[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives
Extant research shows a strong relationship between alcohol use problems and sexual aggression. However, less is known about the effect of intermediary factors (eg, alcohol expectations) that may increase the likelihood of and/or explain sexual aggression during alcohol-related incidents. The present study examined alcohol outcome expectancies' (OE) mediating and/or moderating influence on the relationship between problematic alcohol use severity and sexual aggression among male college students.Methods and ResultsOne hundred and forty eight (n = 148) male college students volunteered for the study. Seventy-seven males self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression in their lifetime. Among those who sexually aggressed, 74% also reported symptoms of problematic drinking. Results show that sexuality-related alcohol OE fully mediated the relationship between problematic alcohol use severity and sexual aggression. Results also showed that aggression-related alcohol OE moderated the relationship between problematic alcohol use severity and sexual aggression. Specifically, aggression-related alcohol OE only influenced the relationship between problematic alcohol use and sexual aggression when alcohol problems were less severe.Conclusions and Scientific SignificanceDiscussion implicates the possible role alcohol prevention may play in reducing sexual aggression on college campuses, particularly as it relates to adjusting alcohol OE among those most likely to perpetrate. (Am J Addict 2014;XX:1–8)
American Journal on Addictions 03/2014; · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This study provided a novel consideration of the relations between alcohol consumption, sexual objectification, and sexual violence, because evidence for the links between sexual objectification and alcohol consumption as well as objectification and sexual violence are almost nonexistent in the published literature. We also developed a measure of interpersonal sexual objectification perpetration (ISOS-P) because there are no existing self-report measures of this construct. We hypothesized that these variables would be associated positively and that sexual objectification (including evaluating women’s bodies and making sexual advances toward women) would mediate the relation between alcohol use and sexual violence. Method: To test these possibilities, undergraduate men completed measures assessing their alcohol use, sexual objectification, and sexual violence. Results: Positive relations emerged between alcohol consumption frequency, alcohol consumption quantity, body evaluation, sexual advances, and sexual violence. A path analysis revealed that the combined effect of body evaluation and sexual advances was a significant mediator of the alcohol quantity and sexual violence link. As well, body evaluation was a significant mediator of the alcohol quantity and sexual advances link. Conclusion: This study provides a novel contribution to the literature by developing a measure of sexual objectification perpetration and showing that this construct mediates the frequently documented association between heavy drinking and sexual violence. These findings have implications for the prevention of alcohol-related sexual assault on college campuses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychology of Violence 01/2014; 4(2):156. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prior research has examined the role of alcohol in sexual assault through utilizing date rape analogue vignettes to study perpetration and victimization. There is a paucity of cross-cultural research on this topic, leaving the generalizability and universality of the findings to question. Intimate relationships, sexual norms, and transgressions from it are governed by gender roles and social and power relations which may vary across cultures. It is unclear how individuals from different cultures would respond to situations that Americans would constitute as sexual aggression. For example, Serquina-Ramiro (2005) found that sexual coercion was common among Filipino male adolescents. Furthermore, it is also unclear how the role of alcohol intoxication would influence sexual aggression cross-culturally. The purpose of the present study was to examine culture, gender, and alcohol consumption as predictors of leaving behavior in a novel sexual encounter vignette.
Data were collected from a cross-cultural study of 417 undergraduates (M age= 19, 75% Female) from a large United States University (n = 232) and a large Filipino University (n = 185). The participants completed a set of surveys which assessed problematic substance use, emotional states, trauma history, sexual history, and attitudes towards sex. A vignette was created in order to assess the participant’s comfort, level of excitement, and likelihood of leaving a coercive sexual situation between a female and a drunk male. The vignette was delivered as a between group design with four possible conditions, varying whether or not the female was drunk and whether the couple knew each other well or had just met. The vignette had eighteen possible questions, beginning with consensual interaction and progressing towards sexual assault and rape. Five of the questions were identified as events which substantially increased the level of inappropriate behavior: inappropriate touch, verbal coercion, physical coercion, verbal assault, and physical sexual assault.
