[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophils have recently been shown to release DNA-based extracellular traps that contribute to microbicidal killing and have also been implicated in autoimmunity. The role of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in the host response to nonbacterial pathogens has received much less attention. Here, we show that the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii elicits the production of NETs from human and mouse neutrophils. Tachyzoites of each of the three major parasite strain types were efficiently entrapped within NETs, resulting in decreased parasite viability. We also show that Toxoplasma activates a MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in neutrophils and that the inhibition of this pathway leads to decreased NET formation. To determine if Toxoplasma induced NET formation in vivo, we employed a mouse intranasal infection model. We found that the administration of tachyzoites by this route induced a rapid tissue recruitment of neutrophils with evidence of extracellular DNA release. Taken together, these data indicate a role for NETs in the host innate response to protozoan infection. We propose that NET formation limits infection by direct microbicidal effects on Toxoplasma as well as by interfering with the ability of the parasite to invade target host cells.
Infection and immunity 11/2011; 80(2):768-77. · 4.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-selectin is a key molecule that participates in neutrophil tethering and subsequent rolling. It is cleaved from the surface of neutrophils activated in the presence of lipopolysaccharides, N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP), or Interleukin-8 (IL-8). We previously showed that L-selectin is also shed from the neutrophil surface during rolling on sialyl Lewis-x coated surfaces in a force-, ADAM-17 sheddase-, and p38 MAP kinase-dependent manner under flow. c-Abl tyrosine kinase is phosphorylated when L-selectin on the surface of neutrophils is cross-linked with anti-L-selectin antibodies. Here, we study the effect of c-Abl inhibition on L-selectin shedding from primary human neutrophils in static conditions following exposure to fMLP, IL-8, and hypotonic buffer and under flow through sialyl Lewis-x coated microtubes. Results indicate that c-Abl inhibition by STI571 significantly affects neutrophil adhesion via L-selectin, by decreasing the average rolling velocity and increasing the flux of rolling cells. The change in surface receptor expression was verified by flow cytometry. Interestingly, other forms of L-selectin shedding induced by fMLP, IL-8 or osmotic swelling were unaffected by STI571 treatment. These findings implicate the c-Abl signaling molecule in regulating L-selectin mechanical shedding in response to shear stress, setting this type of signaling apart from those triggered by the presence of a hypotonic environment, fMLP, or IL-8. This study sheds light on the role of c-Abl in neutrophil adhesion not previously reported in the literature.