[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Increased control has produced remarkable reductions of malaria in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Rwanda. In the southern highlands, near the district capital of Butare (altitude, 1,768 m), a combined community-and facility-based survey on Plasmodium infection was conducted early in 2010.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agnes Binagwaho and colleagues describe Rwanda's experience of pharmacovigilance for malaria and tuberculosis, and call for a global treaty and leadership by the World Health Organization to address the global manufacture and trade in substandard and falsified medicines. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
PLoS Medicine 07/2013; 10(7):e1001476. · 15.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The notion of "reverse innovation"--that some insights from low-income countries might offer transferable lessons for wealthier contexts--is increasingly common in the global health and business strategy literature. Yet the perspectives of researchers and policymakers in settings where these innovations are developed have been largely absent from the discussion to date. In this Commentary, we present examples of programmatic, technological, and research-based innovations from Rwanda, and offer reflections on how the global health community might leverage innovative partnerships for shared learning and improved health outcomes in all countries.
Globalization and Health 06/2013; 9(1):37. · 1.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The control of malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum, is hampered by the relentless evolution of drug resistance. Because artemisinin derivatives are now used in the most effective anti-malarial therapy, resistance to artemisinin would be catastrophic. Indeed, studies suggest that artemisinin resistance has already appeared in natural infections. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance would help to prolong the effective lifetime of these drugs. Genetic markers of resistance are therefore required urgently. Previously, a mutation in a de-ubiquitinating enzyme was shown to confer artemisinin resistance in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi. METHODS: Here, for a mutant P. chabaudi malaria parasite and its immediate progenitor, the in vivo artemisinin resistance phenotypes and the mutations arising using Illumina whole-genome re-sequencing were compared. RESULTS: An increased artemisinin resistance phenotype is accompanied by one non-synonymous substitution. The mutated gene encodes the mu-chain of the AP2 adaptor complex, a component of the endocytic machinery. Homology models indicate that the mutated residue interacts with a cargo recognition sequence. In natural infections of the human malaria parasite P. falciparum, 12 polymorphisms (nine SNPs and three indels) were identified in the orthologous gene. CONCLUSION: An increased artemisinin-resistant phenotype occurs along with a mutation in a functional element of the AP2 adaptor protein complex. This suggests that endocytosis and trafficking of membrane proteins may be involved, generating new insights into possible mechanisms of resistance. The genotypes of this adaptor protein can be evaluated for its role in artemisinin responses in human infections of P. falciparum.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To assess the safety and efficacy of the PrePex device when circumcision is performed by lower cadre nurses, among healthy adult men scheduled for voluntary circumcision, in preparation for scale up. METHODS:: Single-center 3-month non-randomized field study was conducted in Rwanda. Ten nurses were trained for 3 days on the PrePex circumcision method. Healthy, non-circumcised adult male volunteers (n=590) were enrolled, distributed between 5 teams of 2 nurses each, and underwent circumcision using the PrePex device, which employs radial elastic pressure to the foreskin, leading to distal necrosis. Adverse event (AE) data was gathered for 6 weeks post-removal. RESULTS:: All 518 subjects from the pilot and pivotal phases achieved complete circumcision. There were 5 AEs on 4 subjects (rate of 0.96%, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.31-2.24). There were 4 device-related AEs, including 1 case of bleeding post- removal, 1 case of high pain the night before the removal (which resulted in subject self-removal of the device and caused mild bleeding), 1 erroneous placement, and 1 subject partial removal of the device. There was 1 non-device related AE. AEs were moderate and were resolved with simple intervention. CONCLUSIONS:: The study demonstrated that circumcision performed by nurses using the PrePex device is safe, effective and easy to train. The procedure was minimally invasive and did not require injected anesthesia, sutures, or sterile settings. PrePex has the potential to help facilitate rapid, safe, non-physician male circumcision scale-up programs for HIV prevention, an imminent need in Sub Saharan Africa where physicians are limited.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rwanda's National PMTCT program aims to achieve elimination of new HIV infections in children by 2015. In November 2010, Rwanda adopted the WHO 2010 ARV guidelines for PMTCT recommending Option B (HAART) for all HIV-positive pregnant women extended throughout breastfeeding and discontinued (short course-HAART) only for those not eligible for life treatment. The current study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of this policy choice.