Differences in leaving behavior were examined as a function of gender, culture, and whether or not the female was intoxicated in the vignette. Results indicated that there were cultural differences beginning at verbal coercion and continuing to physical assault, with a greater portion of the Filipino population continuing at three of the four time points (p = .003, .034, .013 respectively). Gender differences were also present regarding the decision to stay in the situation after the inappropriate touch, with males being more likely to continue than females (X2 = 7.435, p = .024); however, no significant variability was present at other key events. There were no differences in leaving behavior related to whether or not the female was intoxicated in the encounter. Implications of these findings are discussed.
47th Annual Conference, Association of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Nashville, TN; 11/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drinking to cope has been associated with negative consequences among college students. Less is known about the biopsychosocial pathways that increase the susceptibility to these drinking problems. This study aims to assess the relationship between biopsychosocial variables that have been shown to impact substance-based coping (ie, alexithymia, childhood/adolescent abuse, and genetics).
Self-report and genetic [DRD2 genotype (A1- or A1+)] information were collected from 297 participants.
Using structural equation models, results found that greater amounts of emotional abuse predicted alexithymia, and substance-based coping predicted drinking problems among both groups. However, among persons with the A1+ allele, greater levels of alexithymia were associated with greater levels of substance-based coping.
These results indicate that the A1+ allele may link alexithymia and prior emotional abuse to a higher risk for substance-based coping and subsequent alcohol problems. (Am J Addict 2013;22:366-372).
American Journal on Addictions 07/2013; 22(4):366-372. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A myriad of studies have supported an association between traumatic events in childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and increased alcohol use (Stewart, Pihl, Conrod, & Dongier, 1998). However, it is unclear how cognitions related to alcohol use and expectancy may influence these relationships. Should cognitions impact the path from early childhood trauma to alcohol use in adulthood, cognitions relating to alcohol use may be an important target for intervention. In this study, we aim to address this understudied area by examining the role of early trauma and PTSD symptoms on alcohol outcome expectancies (OEs), as well as the role of OEs on alcohol use severity. In particular, we hypothesize that general trauma in childhood, as well as physical, emotional, and sexual abuse in childhood will indirectly influence alcohol use severity through PTSD symptoms and OEs. Consistent with other studies (Stewart et al., 1998; Jones, Corbin, & Fromme, 2002), we expect more PTSD symptoms and greater OEs will relate to increased alcohol use.
A total of 733 Midwestern college students (mean age = 19.59, SD = 1.19; 63% males; 87% White) who were mandated to undergo a brief alcohol intervention participated in this study. Path analysis was conducted using Mplus, with Maximum Likelihood as the estimator. Missing data was dealt with using multiple imputation with MonteCarlo integration.
Results suggest good model fit (RMSEA = .05, CFI = .99, TLI = .94, SRMR = .02). A survey of individual regression paths indicate that higher Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test scores were associated with higher PTSD symptoms, and sociability, sex, and risk/aggression OEs. On the other hand, higher risk/aggression and sexuality OEs, and PTSD symptoms were associated with higher Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index scores. Individuals who reported more general early trauma, and physical and sexual abuse before the age of 18 reported higher PTSD symptoms, and higher PTSD scores predicted higher sociability, sexuality, cognitive behavioral impairment, and risk/aggression OEs scores. Presence of early traumatic events also had effects on different OEs. Constraining nonsignificant paths to zero did not significantly change model fit indices.
Discussion will focus on the role of trauma in shaping alcohol-related cognitions and alcohol use consistent with the self-medication hypothesis.
Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Conference; 06/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The experience of child/adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) has been clearly linked to regulatory deficits, alcohol consumption, and an increased risk for alcohol abuse/dependence. However, it has been emphasized that not all CASA-exposed individuals share such experiences; rather, alternative factors may increase one's vulnerability to alcohol-related outcomes. This article aims to theoretically examine the potential influence of effortful control (EC), a key construct in the development of self-regulation, as a vulnerability factor to alcohol use disorders following CASA. Within the diathesis–stress model, research is reviewed which supports the relations among lower EC abilities, the experience of CASA exposure(s), and the enhanced likelihood of alcohol use disorder development. It is posited that as EC is lower, less severe CASA is needed to facilitate risk for alcohol-related psychopathology via impairment in neuroendocrine and behavioral regulation. In turn, CASA exposure may negatively impact developing EC and also increasing likelihood of alcohol use disorder development. To this end, a thorough description of EC is provided, shared pathways between EC and CASA are reviewed, and finally, these pathways are linked to alcohol use.
Addiction Research and Theory 02/2013; 21(2). · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS: To update our prior meta-analysis that showed past major depression (MD+) to be unrelated to smoking cessation outcome [Hitsman et al. J Consult Clin Psychol 2003; 71:657-63]. METHODS: Eligible trials included 14 from our original review and 28 identified through an updated systematic review (2000-2009). We coded for assessment of past MD, exclusion for recent MD episode (MDE; ≤6 months versus no exclusion), duration/modality of cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT; face-to-face versus self-help), and other factors. To minimize influence of experimental treatments that may selectively benefit MD+ smokers, we analyzed placebo/lowest intensity control arms only. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) for the effect of past MD on short-term (≤3 months) and long-term (≥6 months) abstinence were estimated and combined using random effects. Two-way interaction models of past MD with study methodology and treatment factors were used to evaluate hypothesized moderators of the past MD-abstinence association. RESULTS: MD+ smokers had 17% lower odds of short-term abstinence (n=35, OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.72-0.95, p=0.009) and 19% lower odds of long-term abstinence (n=38, OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.67-0.97, p=0.023) than MD- smokers after excluding the sole study of varenicline because of its antidepressant properties. The association between past MD and abstinence was affected by methodological (recent MDE exclusion, type of MD assessment) and treatment (CBT modality) factors. CONCLUSIONS: Past major depression has a modest adverse effect on abstinence during and after smoking cessation treatment. An increased focus on the identification of effective treatments or treatment adaptations that eliminate this disparity in smoking cessation for MD+ smokers is needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sexual assault occurring when the victim is unable to consent or resist due to the use or administration of alcohol or drugs (i.e., incapacitated/drug-or-alcohol facilitated rape; IR/DAFR) is a particularly prevalent form of victimization experienced by college women. By definition, substance use precedes IR/DAFR; however, few studies have examined other potential risk factors for IR/DAFR that may be unique from those associated with forcible rape (FR; i.e., sexual assault occurring due to threats or physical restraint). The present investigation tested a model of risk for IR/DAFR and FR suggesting that child or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) leads to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which in turn increase the likelihood of IR/DAFR, but not FR. Results revealed full mediation for PTSD hyperarousal symptoms in the pathway between CASA and IR/DAFR, and partial mediation for hyperarousal symptoms in the pathway between CASA and FR. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
Journal of Interpersonal Violence 08/2012; · 1.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present pilot study hypothesized that degree of exposure to prenatal testosterone interacts with a history of lifetime physical abuse (LPA) to predict the cognitive (anger rumination) and behavioral (intimate partner and interpersonal violence) components of aggression within incarcerated methamphetamine (MA) users. In addition, we hypothesized that the degree of exposure to prenatal testosterone interacts with LPA to predict cognitive flexibility (Stroop Color-Word performance). Male inmate MA users (N = 60) completed neuropsychological and paper/pencil tests. Hand photocopies were also obtained to index prenatal testosterone exposure. Five covariate-adjusted moderation models were tested using anger rumination, intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, interpersonal violence perpetration (before and while incarcerated), and Stroop Color-Word T-score as the criteria, prenatal testosterone exposure as the predictor, and LPA as the moderator. Results indicated that, in individuals with a history of LPA, exposure to higher levels of prenatal testosterone exposure predicted greater anger rumination, lower Stroop Color-Word test T-scores, and lower frequencies of IPV perpetration. Findings were not significant in individuals without a history of LPA. This research suggests that biochemical and psychosocial vulnerabilities influence anger rumination and cognitive flexibility, which may render incarcerated MA users at greater risk to relapse or recidivate upon release from prison.
