Clifford I Workman

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (7)27.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Evidence exists for late-life depression (LLD) as both a prodrome of and risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The underlying neurobiological mechanisms are poorly understood. Impaired peripheral glucose metabolism may explain the association between depression and AD given the connection between type 2 diabetes mellitus with both depression and AD. Positron emission tomography (PET) measures of cerebral glucose metabolism are sensitive to detecting changes in neural circuitry in LLD and AD. Fasting serum glucose (FSG) in non-diabetic young (YC; n=20) and elderly controls (EC; n=12) and LLD patients (n=16) was correlated with PET scans of cerebral glucose metabolism on a voxel-wise basis. The negative correlations were more extensive in EC versus YC and in LLD patients versus EC. Increased FSG correlated with decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in LLD patients to a greater extent than in EC in heteromodal association cortices involved in mood symptoms and cognitive deficits observed in LLD and dementia. Negative correlations in YC were observed in sensory and motor regions. Understanding the neurobiological consequences of diabetes and associated conditions will have substantial public health significance given that this is a modifiable risk factor for which prevention strategies could have an important impact on lowering dementia risk.
    Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 01/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent positron emission tomography studies of cerebral glucose metabolism have identified the functional neural circuitry associated with mood and cognitive responses to antidepressant treatment in late life depression (LLD). The structural alterations in these networks are not well understood. The present study used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and voxel-based morphometry to evaluate the association between gray matter volumes and changes in mood symptoms and cognitive function with treatment with the antidepressant citalopram. Open-label trial with baseline brain MR scan. Mood and cognitive assessments performed at baseline and during citalopram treatment. Outpatient clinics of an academic medical center. 17 previously unmedicated patients age 55 years or older with a major depressive episode and 17 non-depressed comparison subjects. 12-week trial of flexibly dosed citalopram. Gray matter volumes, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, California Verbal Learning Test, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. In LLD, higher gray matter volumes in the cingulate gyrus, superior and middle frontal gyri, middle temporal gyrus, and precuneus was associated with greater mood improvement. Higher gray matter volumes in primarily frontal areas were associated with greater improvement in verbal memory and verbal fluency performance. Associations with antidepressant induced improvements in mood and cognition were observed in several brain regions previously correlated with normalization of glucose metabolism after citalopram treatment in LLD. Future studies will investigate molecular mechanisms underlying these associations (e.g., beta-amyloid, inflammation, glutamate).
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 10/2013; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The serotonin system is implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders whose clinical presentation and response to treatment differ between males and females, as well as with aging. However, human neurobiological studies are limited. Sex differences in the cerebral metabolic response to an increase in serotonin concentrations were measured, as well as the effect of aging, in men compared to women. Thirty-three normal healthy individuals (14 men/19 women, age range 20-79 years) underwent two resting positron emission tomography studies with the radiotracer [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ([(18) F]-FDG) after placebo and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram) infusions on two separate days. Results indicated that women demonstrated widespread areas of increased cortical glucose metabolism with fewer areas of decrease in metabolism in response to citalopram. Men, in contrast, demonstrated several regions of decreased cortical metabolism, but no regions of increased metabolism. Age was associated with greater increases in women and greater decreases in men in most brain regions. These results support prior studies indicating that serotonin function differs in men and women across the lifespan. Future studies aimed at characterizing the influences of age and sex on the serotonin system in patients with psychiatric disorders are needed to elucidate the relationship between sex and age differences in brain chemistry and associated differences in symptom presentation and treatment response. Synapse 66:955-964, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Synapse 07/2012; 66(11):955-64. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Late-life depression (LLD) has a substantial public health impact and is both a risk factor for and a prodrome of dementia. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral glucose metabolism have demonstrated sensitivity in evaluating neural circuitry involved in depression, aging, incipient cognitive decline, and dementia. The present study evaluated the long term effects of a course of antidepressant treatment on glucose metabolism in LLD patients. METHODS: Nine LLD patients and seven non-depressed control subjects underwent clinical and cognitive evaluations as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging and PET studies of cerebral glucose metabolism at baseline, after 8 weeks of treatment with citalopram for a major depressive episode (patients only), and at an approximately 2-year follow-up. RESULTS: The majority of LLD patients were remitted at follow-up (7/9). Neither patients nor controls showed significant cognitive decline. The patients showed greater increases in glucose metabolism than the controls in regions associated with mood symptoms (anterior cingulate and insula). Both groups showed decreases in metabolism in