[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several human malignancies where it expresses limited subsets of latent proteins.
Of the latent proteins, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a potent transforming protein that constitutively induces multiple
cell signaling pathways and contributes to EBV-associated oncogenesis. Regulation of LMP1 expression has been extensively
described during the type III latency of EBV. Nevertheless, in the majority of EBV-associated tumors, the virus is commonly
found to display a type II latency program in which it is still unknown which viral or cellular protein is really involved
in maintaining LMP1 expression. Here, we demonstrate that LMP1 activates its own promoter pLMP1 through the JNK signaling
pathway emerging from the TES2 domain. Our results also reveal that this activation is tightly controlled by LMP1, since pLMP1
is inhibited by LMP1-activated NF-κB signaling pathway. By using our physiological models of EBV-infected cells displaying
type II latency as well as lymphoblastoid cell lines expressing a type III latency, we also demonstrate that this balanced
autoregulation of LMP1 is shared by both latency programs. Finally, we show that this autoactivation is the most important
mechanism to maintain LMP1 expression during the type II latency program of EBV.
Journal of Virology 09/2006; 80(15):7382-93. DOI:10.1128/JVI.02052-05 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of MHC class II-restricted peptides has become a priority for the development of peptide-based prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between peptide-binding assays on purified HLA II molecules and immunization of human HLA II transgenic mice deficient in murine class II molecules (Abeta degrees ). We used as models two MHC class II-restricted peptides, one derived from the HIV Nef regulatory protein (Nef (56-68)) and the other from the Schistosoma mansoni 28-kDa glutathione-S-transferase (Sm28GST (190-211)). High correlations were found between the two approaches, which showed that the Nef (56-68) and Sm28GST (190-211) peptides may represent promiscuous ligands for HLA-DQ and for HLA-DR molecules, respectively. We suggest a rational method based on the combination of peptide-binding assays and HLA II transgenic mice experiments as consistent and complementary tools for selecting T helper epitopes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL-)7 and thyroxin (T4) favor Schistosoma mansoni development. Their effect is similar, rather than identical; moreover, cotreatment acts synergistically on parasites. This questioned a common mediator to their action, which we hypothesized was host glucose metabolism. Infection with S. mansoni resulted in an early peak in glycemia immediately followed by a peak of insulinemia (D7-21). In IL-7 + T4 cotreated infected animals, the peak of insulin was abrogated. We further assessed the consequences of experimentally induced glucose- or insulin-level variations on parasite development. Insulin treatment from day 14 to day 21 post-infection (PI) led to increased worm burden and parasite size, thus mimicking the effect of T4 on schistosome development. Interestingly, insulin treatment did not modify glycemia yet abrogated the hyperinsulinemia, normally occurring during infection. Finally, these treatments were associated with an alteration of the expression of parasite genes involved in glucose uptake. These experiments characterize the elaborate links between parasite and host metabolism and their reciprocal influences.
Journal of Parasitology 09/2005; 91(4):737-44. DOI:10.1645/GE-3402.1 · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HLA-A2.1-/HLA-DR1-transgenic H-2 class I-/class II-knockout mice were created and their immunological potential evaluated in response to hepatitis B DNA vaccine. Every single immunized mouse developed hepatitis B virus-specific antibodies, HLA-DR1-restricted helper, and HLA-A2.1-restricted cytolytic T cell responses directed at the same immunodominant epitopes as those identified in naturally infected or vaccinated humans. These mice were specifically protected against a hepatitis B-recombinant vaccinia virus infection with a 10,000-fold or more reduction of the virus load at day 4 post-challenge. These mice represent a unique in vivo experimental model for human immune function studies without any interference with mouse MHC response which dwarfed the prediction of human responses. Furthermore, they enable the complete monitoring of immune adaptative responses for preclinical screening of candidate vaccines.
