from -0.22 at baseline to -0.65 at year 8. In multivariable analysis, a baseline htTKV increase of 100 cc/m significantly predicted the development of CKD within 8 years with an odds ratio of 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.70). In receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, baseline htTKV of 600 cc/m most accurately defined the risk of developing stage 3 CKD within 8 years with an area under the curve of 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.79, 0.90). htTKV was a better predictor than baseline age, serum creatinine, BUN, urinary albumin, or monocyte chemotactic protein-1 excretion (P<0.05).
Baseline htTKV ≥600 cc/m predicted the risk of developing renal insufficiency in ADPKD patients at high risk for renal disease progression within 8 years of follow-up, qualifying htTKV as a prognostic biomarker in ADPKD.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2012; 7(3):479-86. · 5.23 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with a substantial cardiovascular disease burden including early onset hypertension, intracranial aneurysms, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). A 41% prevalence of LVH has been reported in ADPKD, using echocardiographic assessment of LV mass (LVM). The HALT PKD study was designed to assess the effect of intensive angiotensin blockade on progression of total kidney volume and LVM. Measurements of LVM were performed using cardiac magnetic resonance (MR).
Five hundred forty-three hypertensive patients with GFR >60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) underwent MR assessment of LVM at baseline. LVM was adjusted for body surface area and expressed as LVM index (LVMI; g/m(2)).
Baseline BP was 125.1 ± 14.5/79.3 ± 11.6 mmHg. Average duration of hypertension was 5.79 years. Prior use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers was present in 59.5% of patients. The prevalence of LVH assessed using nonindexed LVM (g) was 3.9% (n = 21, eight men and 13 women) and 0.93% (n = 5, one man and four women) using LVMI (g/m(2)). In exploratory analyses, the prevalence of LVH using LVM indexed to H(2.7), and the allometric index ppLVmass(HW), ranged from 0.74% to 2.23% (n = 4 to 12). Multivariate regression showed significant direct associations of LVMI with systolic BP, serum creatinine, and albuminuria; significant inverse associations with LVMI were found with age and female gender.
The prevalence of LVH in hypertensive ADPKD patients <50 years of age with short duration of hypertension, and prior use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers is low. Early BP intervention in ADPKD may have decreased LVH and may potentially decrease cardiovascular mortality.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2011; 6(10):2508-15. · 5.23 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) was created to identify markers of disease progression in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).
Linear mixed models were utilized to model effects of baseline parameters on changes in natural-log (ln)-transformed total kidney volume (TKV) and iothalamate clearance (GFR) across time in CRISP participants (creatinine clearance at entry >70 ml/min). Stepwise selection was used to obtain a final main effect model.
TKV increased from year to year, whereas GFR uncorrected for body surface area (BSA) decreased only at year 6. Higher lnTKV and urine sodium excretion (U(Na)V), lower serum HDL-cholesterol, and younger age at baseline associated with greater lnTKV growth from baseline to year 3 and to year 6. Higher lnTKV at baseline associated with greater GFR decline from year 1 to year 3 and to year 6. Higher BSA and 24-hour urine osmolality at baseline associated with greater GFR decline from year 1 to year 6. Higher U(Na)V and lower serum HDL-cholesterol at baseline associated with greater GFR decline from year 1 to year 6 by univariate analysis only. Associations seen during year 1 to year 6 (not seen during year 1 to year 3) reflect the time lag between structural and functional disease progression.
Serum HDL-cholesterol, U(Na)V, and 24-hour urine osmolality likely affect ADPKD progression. To what extent their modification may influence the clinical course of ADPKD remains to be determined.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2010; 6(3):640-7. · 5.23 Impact Factor