[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of nitric oxide in mammalian physiology has been known for nearly 30 years. Similar attention for other nitrogen oxides such as nitroxyl (HNO) has been more recent. While there has been speculation as to the biosynthesis of HNO, its pharmacological benefits have been demonstrated in several pathophysiological settings such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and alcoholism. The chemical biology of HNO has been identified as related to, but unique from, that of its redox congener nitric oxide. A summary of these findings as well as a discussion of possible endogenous sources of HNO is presented in this review.