American Journal on Addictions 07/2012; 21(4):363-9. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Binge drinking remains prevalent on college campuses (particularly among males), and a behavioral economic conceptualization of alcohol use provides novel insight into this problem. Further understanding also comes from identifying personality and genetic vulnerabilities associated with problem drinking among male college students. The present study hypothesized that DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI A (rs1800497) genotype would moderate the relationship between alexithymia and an alcohol purchase task (APT) among male college binge drinkers. Specifically, among individuals with at least 1 A1 allele (A1+), greater alexithymia would be related to higher breakpoint (the point at which consumption is 0), O(max) (maximum expenditure on consumption), P(max) (price at which maximum expenditure occurs), intensity (consumption at the lowest price), and lesser elasticity (sensitivity to increasing price). Secondary analyses aimed to replicate APT associations with problematic drinking (AUDIT) and alcohol-related problems (RAPI). Participants were 120 male European-American college student binge drinkers (AUDIT: M=10.33, SD=4.41). Five Bonferroni-corrected moderation models were tested using APT indices as the criteria, alexithymia as the predictor, and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI A1 allele presence as the moderator. Results indicated that, in A1+ individuals, greater alexithymia predicted lesser elasticity. Findings were not significant in A1- individuals. APT intensity was positively correlated with AUDIT total; however, no other significant relationships were found. This suggests that possession of the A1 allele interacts with hypoemotionality to predict a novel index of problem drinking. Results support the notion that college campuses would benefit from behavioral economic approaches to reduce binge drinking.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 06/2012; 102(3):471-6. · 2.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol use to replace inadequate dissociative capabilities, or chemical dissociation, has been linked to college students with childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA). Insofar as CASA-exposed persons experience a restricted range of dissociative capabilities, what remains relatively unclear is whether some desire to achieve greater dissociative experiences. Nonclinical levels of dissociative tendencies have positively predicted alcohol-related blackouts in CASA-exposed students, and dissociation mediated the relations between CASA and intoxication frequency. Although alcohol (similar to dissociation) can reduce physiological and psychological responses to stress, alcohol consumption may be prompted by a desire to dissociate rather than inadequate dissociative tendencies alone. To investigate this interpretation of the chemical dissociation phenomenon, researchers examined the mediating potential of dissociative tendencies using the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) as well as the desire to dissociate concept (ie, a modified version of the DES-II) on the relations between CASA exposure and problematic alcohol use in college students (N = 298). Results indicated that dissociation scores did not replicate previous mediation findings whereas desire to dissociate scores fully mediated CASA exposure and problematic alcohol use. Implications of the results are discussed including possible reasons why prior mediation results were not replicated as well as links to experiential avoidance.
American Journal on Addictions 05/2012; 21(3):250-6. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positive alcohol outcome expectancies and behavioral economic indices of alcohol consumption are related to binge drinking among college students and may reflect explicit and implicit motivations that are differentially associated with this behavior.
The present study hypothesized that implicit (alcohol purchase task) and explicit (positive expectancy for alcohol's effects) motivations for drinking would not be correlated. It was also hypothesized that greater implicit and explicit motivations would predict alcohol-related risk.
Participants were 297 college student binge drinkers (54% female; 88% European-American; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: M = 9.53, SD = 5.04). Three indices from the alcohol purchase task (APT) were modeled as a latent implicit alcohol-related motivations variable. Explicit alcohol-related motivations were measured using a global positive expectancy subscale from the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total, Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index total, and age of drinking onset were modeled as a latent alcohol-related risk variable. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations amongst implicit motivations, explicit motivations, and alcohol-related risk.
Implicit and explicit motivations were not correlated. Partially consistent with the second hypothesis, greater implicit motivations were associated with greater alcohol-related risk. Relations between explicit motivations and alcohol-related risk were marginally significant.
