Publications (2)3.29 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Use of acid-suppressive therapy (AST) to prevent stress gastropathy in the intensive care unit has grown rapidly over the past 20 years. The primary indications for such use of AST include need for mechanical ventilation, overt gastrointestinal bleeding, severe burn, and head trauma. Despite this limited list of indications, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) often are overprescribed for purposes of stress prophylaxis. Decreased mucosal blood flow with subsequent tissue ischemia is thought to be the mechanism responsible for stress-induced gastropathy. Subsequent activation of inflammatory and vasoconstrictive mediators determines the severity of the gastropathy. Numerous basic science studies suggest that enteral nutrition (EN) can improve mucosal blood flow and reverse the generation of these inflammatory mediators. Clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of EN vs acid-suppressive medications, however, have shown variable results (and there are no randomized controlled trials to date). In hypersecretory states (such as head trauma and burns), AST should be given, even in patients who are tolerating EN. In the absence of a hypersecretory state, pharmacologic AST may be avoided or discontinued in patients who are tolerating EN. Stress prophylaxis medications also should be discontinued in patients who do not have a clear indication for their use. Overt bleeding in a patient receiving EN for stress prophylaxis should prompt the initiation of a PPI. Randomized controlled studies investigating the efficacy of EN for stress ulcer prophylaxis are needed. Protocols should be developed to alert healthcare teams to consider discontinuation of AST, especially when tolerance of EN is achieved.Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 03/2012; 36(6):721-31. · 3.29 Impact Factor
Article: The obesity epidemic: challenges, health initiatives, and implications for gastroenterologists.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Obesity is the next major epidemiologic challenge facing today's doctors, with the annual allocation of healthcare resources for the disease and related comorbidities projected to exceed $150 billion in the United States. The incidence of obesity has risen in the United States over the past 30 years; 60% of adults are currently either obese or overweight. Obesity is associated with a higher incidence of a number of diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Consumption of fast food, trans fatty acids (TFAs), and fructose-combined with increasing portion sizes and decreased physical activity-has been implicated as a potential contributing factor in the obesity crisis. The use of body mass index (BMI) alone is of limited utility for predicting adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but the utility of this measure may be strengthened when combined with waist circumference and other anthropomorphic measurements. Certain public health initiatives have helped to identify and reduce some of the factors contributing to obesity. In New York City and Denmark, for example, such initiatives have succeeded in passing legislation to reduce or remove TFAs from residents' diets. The obesity epidemic will likely change practice for gastroenterologists, as shifts will be seen in the incidence of obesity-related gastrointestinal disorders, disease severity, and the nature of comorbidities. The experience gained with previous epidemiologic problems such as smoking should help involved parties to expand needed health initiatives and increase the likelihood of preventing future generations from suffering the consequences of obesity.Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12/2010; 6(12):780-92.