European Journal of Immunology 12/2004; 34(11):3060-9. DOI:10.1002/eji.200425463 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transgenic mice expressing human HLA class II molecules provide a useful model for identifying HLA-restricted CD4+ epitopes. However, the influence of endogenous murine H-2-restricted T cell responses on HLA-restricted responses is not known. In the present study, we show that HLA-DR1 transgenic mice deficient for H-2 class II expression (HLA-DR1+/+/IAbeta0/0) exhibit an equivalent expression level of the transgene HLA-DR1 and a similar diversity in the TCR repertoire, but a slightly different number of CD4+ peripheral T cells, when compared to HLA-DR1 transgenic mice in which H-2 class II molecules were retained (HLA-DR1+/+/IAbeta+/+). More importantly, a strong antigen-specific HLA-DR1-restricted response was observed in nearly all HLA-DR1+/+/IAbeta0/0 mice immunized with HBV envelope protein (HBs) or capsid protein (HBc), whereas weak HBs- or HBc-specific HLA-DR1-restricted responses were detected in half of the immunized HLA-DR1+/+/IAbeta+/+ mice. Conversely, strong HBs- or HBc-specific H-2-restricted T cell responses were detected in HLA-DR1+/+/IAbeta+/+ mice but not in HLA-DR1+/+/IAbeta0/0 mice. Our results indicate that the coexpression of endogenous H-2 class II molecules reduces the intensity of HLA-DR1-restricted antigen-specific responses in transgenic mice, by favoring murine over human MHC recognition and education. Thus, HLA-DR1+/+/IAbeta0/0 mice represent a better model for identifying and characterizing HLA-DR1-restricted epitopes relevant for human disease.
International Immunology 10/2004; 16(9):1275-82. DOI:10.1093/intimm/dxh129 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) is an integral membrane molecule expressed by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) during viral latency and displays properties of a constitutively activated member of the TNF receptor family. LMP1 is required for B-cell or monocyte immortalization induced by EBV and is sufficient to transform rodent fibroblasts. Transforming potential of LMP1 is mediated by its cytoplasmic C-terminal domain, which activates various cellular signaling pathways including NFkappaB and JNK. In this report, we constructed mutants of LMP1 with preserved membrane spanning domain but mutated in the C-terminal domain and a second truncated C-terminal LMP1 fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein. This latter mutant, termed LMP1-CT, impairs signaling by ectopic LMP1 as well as endogenous EBV-expressed wild-type (wt) LMP1. In contrast to dominant-negative mutants of LMP1 with preserved membrane spanning domains, LMP1-CT was unable to bind wt LMP1 to form an inactive complex. Its dominant-negative effects were due to binding and sequestration of LMP1 adapters TRAF2 and TRADD as assessed by coimmunoprecipitation experiments and confocal analysis. The effect was selective since LMP1-CT did not inhibit IL-1beta-induced signaling, whereas it impaired TNF-triggered NFkappaB and JNK signals without affecting TNF-induced apoptosis. In addition and in contrast to LMP1 constructs with membrane localization, LMP-CT did not display cytostatic properties in noninfected cells. Importantly, LMP1-CT inhibited survival induced by LMP1 in an EBV-transformed T-cell line expressing the type II viral latency commonly found in the majority of EBV-associated human tumors. These data demonstrate that LMP1-CT is a new tool to explore the differences between LMP1 and TNF signaling and may facilitate the design of molecules with potential therapeutic roles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have described in the accompanying article the preparation of peptide-protein semicarbazide microarrays and their use for the simultaneous serodetection of antibodies directed against different pathogens. Here, we present a comparative study between semicarbazide and amine glass slides in an immunofluorescent serodetection assay using HIV (Gp120, Gp41), HCV (mix-HCV, core, NS3, and NS4), and HBV (HBs) recombinant antigens. Amine and semicarbazide surfaces displayed the same sensitivity for antibodies detection just after printing. However, the reactivity of protein antigens changed rapidly upon aging on amine slides but not on semicarbazide slides. Peptide or protein semicarbazide microarrays were found to be remarkably stable for months. Additional data concerning the characterization of the semicarbazide surface (homogeneity of the slides, chemical stability, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy studies, reproducibility of serodetection results) are also presented and discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe novel peptide-protein microarrays, which were fabricated using semicarbazide glass slides that permitted the immobilization of glyoxylyl peptides by site-specific ligation and the immobilization of proteins by physisorption. The arrays permitted the simultaneous serodetection of antibodies directed against