Based on a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women in Rwanda, we modelled the cost-effectiveness of six regimens: dual ARV prophylaxis with either 12 months breastfeeding or replacement feeding; short course HAART (Sc-HAART) prophylaxis with either 6 months breastfeeding, 12 months breastfeeding, or 18 months breastfeeding; and Sc-HAART prophylaxis with replacement feeding. Direct costs were modelled based on all inputs in each scenario and related unit costs. Effectiveness was evaluated by measuring HIV-free survival at 18 months. Savings correspond to the lifetime costs of HIV treatment and care avoided as a result of all vertical HIV infections averted.
All PMTCT scenarios considered are cost saving compared to "no intervention." Sc-HAART with 12 months breastfeeding or 6 months breastfeeding dominate all other scenarios. Sc-HAART with 12 months breastfeeding allows for more children to be alive and HIV-uninfected by 18 months than Sc-HAART with 6 months breastfeeding for an incremental cost per child alive and uninfected of 11,882 USD. This conclusion is sensitive to changes in the relative risk of mortality by 18 months for exposed HIV-uninfected children on replacement feeding from birth and those who were breastfed for only 6 months compared to those breastfeeding for 12 months or more.
Our findings support the earlier decision by Rwanda to adopt WHO Option B and could inform alternatives for breastfeeding duration. Local contexts and existing care delivery models should be part of national policy decisions.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e54180. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The last decade has witnessed a substantial increase of multi-centre, public health-oriented clinical trials in poor countries. However, non-commercial research groups have less staff and financial resources than traditional commercial sponsors, so the trial teams have to be creative to comply with Good Clinical Practices (GCP) requirements. According to the recent experience of a large multicentre trial on antimalarials, major challenges result from the complexity of multiple ethical review, the costs of in-depth monitoring at several sites, setting up an adequate Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP) framework, lack of insurers in host countries, and lack of adequate non-commercial data management software. Public research funding agencies need to consider these challenges in their funding policies. They also could support common spaces where North-South collaborative research groups may share critical information, such as on research insurance and open-source, GCP-compliant software. WHO should update its GCP guidelines, which date back to 1995, to incorporate the perspectives and needs of non-commercial clinical research.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 12/2012; · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. In 2008, Rwanda established an influenza sentinel surveillance (ISS) system to describe the epidemiology of influenza and monitor for the emergence of novel influenza A viruses. We report surveillance results from August 2008 to July 2010. Methods. We conducted ISS by monitoring patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) at 6 hospitals. For each case, demographic and clinical data, 1 nasopharyngeal specimen, and 1 oropharyngeal specimen were collected. Specimens were tested by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza A and B viruses at the National Reference Laboratory in Rwanda. Results. A total of 1916 cases (945 ILI and 971 SARI) were identified. Of these, 29.2% (n = 276) of ILI and 10.4% (n = 101) of SARI cases tested positive for influenza. Of the total influenza-positive cases (n = 377), 71.8% (n = 271) were A(H1N1) pdm09, 5.6% (n = 21) influenza A(H1), 7.7% (n = 29) influenza A(H3), 1.6% (n = 6) influenza A (unsubtyped), and 13.3% (n = 50) influenza B. The percentage of positivity for influenza viruses was highest in October-November and February-March, during peaks in rainfall. Conclusions. The implementation of ISS enabled characterization of the epidemiology and seasonality of influenza in Rwanda for the first time. Future efforts should determine the population-based influenza burden to inform interventions such as targeted vaccination.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2012; 206 Suppl 1:S74-9. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 390 000 children are newly infected with HIV each year, only 28 per cent of whom benefit from early infant diagnosis (EID). Rwanda's Ministry of Health identified several major challenges hindering EID scale-up in care of HIV-positive infants. It found poor counseling and follow-up by caregivers of HIV-exposed infants, lack of coordination with maternal and child health-care programs, and long delays between the collection of samples and return of results to the health facility and caregiver. By increasing geographic access, integrating EID with vaccination programs, and investing in a robust mobile phone reporting system, Rwanda increased population coverage of EID from approximately 28 to 72.4 per cent (and to 90.3 per cent within the prevention of mother to child transmission program) between 2008 and 2011. Turnaround time from sample collection to receipt of results at the originating health facility was reduced from 144 to 20 days. Rwanda rapidly scaled up and improved its EID program, but challenges persist for linking infected infants to care.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 29 November 2012; doi:10.1057/jphp.2012.62.
