[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychosomatic disease with somatic complications in the long-term course and a high mortality rate. Somatic comorbidities independent of anorexia nervosa have rarely been studied, but pose a challenge to clinical practitioners. We investigated somatic comorbidities in an inpatient cohort and compared somatically ill anorexic patients and patients without a somatic comorbidity. In order to evaluate the impact of somatic comorbidity for the long-term course of anorexia nervosa, we monitored survival in a long-term follow-up.
One hundred and sixty-nine female inpatients with anorexia nervosa were treated at the Charité University Medical Centre, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, between 1979 and 2011. We conducted retrospective analyses using patient's medical and psychological records. Information on survival and mortality were required through the local registration office and was available for one hundred patients. The mean follow-up interval for this subgroup was m = 20.9 years (sd = 4.7, min = 13.3, max = 31.6, range = 18.3). We conducted survival analysis using cox regression and included somatic comorbidity in a multivariate model.
N = 41 patients (24.3%) showed a somatic comorbidity, n = 13 patients (7.7%) showed somatic comorbidities related to anorexia nervosa and n = 26 patients (15.4%) showed somatic comorbidities independent of anorexia nervosa, n = 2 patients showed somatic complications related to other psychiatric disorders. Patients with a somatic comorbidity were significantly older (m = 29.5, sd = 10.3 vs m = 25.0, sd = 8.7; p = .006), showed a later anorexia nervosa onset (m = 24.8, sd = 9.9 vs. m = 18.6, sd = 5.1; p < .000) and a longer duration of treatment in our clinic (m = 66.6, sd = 50.3 vs. m = 50.0, sd = 47; p = .05) than inpatients without somatic comorbidity. Out of 100 patients, 9 patients (9%) had died, on average at age of m = 37 years (sd = 9.5). Mortality was more common among inpatients with somatic comorbidity (n = 6, 66.7%) than among inpatients without a somatic disease (n = 3, 33.3%; p = .03). Somatic comorbidity was a significant coefficient in a multivariate survival model (B = 2.32, p = .04).
Somatic comorbidity seems to be an important factor for anorexia nervosa outcome and should be included in multivariate analyses on the long-term course of anorexia nervosa as an independent variable. Further investigations are needed in order to understand in which way anorexia nervosa and a somatic disease can interact.
BioPsychoSocial Medicine 02/2012; 6(1):4. DOI:10.1186/1751-0759-6-4
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms are highly relevant for the quality of life, health behavior, and prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, previous psychotherapy trials in depressed CAD patients produced small to moderate effects on depression, and null effects on cardiac events. In this multicentre psychotherapy trial, symptoms of depression are treated together with the Type D pattern (negative affectivity and social inhibition) in a stepwise approach. METHODS: Men and women (N=569, age 18-75 years) with any manifestation of CAD and depression scores ≥ 8 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), will be randomized (allocation ratio 1:1) into the intervention or control group. Patients with severe heart failure, acutely life-threatening conditions, chronic inflammatory disease, severe depressive episodes or other severe mental illness are excluded. Both groups receive usual medical care. Patients in the intervention group receive three initial sessions of supportive individual psychotherapy. After re-evaluation of depression (weeks 4-8), patients with persisting symptoms receive an additional 25 sessions of combined psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral group therapy. The control group receives one psychosocial counseling session. Primary efficacy variable is the change of depressive symptoms (HADS) from baseline to 18 months. Secondary endpoints include cardiac events, remission of depressive disorder (SCID) and Type D pattern, health-related quality of life, cardiovascular risk profile, neuroendocrine and immunological activation, heart rate variability, and health care utilization, up to 24 months of follow-up (ISRCTN: 76240576; NCT00705965). Funded by the German Research Foundation.
Journal of psychosomatic research 10/2011; 71(4):215-22. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2011.02.013 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anger has been implicated in the etiology of hypertensive disease. Trait anger has been linked to enhanced cardiovascular responsiveness. However, whether this association reflects differences in context appraisal or a general hyper-reactivity of the cardiovascular system remains unclear. We studied the cardiovascular response to acoustic startle probes in 76 healthy Caucasian males in different affective contices (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant). All participants completed the State-Trait-Anger-Expression-Inventory (STAXI) by Spielberger and the results were analysed with stepwise regression analysis according to the anger scores and traditional risk factors for hypertension. Our study reveals differential modulation of the cardiovascular response to startle stimuli by affective pictures in the dimensions "valence" for heart rate and "arousal" for blood pressure. Anger-in was identified as the most important determinant for blood pressure responses in unpleasant context, while anger-out was associated with less cardiovascular activation in neutral context. This is the first study that relates trait anger to cardiovascular reactivity and affective reflex modulation in normotensive subjects. We could demonstrate an interaction of affective context and trait anger for cardiovascular (hyper-)reactivity. Increased cardiovascular reactivity for higher scores of anger-in in unpleasant context may indicate enhanced sympathetic reactivity and constitute a risk factor for the development of essential hypertension.
International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 12/2010; 79(3):364-70. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2010.12.004 · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. Patients with essential hypertension react more strongly to mental stress than normotensives. This may be related to the type of stress coping or to increased reactivity associated with the disease. The aim of our study was to examine whether patients with essential or secondary hypertension differ in their reaction to mental stress. Methods. Seventeen patients with essential hypertension (EH), 9 patients with renal hypertension (RH), and 22 normotensive controls (N) with no circulatory disorders were subjected to a psychophysiological examination under mental stress. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and electrodermal activity (EDA) were measured. Results. The two hypertensive groups differed in their BP reaction to mental stress from the control group but not from each other. The product of heart rate and systolic blood pressure during the matrix test was significantly higher in essential than renal hypertensives (EH median: 13344; RH median: 12154.5; p = 0.04). This also holds true for the number of spontaneous fluctuations of EDA in the resting phase after the experiment (EH. median: 3.2; RH. median: 1.3; p = 0.01). Conclusion. The results suggest that not only a high blood pressure level but also the sympathetic nervous tone are responsible for the blood pressure response to mental stress. Due to very different (perhaps psychosocially triggered) conditions, essential hypertension leads to a stronger cardiovascular reaction under mental stress than renal hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in the German hospital system like the introduction of the DRG compensation system suggest the usefulness of considering the modification of inpatient psychosomatic treatment options. Patients in a university hospital underwent diagnosis-related psychosomatic treatment in the wards of other departments after instituting the allocated bed model. The report presented here points out chances and risks of such a change. First psychodiagnostic assessments indicate a significant improvement of symptoms in these patients. Despite the overall positive result obtained thus far, the institutional and administrative framework conditions for such a change should be carefully considered and further evaluated.