hepatitis C virus (HCV core p21 15-45 peptide, NS4 1925-1947 peptide, core, NS3, NS4, and mixture of core, NS3, NS4, and NS5 antigens), hepatitis B virus (HBc, HBe, and HBs), human immunodeficiency virus (Gp41 and Gp120 for HIV-I and Gp36 for HIV-II), Epstein-Barr virus (VCAp18 153-176 peptide), and syphilis (rTpN47 and rTpN17) antigens using an immunofluorescence assay. Peptide-protein microarrays displayed high signal-to-noise ratios, sensitivities, and specificities for the detection of antibodies as revealed by the analysis of a collection of human sera referenced against these five pathogens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene transfer using immunomodulatory molecules is a promising tool for in vivo regulation of immune responses. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), which serves as a model for human ocular inflammation, is induced by systemic immunization with autoantigens, but its expression is restricted to the eye. Previously, we reported protection of rodents against EAU by intravenous or/and periocular injection of vIL-10-expressing adenovirus. Here, the expression of vIL-10 was targeted into the rat Lewis eye, by intravitreal injection of either the free virus or ex vivo transfected retinal Müller glial cells (RMG-vIL-10). As shown using GFP-expressing adenovirus, a longer expression of transgene was observed in the eye after transfer of transfected syngeneic RMG cells than was seen after injection of free virus. Intravitreal injection of RMG-vIL-10 led to significant decrease in ocular pathological manifestations, compared to control RMG cells. This was observed when cells were injected simultaneously with autoantigen, but also after a delayed administration of transfected cells. Finally, injection of RMG cells transfected with adenovirus expressing CTLA4 had a strongly protective effect. In conclusion, inhibition of antigen presentation at the site of expression of the autoimmune disorders represents an attractive alternative to treat ocular inflammation, and the transfer of ex vivo genetically modified cells provides a promising method to target the factor of interest into the eye.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seems to use B cell normal differentiation pathways to establish and maintain a persistent infection. This process is effectively controlled by the immune system through the action of EBV-specific T lymphocytes, so that the lifelong chronic infection is free of complications for most individuals. EBV is, however, associated with several malignancies. 30-50% of Hodgkin's lymphomas (HL) are EBV-associated. In EBV-positive HL, the virus is localized to the tumor cells and is clonal. HL is characterized by a type II form of latency with viral antigen expression limited to EBNA1, LMP1 and LMP2. EBV-positive HL is more frequent in childhood, in older patients and in mixed cellularity cases. EBV association may represent a poor prognosis factor in the elderly. The true contribution of EBV to the pathogenesis of HL remains uncertain, but EBV may provide to abnormal B cells survival signals protecting them from apoptosis. Finally, whatever the role that EBV plays in tumor development, the presence of viral antigens in the malignant cells may represent a target for new therapeutic strategies.
Annales de biologie clinique 11/2003; 62(6):639-48. · 0.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-10 is a cytokine secreted by a wide variety of cell types and has pleiotropic activities, mainly as a modulator of the immune response. In this study, we tested in a direct way the influence of IL-10 expression on Leishmania major infection in resistant mice. We report that C57BL/6 mice treated with a single inoculation of recombinant adenovirus vector-expressing viral IL-10 (Ad-vIL-10), 1 day before parasitic challenge, exhibited a dual effect on footpad swelling, characterized by a decrease on lesion size at the early stage of the infection, followed by a rapid increase of these lesions that attained the complete healing later in infection. The reduction in lesion swelling in vIL-10 treated mice was accompanied by a decrease cellular infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes at the site of parasite inoculation. Most significantly, vIL-10 administration led to a higher parasite burden in the draining popliteal lymph nodes late during infection, when the complete healing of the lesions was already achieved. RT-PCR analysis showed no important modification of cytokine transcripts in vIL-10 treated mice, early in infection, indicating no changes in mouse phenotype from resistant to susceptible status. Therefore, IL-10 administration influenced the outcome of the disease by modifying the inflammation and local cell recruitment at the site of parasite penetration and by leading to an enhanced residual parasite load in popliteal lymph nodes later in infection. The implication of IL-10 on the host immune status and the establishment and outcome of the infection is discussed.