Implicit and explicit drinking motivations are differentially associated with problem drinking behaviors. Future research should examine the underlying neurobiological mechanisms associated with these factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined the degree to which alcohol use problems explained the relationship between cannabis use frequency and college functioning. Undergraduates (N = 546) mandated to an alcohol diversion program at a Midwestern United States university completed screening questionnaires between October 2003 and April 2006. Sobel's (1982) test of mediation showed that problematic drinking fully mediated cannabis use frequency's relationship to (a) lower grades and (b) greater legal problems. Findings underscore the notion that cannabis use's association with college functioning may depend on the severity of alcohol use problems.
Journal of College Student Development 01/2012; 53(4):611-615. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study tested the influence of rumination and impulsivity on experimentally induced negative mood among a sample of smokers with a lifetime history of major depression (MDD Hx+). Participants (N = 40) were categorized into four vulnerability groups: nonvulnerable (low rumination, low impulsivity), ruminative (elevated rumination, low impulsivity), impulsive (low rumination, elevated impulsivity), and vulnerable (elevated rumination, elevated impulsivity). Participants were counterbalanced to four experimental conditions, using a combination of a mood induction (negative mood induction vs. control) and smoking cue (in vivo cigarette vs. control cue). Although all participants reported greater anger responses when exposed to the negative mood induction versus control, vulnerable and ruminative smokers reported significantly greater anger responses than impulsive and nonvulnerable smokers [F(9,87) = 2.93, p = .038, Mse = 79.38]. Implications are discussed.
American Journal on Addictions 03/2011; 20(2):161-5. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test for differences in stress-induced cardiovascular functioning among hypertensive and normotensive African American (AA) smokers.
Participants (n = 35) were exposed to both stress and neutral mood inductions.
Repeated measures analyses of covariance produced a significant group x mood condition interaction for systolic blood pressure (P = .048), but not for diastolic blood pressure (P > .05). The most notable finding was that AA hypertensive smokers showed selectively greater elevations in their systolic responses compared with normotensive controls following the laboratory-induced stressor.
Implications to an elevated risk of future cardiovascular disease among AA hypertensive smokers are discussed.
American journal of health behavior 01/2011; 35(1):51-9. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Despite the high prevalence of major depression among cigarette smokers, little is known about biobehavioral mechanisms that increase smokers' susceptibility to depression.Aims. The present study examined whether trait-impulsivity would moderate the relationship between rumination and number of past major depressive episodes (MDEs) among smokers (N = 128).Method. Data were derived from baseline screening questionnaires and structured diagnostic interviews of two studies examining emotional responses of smokers with a history of major depression compared with smokers without depression histories.Results. As predicted, the interaction between rumination and trait-impulsivity was a significant predictor of MDE recurrence (β = 0.259, p = 0.001, R change = 0.063). Post hoc analyses tested rumination's association with past MDEs among those with high and low levels of impulsivity. Rumination predicted the number of diagnosed past MDEs among those with high levels of impulsivity (β = 0.408, p = 0.006, R change = 0.104), but not among those with low levels of impulsivity (β = 0.203, p = 0.126, R change = 0.028).Conclusions. High levels of trait-impulsivity may increase vulnerability to rumination and MDE recurrence among smokers, potentially, facilitating the likelihood of experiencing clinically relevant depressogenic consequences (e.g. suicidal ideation and behavior).
Mental Health and Substance Use dual diagnosis 01/2011; 4(2):96-104.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study's purpose was twofold: (1) to establish adherence rates to a behavioral therapy (BT) sleep intervention and (2) to identify psychological and physical symptom predictors of adherence to the intervention in women undergoing breast cancer chemotherapy.