Journal of Public Health Policy 11/2012; · 1.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has emerged in western Cambodia and has been detected in western Thailand. The situation is ominously reminiscent of the emergence of resistance to chloroquine and to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine several decades ago. Artemisinin resistance is a major threat to global public health, with the most severe potential effects in sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease burden is highest and systems for monitoring and containment of resistance are inadequate. The mechanisms that underlie artemisinin resistance are not fully understood. The main phenotypic trait associated with resistance is a substantial delay in parasite clearance, so far reported in southeast Asia but not in Africa. One of the pillars of the WHO global plan for artemisinin resistance containment is to increase monitoring and surveillance. In this Personal View, we propose strategies that should be adopted by malaria-endemic countries in Africa: resource mobilisation to reactivate regional surveillance networks, establishment of baseline parasite clearance profiles to serve as benchmarks to track emerging artemisinin resistance, improved data sharing to allow pooled analyses to identify rare events, modelling of risk factors for drug resistance, and development and validation of new approaches to monitor resistance.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 11/2012; 12(11):888-96. · 19.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein PFHRP2 measurement is used widely for diagnosis, and more recently for severity assessment in falciparum malaria. The Pfhrp2 gene is highly polymorphic, with deletion of the entire gene reported in both laboratory and field isolates. These issues potentially confound the interpretation of PFHRP2 measurements.
Studies designed to detect deletion of Pfhrp2 and its paralog Pfhrp3 were undertaken with samples from patients in seven countries contributing to the largest hospital-based severe malaria trial (AQUAMAT). The quantitative relationship between sequence polymorphism and PFHRP2 plasma concentration was examined in samples from selected sites in Mozambique and Tanzania.
There was no evidence for deletion of either Pfhrp2 or Pfhrp3 in the 77 samples with lowest PFHRP2 plasma concentrations across the seven countries. Pfhrp2 sequence diversity was very high with no haplotypes shared among 66 samples sequenced. There was no correlation between Pfhrp2 sequence length or repeat type and PFHRP2 plasma concentration.
These findings indicate that sequence polymorphism is not a significant cause of variation in PFHRP2 concentration in plasma samples from African children. This justifies the further development of plasma PFHRP2 concentration as a method for assessing African children who may have severe falciparum malaria. The data also add to the existing evidence base supporting the use of rapid diagnostic tests based on PFHRP2 detection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The widespread use of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) for treating uncomplicated malaria makes it important to gather and analyse information on its tolerability.
An individual-patient tolerability analysis was conducted using data from eight randomized controlled clinical trials conducted at 17 sites in nine sub-Saharan countries comparing ASAQ to other anti-malarial treatments. All patients who received at least one dose of the study drug were included in the analysis. Differences in adverse event (AE) and treatment emergent adverse event (TEAE) were analysed by Day 28.
Of the 6,179 patients enrolled (74% <5 years of age), 50% (n = 3,113) received ASAQ, 20% (n = 1,217) another ACT, and 30% (n = 1,849) a non-ACT (combination or single-agent) treatment. Overall, 8,542 AEs were recorded. The proportion of patients experiencing at least one gastro-intestinal AE on ASAQ was 43% (and higher than that with artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine at two sites), and was 23% for any other AEs (not different from other treatments). Specifically, the risk of diarrhoea, vomiting, cough and weakness was lower with artemether-lumefantrine; artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine carried a higher risk of pruritus, chloroquine-SP had a higher risk of nausea. Parasitological recurrence increased the risk of occurrence of any AE. No other difference was detected. Comparing AE to TEAE in patients who had pre-treatment occurrence and grades of intensity recorded, AEs were significantly more related to the pre-treatment prevalence of the symptom (p = 0.001, Fisher test); AEs overestimated TEAEs by a factor ranging from none to five-fold. The overall incidence of serious AEs (SAEs) with ASAQ was nine per 1,000 (29/3,113) and mortality was one per 1,000 (three deaths, none drug-related); both were similar to other treatments.