Parasitology International 01/2003; 51(4):367-79. DOI:10.1016/S1383-5769(02)00039-9 · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathological ocular manifestations result from a dysregulation in the balance between proinflammatory type 1 cytokines and regulatory type 2 cytokines. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine with potent immunosuppressive effects. We have examined the efficiency of viral IL-10 adenovirus (Ad-vIL-10)-mediated gene transfer on experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) induced in mice and rats by purified retinal autoantigens, respectively, interphotoreceptor binding protein (IRBP) and S-antigen (S-Ag). B10-A mice that received a single unilateral injection of Ad-vIL-10 in the retro-orbital sinus venosus performed 1 day before immunization with IRBP in the footpads showed high levels of circulating vIL-10 in their sera and a significant reduction in pathological ocular manifestations. Lower levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 were found in cellular supernatants from IRBP-stimulated splenic cells in these treated mice. The local effect on ocular disease of vIL-10 was neutralized completely by injection of a monoclonal anti-vIL-10 antibody, demonstrating the specificity of the treatment. To determine whether the transfer of the vIL-10 gene within the periocular tissues of the eye could prevent acute EAU, a subconjunctival injection of Ad-vIL-10 was performed in Lewis rats simultaneously with S-antigen in the footpads. This injection determined in situ vIL-10 expression with very low circulating vIL-10 and led to a significant reduction of EAU without affecting the systemic immune response. The present results suggest that Ad-mediated gene transfer resulting in systemic and local expression of vIL-10 provide a promising approach for the treatment of uveitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schistosoma mansoni induces, in the vertebrate host, cutaneous production of interleukin-7 (IL-7), which is beneficial for parasite establishment and development. Infection of mice deficient in IL-7 expression leads to parasite dwarfism. Because similar findings were previously described in hypothyroid mice, this study aimed to elucidate the potential link between IL-7 and thyroid hormones (THs), using several models including hypo- and hyperthyroid mice, modified either transiently or constitutively. Mice treated with thyroxine led to increased worm numbers and development of giant worms, whereas an iodine-deficient diet reduced parasite maturation, egg laying, and liver pathology. Conversely, mice genetically deficient for either of the nuclear TH receptors displayed normal worm development despite modifications in hormone levels, suggesting that thyroxine action is mediated through host receptors. In addition, no modification of antibody titers has been evidenced in thyroxine-treated mice, whereas antibody levels were altered in transgenic animals. These observations suggest that the immune system is not likely to be involved in the modifications of parasite development reported in this study. Interestingly, concomitant treatment with IL-7 and thyroxine had a synergistic effect, leading to recovery of very large worms, thus raising questions about the complexity of interactions between IL-7 and metabolic hormones.
Journal of Parasitology 11/2002; 88(5):849-55. DOI:10.1645/0022-3395(2002)088[0849:EVOHTA]2.0.CO;2 · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effect of charge and shape of multivalent lysine-based cluster glycomimetics on their mannose receptor-mediated uptake by human dendritic cells has been evaluated: The capture is strongly affected by the shape of the ligands. The effect of charge is less pronounced although positive charges on the ligands seem to favor non-specific endocytosis capture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the highly conserved sequence 56-68 of the HIV Nef protein as the first promiscuous HLA-DQ HIV-derived peptide. The Nef peptide exhibits an albeit rare capacity to bind 6 different HLA-DQ molecules whereas no binding is observed with the 10 HLA-DR molecules tested. In agreement with these data, after immunization with the Nef peptide, HLA-DQ transgenic Abeta degrees mice display a vigorous cellular and humoral response while the specific immune response of HLA-DR expressing mice is minimal. The promiscuous potentiality of the Nef 56-68 peptide in humans has been confirmed by ex vivo immunization experiments with CD4+ T cells from 14 healthy donors expressing different HLA genotypes. Nef 56-68 specific CD4+ T cells rapidly acquire a memory cell phenotype and are characterized by the preferential usage of the TCR Vbeta 6.1 gene segment and predominant production of IFN-gamma. Taken together, these data indicate that the Nef 56-68 peptide constitutes an attractive component of vaccines aiming at inducing or enhancing HIV-specific T cell immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) classically infects and transforms B lymphocytes in vitro, yielding lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). In contrast to other herpesviruses, EBV is not described as an infectious agent for monocytes. However, recent papers described in vitro infection of monocytes leading to abortive or transient viral expression. In the present study, we report the characterization of E1, a monocytic cell line infected and transformed by EBV. This cell line was derived from an LCL by a drastic electroporation and selection of neomycin-resistant cells, unfavorable to B-cell outgrowth. E1 expressed surface molecules of monocytic lineage (CD14, major histocompatibility complex class II, and CD80) and the c-fms gene, a highly specific marker for the monocytic lineage. This cell line is able to phagocytose and secrete proinflammatory monokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-8. E1 cells are tumorigenic after injection in nude mice, and a monocytic cell line obtained from one of these tumors (TE1) displayed immunophenotype and functional properties similar to those of E1. We detected the presence of the EBV genome in both cell lines, as well as expression of the EBNA-1 and LMP-1, but not EBNA-2, viral genes, characteristic of a type II latency. LMP-1 influences the phenotype of these monocytic cell lines, as demonstrated by down-regulation of cell proliferation and membrane intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression due to an LMP-1 antisense strategy. This is the first description of a latently infected human monocytic cell line and the first direct demonstration of an instrumental role for LMP-1 in the proliferation of EBV-transformed cell lines expressing a type II latency.