A randomized controlled trial began 48 h before the first of four chemotherapy treatments. Women with stages I-IIIA breast cancer (n = 113) received a BT sleep intervention composed of stimulus control, modified sleep restriction (MSR), relaxation therapy (RT), and sleep hygiene counseling components. A BT plan was developed by a research nurse and each participant, reinforced on day 8, and repeated for chemotherapy cycles 2, 3, and 4. Adherence to the BT plan was measured daily; total adherence score was computed at each chemotherapy cycle by combining adherence estimates of all BT plan components. Psychological and physical symptoms over the past 7 days were measured 2 days prior to and 7 days after each chemotherapy treatment.
Total adherence rates to the BT plan were 51-52% at all four treatments but adherence varied by component. Sleep disturbance, pain, and anxiety significantly decreased whereas depression significantly increased across chemotherapy. Structural equation modeling revealed a good model fit with decreasing sleep disturbances (0.409) and increasing depression (-0.711) contributing to lower total adherence rates. Increasing depression predicted lower MSR adherence (-0.203) and decreasing sleep disturbances predicted lower RT adherence (1.220).
Sleep disturbance and depression significantly impacted adherence rates during chemotherapy. Results warrant attention when promoting adherence to BT sleep interventions during chemotherapy treatment.
Supportive Care in Cancer 12/2010; 20(2):245-52. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the strong co-occurrence between lifetime prevalence of depression and smoking, a history of major depressive disorder (MDD history) does not reliably predict smoking cessation outcomes. However, depression is a heterogeneous syndrome comprising several dimensions (e.g., anhedonia, vegetative symptoms, negative affect), and each symptom expression may differentially influence cessation failure. Measuring proximal depressive dimensions may provide a more reliable way of identifying MDD history smokers most at risk for smoking relapse. Anhedonia, in particular, is a core feature of depression that may increase risk for smoking relapse among MDD history smokers. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the relation between anhedonia and relapse latency among MDD history smokers following a brief smoking cessation workshop.
Participants (N = 45, 48.9% female), who were euthymic regular smokers with a history of MDD, were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups that all involved participation in a daylong group workshop. Workshops were followed by 48 hr of bioverified abstinence and weekly follow-up visits for 1 month.
Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to evaluate the effect of anhedonia on relapse latency 30 days following quitting smoking. Results showed that higher levels of anhedonia predicted reduced relapse latencies, both with and without prequit depressive symptom severity included in the model.
Results suggest that anhedonia may constitute a proximal risk factor identifying depressive history smokers more likely to relapse to smoking.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 09/2010; 12(9):978-82. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the well-known health risks associated with smokeless tobacco use, much is unresolved with respect to effective treatment for use of this substance. The present study examined the impact of a nicotine-free smokeless tobacco substitute and confectionary chewing gum on craving, withdrawal, and anxiety among 24 smokeless tobacco users following 24 hours of nicotine abstinence and a laboratory stressor. Although chewing gum did not impact withdrawal, craving, or anxiety compared to a no-product control condition, smokeless tobacco substitute administration resulted in a reduction of withdrawal and craving levels compared to the control condition following 24 hours of abstinence. Furthermore, significantly lower levels of craving and withdrawal were observed in both smokeless tobacco and smokeless tobacco substitute conditions compared to the control condition following the stressor. Results indicate that although general oral stimulation (eg, chewing gum) was not effective in reducing symptoms related to nicotine withdrawal, smokeless tobacco substitute use appears to be helpful in reducing withdrawal levels post-stressor. These data suggest that use of a smokeless tobacco substitute may be an effective aid in helping individuals wishing to quit, especially when managing stressors. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-8).
American Journal on Addictions 03/2010; 19(2):128-35. · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the association between vulnerability to depression and smoking behavior in 1214 college students (54% female), and evaluated gender and expectancies of negative affect reduction as moderators or mediators of this relationship. Depression vulnerability predicted smoking in females, but not males. The relationship between depression vulnerability and smoking status was mediated by expectancies of negative affect reduction in females only. Female college students who are vulnerable to depression may smoke because they expect smoking to relieve negative affect. Smoking interventions for college females may increase in effectiveness by targeting depression and emphasizing mood regulation.