ASAQ was comparatively well-tolerated. Safety information is important, and must be collected and analysed in a standardized way. TEAEs are a more objective measure of treatment-induced toxicity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In African children, distinguishing severe falciparum malaria from other severe febrile illnesses with coincidental Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia is a major challenge. P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) is released by mature sequestered parasites and can be used to estimate the total parasite burden. We investigated the prognostic significance of plasma PfHRP2 and used it to estimate the malaria-attributable fraction in African children diagnosed with severe malaria.
Admission plasma PfHRP2 was measured prospectively in African children (from Mozambique, The Gambia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo) aged 1 month to 15 years with severe febrile illness and a positive P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH)-based rapid test in a clinical trial comparing parenteral artesunate versus quinine (the AQUAMAT trial, ISRCTN 50258054). In 3,826 severely ill children, Plasmadium falciparum PfHRP2 was higher in patients with coma (p = 0.0209), acidosis (p<0.0001), and severe anaemia (p<0.0001). Admission geometric mean (95%CI) plasma PfHRP2 was 1,611 (1,350-1,922) ng/mL in fatal cases (n = 381) versus 1,046 (991-1,104) ng/mL in survivors (n = 3,445, p<0.0001), without differences in parasitaemia as assessed by microscopy. There was a U-shaped association between log(10) plasma PfHRP2 and risk of death. Mortality increased 20% per log(10) increase in PfHRP2 above 174 ng/mL (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.21, 95%CI 1.05-1.39, p = 0.009). A mechanistic model assuming a PfHRP2-independent risk of death in non-malaria illness closely fitted the observed data and showed malaria-attributable mortality less than 50% with plasma PfHRP2≤174 ng/mL. The odds ratio (OR) for death in artesunate versus quinine-treated patients was 0.61 (95%CI 0.44-0.83, p = 0.0018) in the highest PfHRP2 tertile, whereas there was no difference in the lowest tertile (OR 1.05; 95%CI 0.69-1.61; p = 0.82). A limitation of the study is that some conclusions are drawn from a mechanistic model, which is inherently dependent on certain assumptions. However, a sensitivity analysis of the model indicated that the results were robust to a plausible range of parameter estimates. Further studies are needed to validate our findings.
Plasma PfHRP2 has prognostic significance in African children with severe falciparum malaria and provides a tool to stratify the risk of "true" severe malaria-attributable disease as opposed to other severe illnesses in parasitaemic African children.
PLoS Medicine 08/2012; 9(8):e1001297. · 15.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virtually all women who have cervical cancer are infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Of the 275,000 women who die from cervical cancer every year, 88% live in developing countries. Two vaccines against the HPV have been approved. However, vaccine implementation in low-income countries tends to lag behind implementation in high-income countries by 15 to 20 years.
In 2011, Rwanda's Ministry of Health partnered with Merck to offer the Gardasil HPV vaccine to all girls of appropriate age. The Ministry formed a "public-private community partnership" to ensure effective and equitable delivery.
Thanks to a strong national focus on health systems strengthening, more than 90% of all Rwandan infants aged 12-23 months receive all basic immunizations recommended by the World Health Organization.
In 2011, Rwanda's HPV vaccination programme achieved 93.23% coverage after the first three-dose course of vaccination among girls in grade six. This was made possible through school-based vaccination and community involvement in identifying girls absent from or not enrolled in school. A nationwide sensitization campaign preceded delivery of the first dose.
Through a series of innovative partnerships, Rwanda reduced the historical two-decade gap in vaccine introduction between high- and low-income countries to just five years. High coverage rates were achieved due to a delivery strategy that built on Rwanda's strong vaccination system and human resources framework. Following the GAVI Alliance's decision to begin financing HPV vaccination, Rwanda's example should motivate other countries to explore universal HPV vaccine coverage, although implementation must be tailored to the local context.