Journal of Virology 08/2002; 76(13):6460-72. · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) classically infects and transforms B lymphocytes in vitro, yielding lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). In contrast to other herpesviruses, EBV is not described as an infectious agent for monocytes. However, recent papers described in vitro infection of monocytes leading to abortive or transient viral expres- sion. In the present study, we report the characterization of E1, a monocytic cell line infected and transformed by EBV. This cell line was derived from an LCL by a drastic electroporation and selection of neomycin-resistant cells, unfavorable to B-cell outgrowth. E1 expressed surface molecules of monocytic lineage (CD14, major histocompatibility complex class II, and CD80) and the c-fms gene, a highly specific marker for the monocytic lineage. This cell line is able to phagocytose and secrete proinflammatory monokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-8. E1 cells are tumorigenic after injection in nude mice, and a monocytic cell line obtained from one of these tumors (TE1) displayed immunophenotype and functional properties similar to those of E1. We detected the presence of the EBV genome in both cell lines, as well as expression of the EBNA-1 and LMP-1, but not EBNA-2, viral genes, characteristic of a type II latency. LMP-1 influences the phenotype of these monocytic cell lines, as demonstrated by down-regulation of cell proliferation and mem- brane intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression due to an LMP-1 antisense strategy. This is the first description of a latently infected human monocytic cell line and the first direct demonstration of an instru- mental role for LMP-1 in the proliferation of EBV-transformed cell lines expressing a type II latency. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the herpesvirus family, infects over 90% of healthy adults. EBV classically infects B cells, causing a benign disease, acute infectious mono- nucleosis, but also malignant diseases such as Burkitt's lym- phoma and other B-lymphoproliferative disorders in patients with severe immunodeficiency. EBV can also infect epithelial cells and is associated with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) (43). More recently, many reports have shown that EBV can be associated with other pathologies, including Hodgkin's disease (HD) (4), lymphoproliferative dis- orders of T cells such as peripheral T-cell lymphoma in immu- nocompetent hosts (6), and gastric, breast, and hepatocellular adenocarcinomas (3, 21). In all the reported cases, the virus displays mainly a latency program of infection with a restricted pattern of gene expression, which can be classified in three types. Type I latency, where only EBNA-1 is expressed, is found in Burkitt's lymphoma. Coexpression of EBNA-1 and latent membrane proteins LMP-1 and LMP-2 is characteristic of a type II latency found in NPC, HD, and T-cell lymphomas, and type III latency with expression of the five EBNAs and three LMPs is found in lymphomas of immunodeficient pa- tients.
Journal of Virology 07/2002; 76(13):6460-6472. DOI:10.1128/JVI.76.13.6460-6472.2002 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a novel generation of peptide arrays fabricated by site-specific ligation of glyoxylyl peptides onto glass slides covered by a semicarbazide sol-gel layer. These arrays allowed the highly sensitive and specific detection of antibodies in very small blood samples from infected individuals using three model peptidic epitopes (HCV Core and NS4, EBV Capsid) in an immunofluorescence assay. Comparison with standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) demonstrated a large gain in sensitivity and specificity. These unique properties, combined with the possibility to immobilize glycoproteins such as antibodies, offer the possibility to perform sandwich immunofluorescent assays in a highly parallel format.