posterior association cortices implicated in dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal changes in cerebral glucose metabolism are observed in controls and in LLD patients without significant cognitive decline that are more extensive than the decreases in brain volume. Longer duration follow-up studies and the integration of other molecular imaging methods will have implications for understanding the clinical and neurobiological significance of these metabolic changes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 06/2012; · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The importance of developing unique, neural circuitry-based treatments for the cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) was the impetus for a phase I study of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with AD that targeted the fornix. OBJECTIVE To test the hypotheses that DBS would increase cerebral glucose metabolism in cortical and hippocampal circuits and that increased metabolism would be correlated with better clinical outcomes. DESIGN Open-label trial. SETTING Academic medical center. PATIENTS A total of 5 patients with mild, probable AD (1 woman and 4 men, with a mean [SD] age of 62.6 [4.2] years). INTERVENTION Deep brain stimulation of the fornix. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES All patients underwent clinical follow-up and high-resolution positron emission tomography studies of cerebral glucose metabolism after 1 year of DBS. RESULTS Functional connectivity analyses revealed that 1 year of DBS increased cerebral glucose metabolism in 2 orthogonal networks: a frontal-temporal-parietal-striatal-thalamic network and a frontal-temporal-parietal-occipital-hippocampal network. In similar cortical regions, higher baseline metabolism prior to DBS and increased metabolism after 1 year of DBS were correlated with better outcomes in global cognition, memory, and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS Increased connectivity after 1 year of DBS is observed, which is in contrast to the decreased connectivity observed over the course of AD. The persistent cortical metabolic increases after 1 year of DBS were associated with better clinical outcomes in this patient sample and are greater in magnitude and more extensive in the effects on cortical circuitry compared with the effects reported for pharmacotherapy over 1 year in AD.
    Archives of neurology 05/2012; 69(9):1141-8. · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Given the challenges in the clinical management of geriatric depression, research over the past decade has focused on developing early neurobiological markers of antidepressant treatment response. This study tested the hypothesis that lower baseline glucose metabolism and greater acute cerebral metabolic responses to a single, intravenous (IV) dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram would be associated with greater improvement of depressive symptoms after 12 weeks of citalopram treatment in geriatric depression. sixteen geriatric depressed patients underwent two scans to measure cerebral glucose metabolism after administration of either a saline placebo or citalopram infusion (40 mg, IV). Then, the patients were treated with the oral citalopram medication for 12 weeks. greater improvement of depressive symptoms was associated with lower baseline metabolism in anterior cingulate, superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri (bilaterally), inferior parietal lobule (bilaterally), precuneus (right), insula (left), parahippocampal gyrus (right), caudate (bilaterally), and putamen (left) regions. Greater improvement of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reductions in metabolism after acute citalopram administration in similar brain regions, including additional posterior cortical regions. lower baseline cerebral metabolism and greater decreases with acute citalopram administration are associated with better antidepressant response to chronic citalopram treatment. These data are consistent with previous studies of total sleep deprivation and suggest that dynamic, early adaptive changes or normalization of cerebral metabolism may represent early neurobiological markers of chronic SSRI treatment response in geriatric depression.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 01/2011; 19(1):53-63. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Given the challenges in the clinical management of geriatric depression, research over the past decade has focused on developing early neurobiological markers of antidepressant treatment response. This study tested the hypothesis that lower baseline glucose metabolism and greater acute cerebral metabolic responses to a single, intravenous (IV) dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram would be associated with greater improvement of depressive symptoms after 12 weeks of citalopram treatment in geriatric depression. Methods: Sixteen geriatric depressed patients underwent two scans to measure cerebral glucose metabolism after administration of either a saline placebo or citalopram infusion (40 mg, IV). Then, the patients were treated with the oral citalopram medication for 12 weeks. Results: Greater improvement of depressive symptoms was associated with lower baseline metabolism in anterior cingulate, superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri (bilaterally), inferior parietal lobule (bilaterally), precuneus (right), insula (left), parahippocampal gyrus (right), caudate (bilaterally), and putamen (left) regions. Greater improvement of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reductions in metabolism after acute citalopram administration in similar brain regions, including additional posterior cortical regions. Conclusions: Lower baseline cerebral metabolism and greater decreases with acute citalopram administration are associated with better antidepressant response to chronic citalopram treatment. These data are consistent with previous studies of total sleep deprivation and suggest that dynamic, early adaptive changes or normalization of cerebral metabolism may represent early neurobiological markers of chronic SSRI treatment response in geriatric depression.
    American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 12/2010; 19(1):53–63. · 4.13 Impact Factor