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 08/2012; 90(8):623-8. · 5.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To control malaria, the Rwandan government and its partners distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and made artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) widely available from 2005 onwards. The impact of these interventions on malaria cases, admissions and deaths was assessed using data from district hospitals and household surveys. METHODS: District records of ITN and ACT distribution were reviewed. Malaria and non-malaria indictors in 30 district hospitals were ascertained from surveillance records. Trends in cases, admissions and deaths for 2000 to 2010 were assessed by segmented log-linear regression, adjusting the effect size for time trends during the pre-intervention period, 2000-2005. Changes were estimated by comparing trends in post-intervention (2006-2010) with that of pre-intervention (2000-2005) period. All-cause deaths in children under-five in household surveys of 2005 and 2010 were also reviewed to corroborate with the trends of deaths observed in hospitals. RESULTS: The proportion of the population potentially protected by ITN increased from nearly zero in 2005 to 38% in 2006, and 76% in 2010; no major health facility stock-outs of ACT were recorded following their introduction in 2006. In district hospitals, after falling during 2006- 2008, confirmed malaria cases increased in 2009 coinciding with decreased potential ITN coverage and declined again in 2010 following an ITN distribution campaign. For all age groups, from the pre-intervention period, microscopically confirmed cases declined by 72%, (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 12-91%) in 2010, slide positivity rate declined 58%, (CI, 47%-68%), malaria inpatient cases declined 76% (CI, 49%-88%); and malaria deaths declined 47% (CI, 47%-81%). In children below five years of age, malaria inpatients decreased 82% (CI, 61%-92%) and malaria hospital deaths decreased 77% (CI, 40%-91%). Concurrently, outpatient cases, admissions and deaths due to non-malaria diseases in all age groups either increased or remained unchanged. Rainfall and temperature remained favourable for malaria transmission. The annual all-cause mortality in children under-five in household surveys declined from 152 per 1,000 live births during 2001-2005, to 76 per 1,000 live births in 2006-2010 (55% decline). The five-year cumulative number of all-cause deaths in hospital declined 28% (8,051 to 5,801) during the same period. CONCLUSIONS: A greater than 50% decline in confirmed malaria cases, admissions and deaths at district hospitals in Rwanda since 2005 followed a marked increase in ITN coverage and use of ACT. The decline occurred among both children under-five and in children five years and above, while hospital utilization increased and suitable conditions for malaria transmission persisted. Declines in malaria indicators were more striking than in the older age groups. The resurgence in cases associated with decreased ITN coverage in 2009 highlights the need for sustained high levels of anti-malarial interventions in Rwanda and other malaria endemic countries.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization presently recommends Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line therapy for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Many malaria-endemic countries, including Rwanda, have adopted these treatment guidelines. The Artemisinin derivative Artemether, in combination with lumefantrine, is currently used in Rwanda for malaria during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Safety data on the use of ACT in pregnancy are still limited though and more data are needed.
In this pharmacovigilance study, the exposed group (pregnant women with malaria given artemether-lumefantrine), and a matched non-exposed group (pregnant women without malaria and no exposure to artemether-lumefantrine) were followed until delivery. Data were collected at public health centres all over Rwanda during acute malaria, routine antenatal visits, after hospital delivery or within 48 hours after home delivery. Information gathered from patients included routine antenatal and peri-partum data, pregnancy outcomes (abortions, stillbirths, at term delivery), congenital malformations and other adverse events through history taking and physical examination of both mothers and newborns.
The outcomes for the total sample of 2,050 women were for the treatment (n=1,072) and control groups (n=978) respectively: abortions: 1.3% and 0.4%; peri-natal mortality 3.7% and 2.8%; stillbirth 2.9% and 2.4%; neonatal death [less than or equal to]7 days after birth 0.5% and 0.4%; premature delivery 0.7% and 0.3%; congenital malformations 0.3% and 0.3%. A total of 129 obstetric adverse events in 127 subjects were reported (7.3% in the treatment group, 5.0% in the control group). In a multivariate regression model, obstetric complications were more frequent in the treatment group (OR (95% CI): 1.38 (0.95, 2.01)), and in primigravidae (OR (95% CI) 2.65 (1.71, 4.12) and at higher age (OR per year: 1.05 (1.01-1.09).
There were no specific safety concerns related to artemether-lumefantrine treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in pregnancy. However, more obstetric complications were observed in the treatment group. These increased occurrence of complications could, however, be caused by the malaria episode itself, but further assessment is required.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Randomized controlled trial studies have shown that male circumcision (MC) can reduce the risk of HIV infection by 53%-60%. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS announced a 5-year plan to voluntarily circumcise 20 million men by 2015. There are more than 38 million males in sub-Saharan Africa that could benefit from MC for HIV prevention by 2015. Surgical MC is impractical for nation-wide coverage in resource-limited settings. Rwanda intends to launch a voluntary MC program to reach 2 million adult men in 2 years, an unattainable goal with surgical MC. This study was designed to compare a new nonsurgical device with surgical MC to assess nonsurgical MC suitability for scale-up.
Prospective, randomized controlled trial in Rwanda in which the PrePex device was used for nonsurgical MC and the dorsal-slit method for surgical MC (ratio: 2:1). Subjects were healthy adult male volunteers aged 21-54 years. The primary endpoint, set by World Health Organization, was total MC procedure time.
Of 217 eligible subjects, 144 were randomized to the PrePex/nonsurgical arm and 73 to the surgical arm. All subjects were circumcised in 10 working days. Nonsurgical MC was bloodless, without anesthesia, sutures, or sterile setting and with mean procedure time of 3.1 minutes (skin to skin), was significantly shorter than mean surgical procedure time (15.4 minutes skin to skin) (P < 0.0001). There were no device-related adverse events. Healing time of the PrePex arm was longer than the surgical arm.
PrePex, the nonsurgical MC, takes significantly less time than surgical, is as safe, does not require injections or sterile settings, is bloodless and seems to be suitable for nurses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In October 2009, the first case of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) was confirmed in Kigali, Rwanda and countrywide dissemination occurred within several weeks. We describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of this epidemic.
From October 2009 through May 2010, we undertook epidemiologic investigations and response to pH1N1. Respiratory specimens were collected from all patients meeting the WHO case definition for pH1N1, which were tested using CDC’s real time RT-PCR protocol at the Rwandan National Reference Laboratory (NRL). Following documented viral transmission in the community, testing focused on clinically severe and high-risk group suspect cases.
From October 9, 2009 through May 31, 2010, NRL tested 2,045 specimens. In total, 26% (n = 532) of specimens tested influenza positive; of these 96% (n = 510) were influenza A and 4% (n = 22) were influenza B. Of cases testing influenza A positive, 96.8% (n = 494), 3% (n = 15), and 0.2% (n = 1) were A(H1N1)pdm09, Seasonal A(H3) and Seasonal A(non-subtyped), respectively. Among laboratory-confirmed cases, 263 (53.2%) were children
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data from the largest randomized, controlled trial for the treatment of children hospitalized with severe malaria were used to identify such predictors of a poor outcome from severe malaria.
African children (<15 years) with severe malaria participated in a randomized comparison of parenteral artesunate and parenteral quinine in 9 African countries. Detailed clinical assessment was performed on admission. Parasite densities were assessed in a reference laboratory. Predictors of death were examined using a multivariate logistic regression model.
Twenty indicators of disease severity were assessed, out of which 5 (base deficit, impaired consciousness, convulsions, elevated blood urea, and underlying chronic illness) were associated independently with death. Tachypnea, respiratory distress, deep breathing, shock, prostration, low pH, hyperparasitemia, severe anemia, and jaundice were statistically significant indicators of death in the univariate analysis but not in the multivariate model. Age, glucose levels, axillary temperature, parasite density, heart rate, blood pressure, and blackwater fever were not related to death in univariate models.
Acidosis, cerebral involvement, renal impairment, and chronic illness are key independent predictors for a poor outcome in African children with severe malaria. Mortality is markedly increased in cerebral malaria combined with acidosis. Clinical Trial Registration. ISRCTN50258054.